failure to thrive


Summary: A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.

Top Publications

  1. Shah M. Failure to thrive in children. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2002;35:371-4 pubmed
    ..This article presents an overview of failure to thrive in children younger than 2 years of age...
  2. Olsen E. Failure to thrive: still a problem of definition. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2006;45:1-6 pubmed
    The term 'failure to thrive' (FTT) is widely used to describe inadequate growth in early childhood. However, no consensus exists concerning the specific anthropometrical criteria to define this description...
  3. Emond A, Drewett R, Blair P, Emmett P. Postnatal factors associated with failure to thrive in term infants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Arch Dis Child. 2007;92:115-9 pubmed
    To assess the contribution of postnatal factors to failure to thrive in infancy.
  4. Black M, Dubowitz H, Krishnakumar A, Starr R. Early intervention and recovery among children with failure to thrive: follow-up at age 8. Pediatrics. 2007;120:59-69 pubmed
    We sought to examine the impact of a randomized, controlled trial of home visiting among infants with failure to thrive on growth, academic/cognitive performance, and home/classroom behavior at age 8.
  5. Dori N, Levi L, Stam T, Sukhotnik I, Shaoul R. Transient hyperphosphatasemia in children revisited. Pediatr Int. 2010;52:866-71 pubmed publisher
  6. Koh C, Kwong K, Wong S. Mercury poisoning: a rare but treatable cause of failure to thrive and developmental regression in an infant. Hong Kong Med J. 2009;15:61-4 pubmed
    An infant presented with failure to thrive and developmental regression. Physical examination revealed an irritable child with swollen, erythematous extremities, and elevated blood pressure...
  7. Allapathi D, Alvarez D, Dave Sharma S, Prosper G, Sharma J. Severe failure to thrive in infant. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2008;47:698-700 pubmed publisher
    b>Failure to thrive in an infant has multiple etiologies and at times, is only manifestation of underlying serious disease. Bartter syndrome is a rare disease that manifests as failure to thrive...
  8. Munoz Hoyos A, Molina Carballo A, Uberos J, Contreras Chova F, Del Carmen Augustin Morales M, Ruiz Alba M, et al. Serum melatonin concentration in the child with non-organic failure to thrive: comparison with other types of stress. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2009;23:15-22 pubmed
    ..e. the Affective Deprivation Syndrome (or Psychological Dwarfism) with or without non-organic failure to thrive, resulted in the opposite response with a significant reduction of melatonin...
  9. Bar Zohar D, Segal Algranati D, Belson A, Reif S. Diagnosing cystic fibrosis--asthma and failure to thrive as indications for a sweat test. J Med. 2004;35:93-103 pubmed
    Children with asthma or failure to thrive (FTT) are frequently referred for the quantitative pilocarpine iontophoresis sweat test (QPIT) for diagnosing cystic fibrosis (CF)...

More Information


  1. Baumwol J, Macdonald P, Keogh A, Kotlyar E, Spratt P, Jansz P, et al. Right heart failure and "failure to thrive" after left ventricular assist device: clinical predictors and outcomes. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2011;30:888-95 pubmed publisher
  2. Cole S, Lanham J. Failure to thrive: an update. Am Fam Physician. 2011;83:829-34 pubmed
    b>Failure to thrive in childhood is a state of undernutrition due to inadequate caloric intake, inadequate caloric absorption, or excessive caloric expenditure...
  3. Scott D, Chan S, Chang J, Broderick L, Hoffman H. Recurrent fevers and failure to thrive in an infant. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2013;34:473-9 pubmed publisher
    ..He also had a history of recurrent fevers, polyarticular arthritis, chronic diarrhea, failure to thrive, and developmental delay...
  4. Song Y, Guo L, Yang Y, Han L, Kobayashi K, Saheki T. [Failure to thrive and dyslipidemia caused by citrin deficiency: a novel clinical phenotype]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2009;11:328-32 pubmed
    ..A child with CD and who had failure to thrive (FTT) and dyslipidemia as main clinical manifestations is reported here...
  5. Spencer N. Failure to think about failure to thrive. Arch Dis Child. 2007;92:95-6 pubmed
  6. Urosevic J, Sauzeau V, Soto Montenegro M, Reig S, Desco M, Wright E, et al. Constitutive activation of B-Raf in the mouse germ line provides a model for human cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5015-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, they may serve as a tool to evaluate the potential therapeutic efficacy of B-RAF inhibitors and establish the precise window at which they could be effective against this congenital syndrome...
  7. Wright C, Parkinson K, Drewett R. How does maternal and child feeding behavior relate to weight gain and failure to thrive? Data from a prospective birth cohort. Pediatrics. 2006;117:1262-9 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to study the influences of child and maternal feeding behavior on weight gain and failure to thrive in the first year of life.
