hypocapnia

Summary

Summary: Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.

Top Publications

  1. Norcliffe Kaufmann L, Kaufmann H, Hainsworth R. Enhanced vascular responses to hypocapnia in neurally mediated syncope. Ann Neurol. 2008;63:288-94 pubmed
    ..In addition to vasodilatation and bradycardia, hyperventilation precedes loss of consciousness. The resultant hypocapnia causes cerebral vasoconstriction and peripheral vasodilatation...
  2. Domino K, Swenson E, Hlastala M. Hypocapnia-induced ventilation/perfusion mismatch: a direct CO2 or pH-mediated effect?. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;152:1534-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we conclude that hypocapnia-induced VA/Q mismatch in hyperventilated dogs is pH-mediated and is not a function of PCO2 per se.
  3. Hildebrandt W, Ottenbacher A, Schuster M, Swenson E, Bartsch P. Diuretic effect of hypoxia, hypocapnia, and hyperpnea in humans: relation to hormones and O(2) chemosensitivity. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2000;88:599-610 pubmed
    We studied the contributions of hypoxemia, hypocapnia, and hyperpnea to the acute hypoxic diuretic response (HDR) in humans and evaluated the role of peripheral O(2) chemosensitivity and renal hormones in HDR...
  4. Chen J, Pike G. Global cerebral oxidative metabolism during hypercapnia and hypocapnia in humans: implications for BOLD fMRI. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2010;30:1094-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the first time, on global DeltaCMRO(2) measurements made noninvasively in humans during graded hypercapnia and hypocapnia. We used computerized end-tidal CO(2) modulation to minimize undesired concurrent changes in oxygen pressure, ..
  5. Curley G, Kavanagh B, Laffey J. Hypocapnia and the injured brain: more harm than benefit. Crit Care Med. 2010;38:1348-59 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypocapnia is used in the management of acute brain injury and may be life-saving in specific circumstances, but it can produce neuronal ischemia and injury, potentially worsening outcome...
  6. Collins M, Lorenz J, Jetton J, Paneth N. Hypocapnia and other ventilation-related risk factors for cerebral palsy in low birth weight infants. Pediatr Res. 2001;50:712-9 pubmed
    Ventilatory management patterns in very low birth weight newborns, particularly iatrogenic hypocapnia, have occasionally been implicated in perinatal brain damage...
  7. Norcliffe L, Rivera Ch M, Claydon V, Moore J, Leon Velarde F, Appenzeller O, et al. Cerebrovascular responses to hypoxia and hypocapnia in high-altitude dwellers. J Physiol. 2005;566:287-94 pubmed
    Cerebral blood flow is known to increase in response to hypoxia and to decrease with hypocapnia. It is not known, however, whether these responses are altered in high-altitude dwellers who are not only chronically hypoxic and hypocapnic, ..
  8. Claydon V, Gulli G, Slessarev M, Appenzeller O, Zenebe G, Gebremedhin A, et al. Cerebrovascular responses to hypoxia and hypocapnia in Ethiopian high altitude dwellers. Stroke. 2008;39:336-42 pubmed
    Cerebrovascular responses to hypoxia and hypocapnia in Peruvian altitude dwellers are impaired. This could contribute to the high incidence of altitude-related illness in Andeans...
  9. Naschitz J, Mussafia Priselac R, Kovalev Y, Zaigraykin N, Slobodin G, Elias N, et al. Patterns of hypocapnia on tilt in patients with fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, nonspecific dizziness, and neurally mediated syncope. Am J Med Sci. 2006;331:295-303 pubmed

More Information

Publications62

  1. Safar P, Xiao F, Radovsky A, Tanigawa K, Ebmeyer U, Bircher N, et al. Improved cerebral resuscitation from cardiac arrest in dogs with mild hypothermia plus blood flow promotion. Stroke. 1996;27:105-13 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that a multifaceted combination treatment would achieve complete cerebral recovery...
