intermittent claudication

Summary

Summary: A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.

Top Publications

  1. Strömqvist B, Berg S, Gerdhem P, Johnsson R, Moller A, Sahlstrand T, et al. X-stop versus decompressive surgery for lumbar neurogenic intermittent claudication: randomized controlled trial with 2-year follow-up. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013;38:1436-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Prospective randomized controlled study...
  2. Siracuse J, Giles K, Pomposelli F, Hamdan A, Wyers M, Chaikof E, et al. Results for primary bypass versus primary angioplasty/stent for intermittent claudication due to superficial femoral artery occlusive disease. J Vasc Surg. 2012;55:1001-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Statins improved freedom from restenosis and symptom recurrence overall. ..
  3. Moojen W, Arts M, Bartels R, Jacobs W, Peul W. Effectiveness of interspinous implant surgery in patients with intermittent neurogenic claudication: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Spine J. 2011;20:1596-606 pubmed publisher
    ..0, p = 0.930). Overall complication rate was 7%. As the evidence is relatively low and the costs are high, more thorough (cost-) effectiveness studies should be performed before worldwide implementation is introduced. ..
  4. Ahimastos A, Pappas E, Buttner P, Walker P, Kingwell B, Golledge J. A meta-analysis of the outcome of endovascular and noninvasive therapies in the treatment of intermittent claudication. J Vasc Surg. 2011;54:1511-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Intermittent claudication is a common symptom of peripheral arterial disease. Currently, there is a lack of consensus on the most effective therapies for this problem...
  5. Fakhry F, van de Luijtgaarden K, Bax L, den Hoed P, Hunink M, Rouwet E, et al. Supervised walking therapy in patients with intermittent claudication. J Vasc Surg. 2012;56:1132-42 pubmed publisher
    Exercise therapy is a common intervention for the management of intermittent claudication (IC)...
  6. Mays R, Casserly I, Kohrt W, Ho P, Hiatt W, Nehler M, et al. Assessment of functional status and quality of life in claudication. J Vasc Surg. 2011;53:1410-21 pubmed publisher
    Treadmill walking is commonly used to evaluate walking impairment and efficacy of treatment for intermittent claudication (IC) in clinical and research settings...
  7. Lauret G, van Dalen D, Willigendael E, Hendriks E, de Bie R, Spronk S, et al. Supervised exercise therapy for intermittent claudication: current status and future perspectives. Vascular. 2012;20:12-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Intermittent claudication (IC) has a high prevalence in the older population and is closely associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. High mortality rates are reported due to ongoing atherosclerotic disease...
  8. Frans F, Bipat S, Reekers J, Legemate D, Koelemay M. Systematic review of exercise training or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for intermittent claudication. Br J Surg. 2012;99:16-28 pubmed publisher
    ..percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with (supervised) exercise therapy ((S)ET) in patients with intermittent claudication (IC) to obtain the best estimates of their relative effectiveness...
  9. Bø E, Hisdal J, Cvancarova M, Stranden E, Jørgensen J, Sandbæk G, et al. Twelve-months follow-up of supervised exercise after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for intermittent claudication: a randomised clinical trial. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10:5998-6014 pubmed publisher
    ..on physical function, limb hemodynamics and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with intermittent claudication. Fifty patients were randomised to an intervention or a control group...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Maus T. Imaging of spinal stenosis: neurogenic intermittent claudication and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Radiol Clin North Am. 2012;50:651-79 pubmed publisher
    ..and imaging of the corresponding clinical syndromes, cervical spondylotic myelopathy or neurogenic intermittent claudication. The specificity fault of spine imaging is readily evident in evaluation of spinal stenosis, as many ..
  2. Van Meirhaeghe J, Fransen P, Morelli D, Craig N, Godde G, Mihalyi A, et al. Clinical evaluation of the preliminary safety and effectiveness of a minimally invasive interspinous process device APERIUS(®) in degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis with symptomatic neurogenic intermittent claudication. Eur Spine J. 2012;21:2565-72 pubmed publisher
    ..provide an alternative to conservative treatment and decompressive surgery for patients with neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC) due to degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS)...