  8. Hren I, Mis N, Brecelj J, Campa A, Sedmak M, Krzisnik C, et al. Effects of formula supplementation in breast-fed infants with failure to thrive. Pediatr Int. 2009;51:346-51 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study was to assess whether formula supplementation of infants with failure to thrive can improve underweight without jeopardizing breast-feeding.
  9. Keen D. Childhood autism, feeding problems and failure to thrive in early infancy. Seven case studies. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008;17:209-16 pubmed
    ..Effective treatment therefore requires a novel multifaceted approach that can address each of these areas...
  10. Radcliffe B, Payne J, Porteous H, Johnston S. "Failure to thrive" or failure to use the right growth chart?. Med J Aust. 2007;186:660-1 pubmed
  11. Olsen E, Petersen J, Skovgaard A, Weile B, Jørgensen T, Wright C. Failure to thrive: the prevalence and concurrence of anthropometric criteria in a general infant population. Arch Dis Child. 2007;92:109-14 pubmed
    b>Failure to thrive (FTT) in early childhood is associated with subsequent developmental delay and is recognised to reflect relative undernutrition...
  12. Dimmock D, Kobayashi K, Iijima M, Tabata A, Wong L, Saheki T, et al. Citrin deficiency: a novel cause of failure to thrive that responds to a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet. Pediatrics. 2007;119:e773-7 pubmed
    ..An extensive diagnostic workup for failure to thrive, which was otherwise normal, included plasma amino acid analysis that revealed hyperglutaminemia and ..
  13. Allanson J, Anneren G, Aoki Y, Armour C, Bondeson M, Cave H, et al. Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome: does genotype predict phenotype?. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2011;157C:129-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional features include failure to thrive with severe feeding problems, moderate to severe intellectual disability and short stature with relative ..
  14. Soler Alfonso C, Motil K, Turk C, Robbins Furman P, Friedman E, Zhang F, et al. Potocki-Lupski syndrome: a microduplication syndrome associated with oropharyngeal dysphagia and failure to thrive. J Pediatr. 2011;158:655-659.e2 pubmed publisher
    b>Failure to thrive (FTT) is a feature of children with Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS) [duplication 17p11.2]...
  15. Drewett R, Blair P, Emmett P, Emond A. Failure to thrive in the term and preterm infants of mothers depressed in the postnatal period: a population-based birth cohort study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2004;45:359-66 pubmed
    To examine the relationship between failure to thrive in preterm and term infants and postnatal depression in their mothers.
  16. Blair P, Drewett R, Emmett P, Ness A, Emond A. Family, socioeconomic and prenatal factors associated with failure to thrive in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Int J Epidemiol. 2004;33:839-47 pubmed
    ..The epidemiological profile of infants failing to thrive is unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the prenatal and socioeconomic factors associated with these infants using standardized weight gain conditional on previous weight...
  17. Miller T, Easley K, Zhang W, Orav E, Bier D, Luder E, et al. Maternal and infant factors associated with failure to thrive in children with vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection: the prospective, P2C2 human immunodeficiency virus multicenter study. Pediatrics. 2001;108:1287-96 pubmed
    ..Using data from the prospective, multicenter P2C2 HIV study, we evaluated the relationships between maternal and infant clinical and laboratory factors and impaired growth in this cohort...
  18. Sentongo T, Markowitz R, Russo P, vonAllmen D, Piccoli D. Pathological case of the month. Type IV sacrococcygeal teratoma with yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor presenting with failure to thrive and perianal pain. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002;156:405-6 pubmed
  19. Hartel C, Strunk T, Bucsky P, Schultz C. Failure to thrive in a 14-month-old boy with lymphopenia and eosinophilia. Klin Padiatr. 2004;216:24-5 pubmed
    ..the case of a 14-month-old boy with delayed-onset SCID due to ADA-deficiency which was masqueraded only by failure to thrive. Remarkably, the child had no serious infections and an adequate immune response...
  20. Wright C, Parkinson K, Drewett R. The influence of maternal socioeconomic and emotional factors on infant weight gain and weight faltering (failure to thrive): data from a prospective birth cohort. Arch Dis Child. 2006;91:312-7 pubmed
    To study the influence of maternal socioeconomic and emotional factors on infant weight gain and weight faltering (failure to thrive) in the first year of life.
  21. Higgins P, Daly B. Adult failure to thrive in the older rehabilitation patient. Rehabil Nurs. 2005;30:152-9 pubmed
    ..This pilot study tested a tool developed to assess failure to thrive syndrome (FTT) in patients admitted to a long-term rehabilitation unit (N = 34), examined the association ..