  2. Domino K, Emery M, Swenson E, Hlastala M. Ventilation heterogeneity is increased in hypocapnic dogs but not pigs. Respir Physiol. 1998;111:89-100 pubmed
    b>Hypocapnia increases ventilation/perfusion (VA/Q) heterogeneity in dogs, possibly by adversely affecting distribution of ventilation through its effects on collateral ventilation...
  3. Willie C, MacLeod D, Shaw A, Smith K, Tzeng Y, Eves N, et al. Regional brain blood flow in man during acute changes in arterial blood gases. J Physiol. 2012;590:3261-75 pubmed publisher
    ..There were three principal findings. (1) Regional reactivity: the VA reactivity to hypocapnia was larger than the ICA, MCA and PCA; hypercapnic reactivity was similar...
  4. Marsden K, Haykowsky M, Smirl J, Jones H, Nelson M, Altamirano Diaz L, et al. Aging blunts hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia and reduction in cerebral blood flow velocity during maximal exercise. Age (Dordr). 2012;34:725-35 pubmed publisher
    ..60% of peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)) and thereafter decreases towards baseline due to hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia and subsequent cerebral vasoconstriction...
  5. Caulfield E, Dutton R, Floccare D, Stansbury L, Scalea T. Prehospital hypocapnia and poor outcome after severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma. 2009;66:1577-82; discussion 1583 pubmed publisher
    ..The Brain Trauma Foundation (BTF) Guidelines for prehospital management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) recommend a goal end-tidal carbon dioxide of 30 mm Hg to 35 mm Hg in patients without signs of herniation...
  6. Xie A, Skatrud J, Khayat R, Dempsey J, Morgan B, Russell D. Cerebrovascular response to carbon dioxide in patients with congestive heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;172:371-8 pubmed
    ..However, there are no studies relating cerebral circulation abnormality to the presence or absence of central sleep apnea in patients with heart failure...
  7. Javaheri S, Almoosa K, Saleh K, Mendenhall C. Hypocapnia is not a predictor of central sleep apnea in patients with cirrhosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;171:908-11 pubmed
    ..We conclude that, in contrast to SHF, presence of hypocapnia does not predict CSA in cirrhosis.
  8. Fujii N, Honda Y, Delliaux S, Tsuji B, Watanabe K, Sugihara A, et al. Effect of voluntary hypocapnic hyperventilation on cutaneous circulation in resting heated humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2012;303:R975-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypocapnia attenuates the sweat response normally seen in hyperthermic resting subjects, but its effect on the blood flow response in their nonglabrous skin under the same hyperthermic conditions remains unclear...
  9. Iscoe S, Fisher J. Hyperoxia-induced hypocapnia: an underappreciated risk. Chest. 2005;128:430-3 pubmed
  10. Dineen N, Brodie F, Robinson T, Panerai R. Continuous estimates of dynamic cerebral autoregulation during transient hypocapnia and hypercapnia. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010;108:604-13 pubmed publisher
    ..CA) is the transient response of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to rapid blood pressure changes: it improves in hypocapnia and becomes impaired during hypercapnia...
  11. Rioja E, Kerr C, McDonell W, Dobson H, Konyer N, Poma R, et al. Effects of hypercapnia, hypocapnia, and hyperoxemia on blood oxygenation level-dependent signal intensity determined by use of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2010;71:24-32 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the effects of alterations in PaCO(2) and PaO(2) on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity determined by use of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in brains of isoflurane-anesthetized dogs...
  12. Nekhendzy V, Lemmens H, Vaughan W, Hepworth E, Chiu A, Church C, et al. The effect of deliberate hypercapnia and hypocapnia on intraoperative blood loss and quality of surgical field during functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Anesth Analg. 2007;105:1404-9, table of contents pubmed
    ..We investigated whether deliberate intraoperative hypercapnia and hypocapnia may affect blood loss and quality of surgical field through a proposed modulating effect of different carbon ..