  3. Espinola Klein C, Weisser G, Jagodzinski A, Savvidis S, Warnholtz A, Ostad M, et al. ?-Blockers in patients with intermittent claudication and arterial hypertension: results from the nebivolol or metoprolol in arterial occlusive disease trial. Hypertension. 2011;58:148-54 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 128 patients with intermittent claudication and essential hypertension were included and double-blind randomized to receive 5 mg of nebivolol (N=65) ..
  4. Lauret G, van Dalen H, Hendriks H, Van Sterkenburg S, Koelemay M, Zeebregts C, et al. When is supervised exercise therapy considered useful in peripheral arterial occlusive disease? A nationwide survey among vascular surgeons. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2012;43:308-12 pubmed publisher
    ..guidelines state that supervised exercise therapy (SET) should be offered to all patients with intermittent claudication (IC), SET appears to be underutilised in clinical practice...
  5. Leicht A, Crowther R, Muller R, Golledge J. The effects of including quality of life responses in models to predict walking performance of patients with intermittent claudication. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2011;41:511-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the accuracy of previously developed prediction models of treadmill walking performance in patients with intermittent claudication (IC) due to peripheral arterial disease (PAD); and to examine the accuracy of new prediction models...
  6. Mazari F, Khan J, Carradice D, Samuel N, Abdul Rahman M, Gulati S, et al. Randomized clinical trial of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, supervised exercise and combined treatment for intermittent claudication due to femoropopliteal arterial disease. Br J Surg. 2012;99:39-48 pubmed publisher
    ..angioplasty (PTA), a supervised exercise programme (SEP) and combined treatment (PTA plus SEP) for intermittent claudication due to femoropopliteal arterial disease...
  7. Schiano V, Sirico G, Giugliano G, Laurenzano E, Brevetti L, Perrino C, et al. Femoral plaque echogenicity and cardiovascular risk in claudicants. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012;5:348-57 pubmed publisher
    ..23 to 16.22, p < 0.001). This study demonstrates that the presence of hypoechoic atherosclerotic femoral plaques is associated with higher cardiovascular risk in lower extremity peripheral arterial disease patients. ..
  8. Rainville J, Childs L, Peña E, Suri P, Limke J, Jouve C, et al. Quantification of walking ability in subjects with neurogenic claudication from lumbar spinal stenosis--a comparative study. Spine J. 2012;12:101-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Neither test should be considered as a meaningful substitution for disease-specific measures of function. ..
  9. da Rocha Chehuen M, Cucato G, Dos Anjos Souza Barbosa J, Costa L, Ritti Dias R, Wolosker N, et al. Ventilatory threshold is related to walking tolerance in patients with intermittent claudication. Vasa. 2012;41:275-81 pubmed publisher
    ..between lower limb hemodynamics and metabolic parameters with walking tolerance in patients with intermittent claudication (IC)...
  10. Nowak W, Mika P, Nowobilski R, Kusinska K, Bukowska Strakova K, Nizankowski R, et al. Exercise training in intermittent claudication: effects on antioxidant genes, inflammatory mediators and proangiogenic progenitor cells. Thromb Haemost. 2012;108:824-31 pubmed publisher
    Exercise training remains a therapy of choice in intermittent claudication (IC). However, too exhaustive exercise may cause ischaemic injury and inflammatory response...
  11. Parmenter B, Raymond J, Dinnen P, Singh M. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials: Walking versus alternative exercise prescription as treatment for intermittent claudication. Atherosclerosis. 2011;218:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..included trials must have been a randomized controlled trial of an exercise intervention for adults with intermittent claudication and have reported at least one claudication parameter such as initial (ICT/D) and/or absolute ..