  22. Krugman S, Dubowitz H. Failure to thrive. Am Fam Physician. 2003;68:879-84 pubmed
    b>Failure to thrive is a condition commonly seen by primary care physicians. Prompt diagnosis and intervention are important for preventing malnutrition and developmental sequelae...
  23. Andrews R, Tulloh R, Magee A, Anderson D. Atrial septal defect with failure to thrive in infancy: hidden pulmonary vascular disease?. Pediatr Cardiol. 2002;23:528-30 pubmed
    ..The question should be asked as to whether surgery is of benefit in these children, and particularly whether they may have underlying primary pulmonary vascular disease...
  24. Khoshoo V, Reifen R. Use of energy-dense formula for treating infants with non-organic failure to thrive. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56:921-4 pubmed
    To evaluate if simply increasing the energy density of the formula will lead to increased energy intake and weight gain in infants with non-organic failure to thrive.
  25. Duthie M, Kahn S. Treatment with alpha-galactosylceramide before Trypanosoma cruzi infection provides protection or induces failure to thrive. J Immunol. 2002;168:5778-85 pubmed
    ..cruzi infection glycolipids can be used to manipulate iNKT cell responses and suggest the possibility of developing glycolipid treatments that can increase protection and possibly decrease the chronic inflammatory pathology...
  26. Etensel B, Ozkisacik S, Döger F, Yazici M, Gursoy H. Anomalous congenital band: a rare cause of intestinal obstruction and failure to thrive. Pediatr Surg Int. 2005;21:1018-20 pubmed
    ..His parents mentioned that the child always had mild abdominal distention and failure to thrive from his infancy...
  27. Bergman P, Graham J. An approach to "failure to thrive". Aust Fam Physician. 2005;34:725-9 pubmed
    Infants commonly present with failure to thrive. Psychosocial and nutritional causes are commonly responsible, but significant organic pathology requires exclusion in all children with failure to thrive.
  28. Stefan M, Ji H, Simmons R, Cummings D, Ahima R, Friedman M, et al. Hormonal and metabolic defects in a prader-willi syndrome mouse model with neonatal failure to thrive. Endocrinology. 2005;146:4377-85 pubmed
    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) has a biphasic clinical phenotype with failure to thrive in the neonatal period followed by hyperphagia and severe obesity commencing in childhood among other endocrinological and neurobehavioral abnormalities...
  29. Saran S, Gopalan S, Krishna T. Use of fermented foods to combat stunting and failure to thrive. Nutrition. 2002;18:393-6 pubmed
    ..The present study was based on the hypothesis that failure to thrive is the result of damage to the gut epithelium incurred during repeated bouts of gastrointestinal infections...
  30. Corbett S, Drewett R. To what extent is failure to thrive in infancy associated with poorer cognitive development? A review and meta-analysis. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2004;45:641-54 pubmed
    Previous empirical studies of the cognitive sequelae of failure to thrive in infancy have led to apparently inconsistent conclusions.
  31. Hershkovitz E, Printzman L, Segev Y, Levy J, Phillip M. Zinc supplementation increases the level of serum insulin-like growth factor-I but does not promote growth in infants with nonorganic failure to thrive. Horm Res. 1999;52:200-4 pubmed
    ..IGF-I) and insulin-like factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) on 3- to 9-month-old infants with nonorganic failure to thrive (NOFTT)...
  32. Wright C, Callum J, Birks E, Jarvis S. Effect of community based management in failure to thrive: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 1998;317:571-4 pubmed
    To evaluate the effectiveness of a health visitor led intervention for failure to thrive in children under 2 years old.
  33. Jolley C. Failure to thrive. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. 2003;33:183-206 pubmed
  34. Goyal R, Watts P, Lane C, Beck L, Gregory J. Adrenal suppression and failure to thrive after steroid injections for periocular hemangioma. Ophthalmology. 2004;111:389-95 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the effects of steroid injections for periocular capillary hemangioma on adrenal function and body composition...
  35. Srivastava A, Ritesh K, Tsan Y, Liao R, Su F, Cao X, et al. De novo dominant ASXL3 mutations alter H2A deubiquitination and transcription in Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:597-608 pubmed publisher
    ..3 (ASXL3) have been identified in individuals with Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome (BRS), characterized by failure to thrive, global developmental delay, feeding problems, hypotonia, dysmorphic features, profound speech delays and ..
  36. Martin M, Vanzo R, Sdano M, Baxter A, South S. Mosaic deletion of 20pter due to rescue by somatic recombination. Am J Med Genet A. 2016;170A:243-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This patient was a 24-month-old female who presented with failure to thrive and speech delay. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) performed on peripheral blood showed a 1...
  37. Ranganathan S, Schmitt L, Sindhi R. Tufting enteropathy revisited: the utility of MOC31 (EpCAM) immunohistochemistry in diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2014;38:265-72 pubmed publisher
    ..TE) is an uncommon disease causing intractable diarrheas starting in early childhood and resulting in failure to thrive, dependence on total parenteral nutrition, and eventually requiring transplantation for treatment...