  13. Burykh E. Interaction of hypocapnia, hypoxia, brain blood flow, and brain electrical activity in voluntary hyperventilation in humans. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2008;38:647-59 pubmed publisher
    ..of hyperventilation were important factors for understanding the interaction between brain hemodynamics, hypocapnia, hypoxia, and brain electrical activity...
  14. Ainslie P, Barach A, Cummings K, Murrell C, Hamlin M, Hellemans J. Cardiorespiratory and cerebrovascular responses to acute poikilocapnic hypoxia following intermittent and continuous exposure to hypoxia in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;102:1953-61 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that IH and/or mild CH can equally enhance the HVR, which, by either direct or indirect mechanisms, facilitates alterations in BP and MCAV...
  15. Ogoh S, Nakahara H, Ainslie P, Miyamoto T. The effect of oxygen on dynamic cerebral autoregulation: critical role of hypocapnia. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010;108:538-43 pubmed publisher
    ..However, hypoxic-induced hyperventilation via respiratory chemoreflex activation causes hypocapnia, which may influence CA independent of partial pressure of arterial O(2)...
  16. Fan J, Burgess K, Basnyat R, Thomas K, Peebles K, Lucas S, et al. Influence of high altitude on cerebrovascular and ventilatory responsiveness to CO2. J Physiol. 2010;588:539-49 pubmed publisher
    ..increases the ventilatory CO(2) sensitivity and elevates the cerebrovascular responsiveness to hypercapnia and hypocapnia, and (2) alterations in cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity and central chemoreflex may be partly attributed to an ..
  17. Fiamma M, Straus C, Thibault S, Wysocki M, Baconnier P, Similowski T. Effects of hypercapnia and hypocapnia on ventilatory variability and the chaotic dynamics of ventilatory flow in humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R1985-93 pubmed
    ..Hypercapnia, as produced by the inhalation of a CO(2)-enriched gas mixture, stimulates ventilation. Hypocapnia, as produced by mechanical hyperventilation, depresses ventilation in animals and in humans during sleep, but it ..
  18. Ito H, Kanno I, Ibaraki M, Hatazawa J, Miura S. Changes in human cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume during hypercapnia and hypocapnia measured by positron emission tomography. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2003;23:665-70 pubmed
    Hypercapnia induces cerebral vasodilation and increases cerebral blood flow (CBF), and hypocapnia induces cerebral vasoconstriction and decreases CBF...
  19. Steiss J, Wright J. Respiratory alkalosis and primary hypocapnia in Labrador Retrievers participating in field trials in high-ambient-temperature conditions. Am J Vet Res. 2008;69:1262-7 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether Labrador Retrievers participating in field trials develop respiratory alkalosis and hypocapnia primarily in conditions of high ambient temperatures.
  20. Xie Z, Moir R, Romano D, Tesco G, Kovacs D, Tanzi R. Hypocapnia induces caspase-3 activation and increases Abeta production. Neurodegener Dis. 2004;1:29-37 pubmed
    ..Mutant forms of PS1 have been shown to sensitize cells to apoptotic cell death...
  21. Bright M, Bulte D, Jezzard P, Duyn J. Characterization of regional heterogeneity in cerebrovascular reactivity dynamics using novel hypocapnia task and BOLD fMRI. Neuroimage. 2009;48:166-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Breathing" (CDB), consisting of two consecutive cycles of cued breaths, has been developed to cause transient hypocapnia, and consequently a strong, short-lived BOLD signal decrease...
  22. Luginbuehl I, Karsli C, Bissonnette B. Cerebrovascular reactivity to carbon dioxide is preserved during hypocapnia in children anesthetized with 1.0 MAC, but not with 1.5 MAC desflurane. Can J Anaesth. 2003;50:166-71 pubmed
    ..Maintenance of cerebrovascular reactivity to CO(2) (CCO(2)R) is important during neurosurgical anesthesia. This study was designed to determine the effect of different desflurane concentrations on CCO(2)R in children...