  12. Leiner T, Kessels A, Nelemans P, Vasbinder G, de Haan M, Kitslaar P, et al. Peripheral arterial disease: comparison of color duplex US and contrast-enhanced MR angiography for diagnosis. Radiology. 2005;235:699-708 pubmed
    ..Results of this prospective comparison between contrast-enhanced MR angiography and duplex US provide evidence that contrast-enhanced MR angiography is more sensitive and specific for diagnosis and preinterventional work-up of PAD. ..
  13. Wolosker N, Ritti Dias R, Câmara L, Garcia Y, Jacob Filho W, Puech Leao P. Treadmill test is limited in elderly patients with peripheral arterial disease. Vasa. 2010;39:237-41 pubmed publisher
    ..37. The treadmill test is limited in almost 20 % of elderly patients with PAD and non-PAD. These results highlight the need for other forms of exercise stress tests in order to assess the peripheral limitation of patients with PAD. ..
  14. Lindner J, Womack L, Barrett E, Weltman J, Price W, Harthun N, et al. Limb stress-rest perfusion imaging with contrast ultrasound for the assessment of peripheral arterial disease severity. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2008;1:343-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This strategy may be useful for evaluating the total impact of disease in patients with complex disease or those with coexisting functional abnormalities of flow regulation. ..
  15. McDermott M, Ades P, Guralnik J, Dyer A, Ferrucci L, Liu K, et al. Treadmill exercise and resistance training in patients with peripheral arterial disease with and without intermittent claudication: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2009;301:165-74 pubmed publisher
    ..treadmill exercise nor strength training for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) without intermittent claudication have been established as beneficial...
  16. Hsu K, Zucherman J, Hartjen C, Mehalic T, Implicito D, Martin M, et al. Quality of life of lumbar stenosis-treated patients in whom the X STOP interspinous device was implanted. J Neurosurg Spine. 2006;5:500-7 pubmed
    This study was conducted to compare the quality of life (QOL) in patients with neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC) secondary to lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS)...
  17. Galarza M, Fabrizi A, Maina R, Gazzeri R, Martínez Lage J. Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis with neurogenic intermittent claudication and treatment with the Aperius PercLID System: a preliminary report. Neurosurg Focus. 2010;28:E3 pubmed publisher
    ..the Aperius PercLID System in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) and neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC). The patients were treated with the aforementioned system at 3 different centers...
  18. Guidon M, McGee H. Exercise-based interventions and health-related quality of life in intermittent claudication: a 20-year (1989-2008) review. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2010;17:140-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Symptoms include pain in leg muscles on walking, relieved by rest (intermittent claudication)...
  19. Parmenter B, Raymond J, Fiatarone Singh M. The effect of exercise on haemodynamics in intermittent claudication: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Sports Med. 2010;40:433-47 pubmed publisher
    ..studies included randomized controlled trials using an exercise intervention for the treatment of intermittent claudication with haemodynamic measures of disease severity as outcomes...
  20. Nicolaï S, Teijink J, Prins M. Multicenter randomized clinical trial of supervised exercise therapy with or without feedback versus walking advice for intermittent claudication. J Vasc Surg. 2010;52:348-55 pubmed publisher
    The initial treatment for intermittent claudication is supervised exercise therapy (SET). Owing to limited capacity and patient transports costs of clinic-based SET, a concept of SET provided by local physiotherapists was developed...
  21. Slørdahl S, Wang E, Hoff J, Kemi O, Amundsen B, Helgerud J. Effective training for patients with intermittent claudication. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2005;39:244-9 pubmed
    Current guidelines for treatment of intermittent claudication (IC) do not include a specific recommendation for the intensity of exercise therapy...
  22. Daskalopoulou S, Pathmarajah M, Kakkos S, Daskalopoulos M, Holloway P, Mikhailidis D, et al. Association between ankle-brachial index and risk factor profile in patients newly diagnosed with intermittent claudication. Circ J. 2008;72:441-8 pubmed
    ..Patients with intermittent claudication (n=170) (age 68.7+/-10.6 years; 118 men; ABI 0.65+/-0.13) were included...