  38. Ramot Y, Czarnowicki T, Maly A, Navon Elkan P, Zlotogorski A. Chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature syndrome: a case report. Pediatr Dermatol. 2011;28:538-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This syndrome may represent a new autosomal recessive auto-inflammatory genodermatosis. Increased awareness may lead to the discovery of more cases, and clarify its pathogenesis...
  39. Wright C, Garcia A. Child undernutrition in affluent societies: what are we talking about?. Proc Nutr Soc. 2012;71:545-55 pubmed publisher
    ..go on to explore describe the common clinical 'syndromes' of child undernutrition: wasting, stunting and failure to thrive (weight faltering) and how we have used data from two population-based cohort studies, this paper to explore ..
  40. St Peter S, Tsao K, Sharp S, Holcomb G, Ostlie D. Predictors of emesis and time to goal intake after pyloromyotomy: analysis from a prospective trial. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:2038-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we performed analysis of prospective data obtained from a randomized trial to determine if outcome can be predicted from preoperative or intraoperative variables...
  41. Vaiphei K, Marwaha R. Long-standing diarrhea in thalassemia major. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2006;25:194-8 pubmed
  42. Cabrera S, Morel C, Tartaglia M. Clinical Report: Cognitive decline in a patient with Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2016;170A:1251-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we present the cognitive, neuropsychiatric, and imaging findings of a patient diagnosed with CFCS who after having remained stable developed progressive cognitive/behavioral and motor decline...
  43. Ãœnal Å, Rupar T, Yetgin S, Yaralı N, Dursun A, Gürsel T, et al. Transcobalamin II Deficiency in Four Cases with Novel Mutations. Turk J Haematol. 2015;32:317-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcobalamin II deficiency should be considered in differential diagnosis of any infant with pancytopenia, failure to thrive, diarrhea, and vomiting...
  44. Madsen M, Nielsen H. Cytomegalovirus esophagitis in a child with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection presenting as fever of unknown origin and stunted growth. Eur J Pediatr. 2006;165:665-6 pubmed
    ..a 12-year old boy with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection and cytomegalovirus-associated esophagitis, who presented with an indolent clinical course associated with fever of an unknown origin, failure to thrive and weight loss.
  45. Boonen K, Régal L, Jaeken J, Creemers J. PREPL, a prolyl endopeptidase-like enzyme by name only?--Lessons from patients. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2011;10:355-60 pubmed
    ..b>Failure to thrive usually persists for several years, followed by a period of hyperphagia and excessive weight gain...
  46. Lucas K, Ungar D, Comito M, Bayerl M, Groh B. Submyeloablative cord blood transplantation corrects clinical defects seen in IPEX syndrome. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2007;39:55-6 pubmed
  47. Cooke R. Postdischarge nutrition of preterm infants: more questions than answers. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2007;59:213-24; discussion 224-8 pubmed
    ..However, they may also be an important adjunct in meeting nutritional needs of these high-risk infants. Further studies are also needed to examine this issue...
  48. Schulz L. The Dutch Hunger Winter and the developmental origins of health and disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:16757-8 pubmed publisher
  49. Silveira Cancela M, Andrés Andrés A, Rodicio García M, Abadi Abadi A, Rodríguez Sáez M. [Infant with failure to thrive and hepatosplenomegaly]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2007;66:201-2 pubmed
  50. Emond A, Blair P, Emmett P, Drewett R. Weight faltering in infancy and IQ levels at 8 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Pediatrics. 2007;120:e1051-8 pubmed
    Our goal was to investigate the association between failure to thrive (defined as weight faltering in the first 9 months of life) and IQ levels 8 years later.
  51. Joshi R. Hypercalcemia due to hypervitaminosis D: report of seven patients. J Trop Pediatr. 2009;55:396-8 pubmed publisher
    ..doses of vitamin D (900 000-4 000 000 U) prescribed by medical practitioners for wrong indications like failure to thrive, etc...
  52. Lee S, Shabatian H, Hsu J, Applebaum H, Haigh P. Hospital admissions for respiratory symptoms and failure to thrive before and after Nissen fundoplication. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:59-63; discussion 63-5 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study is to determine whether Nissen fundoplication decreases hospital admissions for respiratory symptoms and failure to thrive (FTT).
  53. Prasad C, Rosenblatt D, Corley K, Cairney A, Rupar C. Transcobalamin (TC) deficiency--potential cause of bone marrow failure in childhood. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2008;31 Suppl 2:S287-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a family in which the proband presented with failure to thrive at 2 months of age and subsequent bone marrow failure...