  23. Peebles K, Celi L, McGrattan K, Murrell C, Thomas K, Ainslie P. Human cerebrovascular and ventilatory CO2 reactivity to end-tidal, arterial and internal jugular vein PCO2. J Physiol. 2007;584:347-57 pubmed
    ..Incremental hypercapnia was achieved through 4 min administrations of 4% and 8% CO(2). Incremental hypocapnia involved two 4 min steps of hyperventilation to change P(ET,CO(2)), in an equal and opposite direction, to that ..
  24. Emery M, Eveland R, Kim S, Hildebrandt J, Swenson E. CO2 relaxes parenchyma in the liquid-filled rat lung. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;103:710-6 pubmed
    ..that in addition to, but independently of, those mechanisms, the parenchyma tissue responds to hypercapnia and hypocapnia by relaxing and contracting, respectively, thereby improving local matching of ventilation (Va) to perfusion (Q)...
  25. McGuire M, MacDonald S, Song G, Poon C. Phrenic long-term facilitation is robust to hypercapnia and hypocapnia but not hyperventilatory hypotension under PEEP. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2007;158:107-11 pubmed
    ..conditions for 5 min with or without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP, 3-4 cmH(2)O): hypocapnic apnea, hypocapnia (5 Torr below resting level), 5% CO(2) and 10% CO(2)...
  26. Ide K, Eliasziw M, Poulin M. Relationship between middle cerebral artery blood velocity and end-tidal PCO2 in the hypocapnic-hypercapnic range in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003;95:129-37 pubmed
    ..Two protocols were conducted in which PETCO2 was changed by 2 Torr every 2 min from hypocapnia to hypercapnia (protocol I) and vice-versa (protocol D)...
  27. Floyd T, Clark J, Gelfand R, Detre J, Ratcliffe S, Guvakov D, et al. Independent cerebral vasoconstrictive effects of hyperoxia and accompanying arterial hypocapnia at 1 ATA. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003;95:2453-61 pubmed
    ..leading to uncertainty as to whether the cerebral vasoconstriction is totally or only in part caused by arterial hypocapnia. We tested the hypothesis that the increase in arterial Po2 while O2 was breathed at 1...
  28. Myrianthefs P, Briva A, Lecuona E, Dumasius V, Rutschman D, Ridge K, et al. Hypocapnic but not metabolic alkalosis impairs alveolar fluid reabsorption. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;171:1267-71 pubmed
    ..4). In addition, PCO2 higher than 30 mm Hg or metabolic alkalosis did not have an effect on this process. The hypocapnia-mediated decrease of alveolar fluid reabsorption was associated with decreased Na,K-ATPase activity and protein ..
  29. Ito H, Ibaraki M, Kanno I, Fukuda H, Miura S. Changes in the arterial fraction of human cerebral blood volume during hypercapnia and hypocapnia measured by positron emission tomography. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2005;25:852-7 pubmed
    Hypercapnia induces cerebral vasodilation and increases cerebral blood volume (CBV), and hypocapnia induces cerebral vasoconstriction and decreases CBV...
  30. Ambalavanan N, Carlo W. Hypocapnia and hypercapnia in respiratory management of newborn infants. Clin Perinatol. 2001;28:517-31 pubmed
    Recent experimental and clinical data demonstrate that both hypocapnia and hypercapnia during the neonatal period may result in beneficial or adverse consequences...
  31. Glaser N, Barnett P, McCaslin I, Nelson D, Trainor J, Louie J, et al. Risk factors for cerebral edema in children with diabetic ketoacidosis. The Pediatric Emergency Medicine Collaborative Research Committee of the American Academy of Pediatrics. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:264-9 pubmed
    ..Cerebral edema is an uncommon but devastating complication of diabetic ketoacidosis in children. Risk factors for this complication have not been clearly defined...
  32. Yoon S, Zuccarello M, Rapoport R. Repeated constriction to respiration-induced hypocapnia is not mimicked by isocapnic alkaline solution in rabbit basilar artery in situ. Vascul Pharmacol. 2003;40:7-11 pubmed
    ..of this study was to test whether constriction of the cerebral vasculature in response to respiration-induced hypocapnia was mimicked by isocapnic alkaline solution...