  23. Versluis B, Backes W, van Eupen M, Jaspers K, Nelemans P, Rouwet E, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in peripheral arterial disease: reproducibility of the assessment of morphological and functional vascular status. Invest Radiol. 2011;46:11-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Ten patients with proven PAD (intermittent claudication) and arterial collateral formation within the upper leg and 10 healthy volunteers were included...
  24. Aronow W. Drug treatment of peripheral arterial disease in the elderly. Drugs Aging. 2006;23:1-12 pubmed
    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) may be asymptomatic, may be associated with intermittent claudication or may be associated with critical limb ischaemia...
  25. Lee H, Mehta T, Ray B, Heng M, McCollum P, Chetter I. A non-randomised controlled trial of the clinical and cost effectiveness of a Supervised Exercise Programme for claudication. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2007;33:202-7 pubmed
    The main aims of treatment in patients with intermittent claudication (IC) are to improve the clinical indicators of lower limb ischaemia and patients' quality of life (QoL)...
  26. Kruidenier L, Nicolaï S, Hendriks E, Bollen E, Prins M, Teijink J. Supervised exercise therapy for intermittent claudication in daily practice. J Vasc Surg. 2009;49:363-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Consecutive patients with intermittent claudication referred for community-based SET were included...
  27. Zwierska I, Nawaz S, Walker R, Wood R, Pockley A, Saxton J. Treadmill versus shuttle walk tests of walking ability in intermittent claudication. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36:1835-40 pubmed
    To compare treadmill and shuttle walk tests for assessing functional capacity in patients with intermittent claudication, with respect to test-retest reliability, cardiovascular responses, and patient preferences...
  28. Husmann M, Dörffler Melly J, Kalka C, Diehm N, Baumgartner I, Silvestro A. Successful lower extremity angioplasty improves brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in patients with peripheral arterial disease. J Vasc Surg. 2008;48:1211-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Revascularization may therefore have clinical implications beyond relief of symptoms, for example, reducing oxidative stress caused by repeated muscle ischemia or increased shear stress due to improved ambulatory activity. ..
  29. Mazari F, Gulati S, Rahman M, Lee H, Mehta T, McCollum P, et al. Early outcomes from a randomized, controlled trial of supervised exercise, angioplasty, and combined therapy in intermittent claudication. Ann Vasc Surg. 2010;24:69-79 pubmed publisher
    To compare angioplasty (PTA), supervised exercise (SEP) and PTA + SEP in the treatment of intermittent claudication (IC) due to femoropopliteal disease...
  30. Donas K, Schwindt A, Pitoulias G, Schönefeld T, Basner C, Torsello G. Endovascular treatment of internal iliac artery obstructive disease. J Vasc Surg. 2009;49:1447-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated the therapeutic value of endovascular techniques in patients with buttock claudication caused by stenosis or occlusion of the internal iliac artery...
  31. Zucherman J, Hsu K, Hartjen C, Mehalic T, Implicito D, Martin M, et al. A multicenter, prospective, randomized trial evaluating the X STOP interspinous process decompression system for the treatment of neurogenic intermittent claudication: two-year follow-up results. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005;30:1351-8 pubmed
    A randomized, controlled, prospective multicenter trial comparing the outcomes of neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC) patients treated with the interspinous process decompression system (X STOP) with patients treated ..
  32. Spronk S, Bosch J, den Hoed P, Veen H, Pattynama P, Hunink M. Intermittent claudication: clinical effectiveness of endovascular revascularization versus supervised hospital-based exercise training--randomized controlled trial. Radiology. 2009;250:586-95 pubmed publisher
    ..of life during 12 months after revascularization or supervised exercise training in patients with intermittent claudication. This study had institutional review board approval, and all patients gave written informed consent...