  33. Reinstrup P, Ryding E, Ohlsson T, Dahm P, Uski T. Cerebral blood volume (CBV) in humans during normo- and hypocapnia: influence of nitrous oxide (N(2)O). Anesthesiology. 2001;95:1079-82 pubmed
    ..The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of N(2)O on three-dimensional regional and global CBV in humans during normocapnia and hypocapnia.
  34. Chen J, Pike G. MRI measurement of the BOLD-specific flow-volume relationship during hypercapnia and hypocapnia in humans. Neuroimage. 2010;53:383-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we measured CBF and venous CBV changes in healthy subjects in response to graded hypercapnia and hypocapnia, induced using computerized end-tidal CO(2) targeting, with a DeltaPETCO(2) range of between -6 and +9 mm Hg...
  35. Izumi Y, Tsuda Y, Ichihara S, Takahashi T, Matsuo H. Effects of defibrination on hemorheology, cerebral blood flow velocity, and CO2 reactivity during hypocapnia in normal subjects. Stroke. 1996;27:1328-32 pubmed
    ..The effects of defibrination on hemorheology, middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity, and CO2 reactivity during hypocapnia were evaluated in normal subjects.
  36. Lovering A, Fraigne J, Dunin Barkowski W, Vidruk E, Orem J. Hypocapnia decreases the amount of rapid eye movement sleep in cats. Sleep. 2003;26:961-7 pubmed
    ..Low PO2 levels at high altitude cause hyperventilation, which results in secondary hypocapnia (low PaCO2 levels)...
  37. Nopmaneejumruslers C, Kaneko Y, Hajek V, Zivanovic V, Bradley T. Cheyne-Stokes respiration in stroke: relationship to hypocapnia and occult cardiac dysfunction. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;171:1048-52 pubmed
    ..Central sleep apnea (CSA) and Cheyne-Stokes respiration have been reported in association with stroke, but their pathophysiologic correlates have not been well described...
  38. Friedman S, Jensen J, Frederick B, Artru A, Renshaw P, Dager S. Brain changes to hypocapnia using rapidly interleaved phosphorus-proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 4 T. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2007;27:646-53 pubmed
    Substantial controversy persists in the literature concerning the physiologic consequences hypocapnia, or low partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)). Invasive animal studies have demonstrated large pH increases (>0...
  39. Corne S, Webster K, Younes M. Hypoxic respiratory response during acute stable hypocapnia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;167:1193-9 pubmed
    The hypoxic ventilatory response during hypocapnia has been studied with divergent results...
  40. Laffey J, Kavanagh B. Hypocapnia. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:43-53 pubmed
  41. Klinger G, Beyene J, Shah P, Perlman M. Do hyperoxaemia and hypocapnia add to the risk of brain injury after intrapartum asphyxia?. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005;90:F49-52 pubmed
    Episodes of hyperoxaemia and hypocapnia, which may contribute to brain injury, occur unintentionally in severely asphyxiated neonates in the first postnatal hours.
  42. Lovering A, Fraigne J, Dunin Barkowski W, Vidruk E, Orem J. Hypocapnia decreases the amount of rapid eye movement sleep in cats. High Alt Med Biol. 2004;5:467; author reply 468 pubmed
  43. Bruton A, Holgate S. Hypocapnia and asthma: a mechanism for breathing retraining?. Chest. 2005;127:1808-11 pubmed
    ..individuals can be trained to raise carbon dioxide levels and thereby reverse the bronchoconstrictive effects of hypocapnia and utilize the bronchodilatory effects of hypercapnia...
  44. Dempsey J, Smith C, Przybylowski T, Chenuel B, Xie A, Nakayama H, et al. The ventilatory responsiveness to CO(2) below eupnoea as a determinant of ventilatory stability in sleep. J Physiol. 2004;560:1-11 pubmed
    Sleep unmasks a highly sensitive hypocapnia-induced apnoeic threshold, whereby apnoea is initiated by small transient reductions in arterial CO(2) pressure (P(aCO(2))) below eupnoea and respiratory rhythm is not restored until P(aCO(2)) ..
  45. Curry R, Hollingworth W, Ellenbogen R, Vavilala M. Incidence of hypo- and hypercarbia in severe traumatic brain injury before and after 2003 pediatric guidelines. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2008;9:141-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the incidence of severe hypocarbia (PaCO2 <30 mm Hg) in patients with severe pediatric traumatic brain injury before and after publication of the 2003 pediatric guidelines (PG)...
  46. Thavasothy M, Broadhead M, Elwell C, Peters M, Smith M. A comparison of cerebral oxygenation as measured by the NIRO 300 and the INVOS 5100 Near-Infrared Spectrophotometers. Anaesthesia. 2002;57:999-1006 pubmed
    ..7%. Both monitors demonstrated similar changes in response to hyperoxia and hypocapnia (coefficient of variance for FIo2 0.45 = 10.0%, FIo2 1.0 = 10.1%, hypocapnia = 14.5%)...
  47. Yokoyama I, Inoue Y, Kinoshita T, Itoh H, Kanno I, Iida H. Heart and brain circulation and CO2 in healthy men. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2008;193:303-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare blood flow response to arterial carbon dioxide tension change in the heart and brain of normal elderly men...
  48. Balanos G, Talbot N, Dorrington K, Robbins P. Human pulmonary vascular response to 4 h of hypercapnia and hypocapnia measured using Doppler echocardiography. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003;94:1543-51 pubmed
    ..the sensitivity and time course of the human pulmonary vascular response to sustained (4 h) hypercapnia and hypocapnia. Twelve volunteers undertook three protocols: 1) 4-h euoxic (end-tidal Po(2) = 100 Torr) hypercapnia (end-tidal ..
  49. Ainslie P, Burgess K, Subedi P, Burgess K. Alterations in cerebral dynamics at high altitude following partial acclimatization in humans: wakefulness and sleep. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;102:658-64 pubmed
    ..Doppler ultrasound) and arterial blood pressure during wakefulness in conditions of eucapnia (room air), hypocapnia (voluntary hyperventilation), and hypercapnia (isooxic rebeathing), and also during non-rapid eye movement (..
  50. Huttunen J, Tolvanen H, Heinonen E, Voipio J, Wikstrom H, Ilmoniemi R, et al. Effects of voluntary hyperventilation on cortical sensory responses. Electroencephalographic and magnetoencephalographic studies. Exp Brain Res. 1999;125:248-54 pubmed
    ..when the subjects breathed 5% CO2 in air in a hyperventilation-like manner, which prevented the development of hypocapnia. We conclude that moderate HV suppresses long-latency evoked responses from the primary projection cortices, ..
  51. Siebenmann C, Sørensen H, Jacobs R, Haider T, Rasmussen P, Lundby C. Hypocapnia during hypoxic exercise and its impact on cerebral oxygenation, ventilation and maximal whole body O? uptake. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2013;185:461-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypothesis that the resulting hypocapnia reduces maximal exercise capacity by decreasing (i) cerebral blood flow and oxygenation and (ii) the ventilatory ..
  52. Laffey J, Engelberts D, Duggan M, Veldhuizen R, Lewis J, Kavanagh B. Carbon dioxide attenuates pulmonary impairment resulting from hyperventilation. Crit Care Med. 2003;31:2634-40 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that: 1) hypocapnia would worsen ventilator-associated lung injury, 2) therapeutic hypercapnia would attenuate ventilator-associated ..
  53. McCulloch T, Boesel T, Lam A. The effect of hypocapnia on the autoregulation of cerebral blood flow during administration of isoflurane. Anesth Analg. 2005;100:1463-7, table of contents pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that hypocapnia may restore cerebral autoregulation impaired by isoflurane anesthesia...