  33. Bal S, Celiker R, Palaoglu S, Cila A. F wave studies of neurogenic intermittent claudication in lumbar spinal stenosis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;85:135-40 pubmed
    ..001 for both sides) but not in control subjects (P = 0.435 for right side and P = 0.122 for left side). Our data suggest that F wave studies after walking stress test provide more information for the diagnosis of NC. ..
  34. Gardner A, Montgomery P, Flinn W, Katzel L. The effect of exercise intensity on the response to exercise rehabilitation in patients with intermittent claudication. J Vasc Surg. 2005;42:702-9 pubmed
    ..circulation, and health-related quality of life in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients limited by intermittent claudication. Thirty-one patients randomized to low-intensity exercise rehabilitation and 33 patients randomized to ..
  35. Gardner A, Parker D, Montgomery P, Khurana A, Ritti Dias R, Blevins S. Gender differences in daily ambulatory activity patterns in patients with intermittent claudication. J Vasc Surg. 2010;52:1204-10 pubmed publisher
    To compare the pattern of daily ambulatory activity in men and women with intermittent claudication, and to determine whether calf muscle hemoglobin oxygen saturation (StO2) is associated with daily ambulatory activity...
  36. Adlakha S, Burket M, Cooper C. Percutaneous intervention for chronic total occlusion of the internal iliac artery for unrelenting buttock claudication. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2009;74:257-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This report describes two cases of patients with unrelenting buttock claudication that completely resolved after percutaneous intervention of unilateral chronic total occlusions of the internal iliac artery...
  37. Thompson K, Cook P, Dilley R, Saeed M, Knowles H, Terramani T, et al. Internal iliac artery angioplasty and stenting: an underutilized therapy. Ann Vasc Surg. 2010;24:23-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Internal iliac artery (IIA) stenosis is a common finding in patients undergoing angiography. In patients with localized thigh and buttock claudication, endovascular treatment of an isolated IIA stenosis may lead to symptomatic improvement...
  38. Milani R, Lavie C. The role of exercise training in peripheral arterial disease. Vasc Med. 2007;12:351-8 pubmed
    ..PAD) is currently a major health problem affecting 8-12 million Americans, 15-40% of whom will have intermittent claudication that can lead to substantial impairment in their ability to carry out normal daily activities as well as ..
  39. Anderson J, Epstein F, Meyer C, Hagspiel K, Wang H, Berr S, et al. Multifactorial determinants of functional capacity in peripheral arterial disease: uncoupling of calf muscle perfusion and metabolism. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;54:628-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a potential role for therapies that regress plaque, increase tissue perfusion, and/or improve cellular metabolism. (Comprehensive Magnetic Resonance of Peripheral Arterial Disease; NCT00587678). ..
  40. Heidrich H. [Vasoactive agents and prostanoids in the therapy of PAD: facts, questions, disproven assumptions]. Hamostaseologie. 2006;26:220-3 pubmed
    In the view of the AkdA (Drug Committee of the German Medical Profession), the efficacy in intermittent claudication is currently proven only for Naftidrofuryl, whereas in the opinion of the DGA (German Society of Angiology) also that of ..
  41. Crowther R, Spinks W, Leicht A, Quigley F, Golledge J. Relationship between temporal-spatial gait parameters, gait kinematics, walking performance, exercise capacity, and physical activity level in peripheral arterial disease. J Vasc Surg. 2007;45:1172-8 pubmed
    ..function is a feature of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) who present with symptoms of intermittent claudication (PAD-IC)...
  42. Keeling A, Naughton P, O Connell A, Lee M. Does percutaneous transluminal angioplasty improve quality of life?. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2008;19:169-76 pubmed publisher
    ..of peripheral percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) on quality of life (QOL) in patients with intermittent claudication or critical limb ischemia (CLI)...
  43. Ritti Dias R, Wolosker N, de Moraes Forjaz C, Carvalho C, Cucato G, Leao P, et al. Strength training increases walking tolerance in intermittent claudication patients: randomized trial. J Vasc Surg. 2010;51:89-95 pubmed publisher
    To analyze the effects of strength training (ST) in walking capacity in patients with intermittent claudication (IC) compared with walking training (WT) effects. Thirty patients with IC were randomized into ST and WT...
  44. Morishita Y, Hida S, Naito M, Arimizu J, Takamori Y. Neurogenic intermittent claudication in lumbar spinal canal stenosis: the clinical relationship between the local pressure of the intervertebral foramen and the clinical findings in lumbar spinal canal stenosis. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2009;22:130-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical relationship between the local pressure of the intervertebral foramen and the clinical findings in lumbar spinal canal stenosis were evaluated...
  45. Tew G, Nawaz S, Zwierska I, Saxton J. Limb-specific and cross-transfer effects of arm-crank exercise training in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. Clin Sci (Lond). 2009;117:405-13 pubmed publisher
    Arm cranking is a useful alternative exercise modality for improving walking performance in patients with intermittent claudication; however, the mechanisms of such an improvement are poorly understood...
  46. Mazari F, Carradice D, Rahman M, Khan J, Mockford K, Mehta T, et al. An analysis of relationship between quality of life indices and clinical improvement following intervention in patients with intermittent claudication due to femoropopliteal disease. J Vasc Surg. 2010;52:77-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the use of composite outcome measures with mandatory, independent assessment of QOL as an independent outcome measure in intervention studies in these patients. ..
  47. Nardi P, Cabezas D, Rea G, Pettorini B. Aperius PercLID stand alone interspinous system for the treatment of degenerative lumbar stenosis: experience on 152 cases. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2010;23:203-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is a retrospective clinical investigation of a new interspinous device implanted via a totally percutaneous technique involving 152 consecutive patients...
  48. Fitzpatrick C, Clouse W, Eliason J, Gage K, Podberesky D, Bush D. Infrarenal aortic coarctation in a 15-year-old with claudication. J Vasc Surg. 2006;44:1117 pubmed
  49. Rosoky R, Wolosker N, Puech Leao P. Performance of patients with intermittent claudication undergoing physical training, with or without an aggravation of arterial disease: retrospective cohort study. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2006;61:535-8 pubmed
    This was a retrospective cohort study aiming to investigate the clinical outcome of patients with intermittent claudication undergoing physical training in whom there was an aggravation of the arterial disease...
  50. Hiatt W. The US experience with cilostazol in treating intermittent claudication. Atheroscler Suppl. 2005;6:21-31 pubmed
    The management of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients with intermittent claudication (IC) requires both aggressive risk management and targeted symptomatic therapies...
  51. Bendermacher B, Willigendael E, Nicolaï S, Kruidenier L, Welten R, Hendriks E, et al. Supervised exercise therapy for intermittent claudication in a community-based setting is as effective as clinic-based. J Vasc Surg. 2007;45:1192-6 pubmed
    ..The study included all consecutive patients presenting at the vascular outpatient clinic with intermittent claudication, diagnosed by a resting ankle brachial index<0...
  52. Fabry R, Monnet P, Schmidt J, Lusson J, Carpentier P, Baguet J, et al. Clinical and microcirculatory effects of transcutaneous CO2 therapy in intermittent claudication. Randomized double-blind clinical trial with a parallel design. Vasa. 2009;38:213-24 pubmed publisher
    ..62 patients with intermittent claudication (100-500 meters) were randomized to 18 consecutive days of CO2 treatment or placebo (air)...
  53. Greenhalgh R, Belch J, Brown L, Gaines P, Gao L, Reise J, et al. The adjuvant benefit of angioplasty in patients with mild to moderate intermittent claudication (MIMIC) managed by supervised exercise, smoking cessation advice and best medical therapy: results from two randomised trials for stenotic femoropopliteal. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2008;36:680-8 pubmed publisher
    ..transluminal angioplasty (PTA) over supervised exercise and best medical therapy in the treatment of intermittent claudication. Patients with symptoms of stable mild to moderate intermittent claudication (MIMIC) were randomised in ..