postoperative nausea and vomiting

Summary

Summary: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.

Top Publications

  1. Kim S, Kim S, Baek Y, Ok S, Kim S. Comparison of ramosetron with ondansetron for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing gynaecological surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2009;103:549-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ramosetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) with that of ondansetron or placebo in high-risk patients undergoing gynaecological surgery...
  2. Ismail S. Practice of use of antiemetic in patients for laparoscopic gynaecological surgery and its impact on the early (1st two hrs) postoperative period. J Pak Med Assoc. 2008;58:203-5 pubmed
    There is no agreed technique for minimizing PONV (Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting) although some techniques are associated with low rate...
  3. Sandhu T, Tanvatcharaphan P, Cheunjongkolkul V. Ondansetron versus metoclopramide in prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective double-blind randomized study. Asian J Surg. 2008;31:50-4 pubmed publisher
    Patients who undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy may be at risk of experiencing postoperative nausea and vomiting. This prospective, randomized, double-blind study compared the prophylactic use of metoclopramide and ondansetron for the ..
  4. Lee Y, Wang P, Lai H, Yang Y, Chu C, Wang J. Haloperidol is as effective as ondansetron for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Can J Anaesth. 2007;54:349-54 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the prophylactic antiemetic efficacy of haloperidol vs ondansetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after general anesthesia.
  5. de Oliveira G, Castro Alves L, Ahmad S, Kendall M, McCarthy R. Dexamethasone to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Anesth Analg. 2013;116:58-74 pubmed publisher
    Dexamethasone has an established role in decreasing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV); however, the optimal dexamethasone dose for reducing PONV when it is used as a single or combination prophylactic strategy has not been clearly ..
  6. Won Y, Yoo J, Chae Y, Kim D, Park S, Cho H, et al. The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting after thyroidectomy using three anaesthetic techniques. J Int Med Res. 2011;39:1834-42 pubmed
    The choice of anaesthetics can affect the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV)...
  7. Voigt M, Fröhlich C, Waschke K, Lenz C, Göbel U, Kerger H. Prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting in elective breast surgery. J Clin Anesth. 2011;23:461-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate strategies to treat postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients undergoing elective breast surgery.
  8. Kim S, Shin Y, Oh Y, Lee J, Chung S, Choi Y. Risk assessment of postoperative nausea and vomiting in the intravenous patient-controlled analgesia environment: predictive values of the Apfel's simplified risk score for identification of high-risk patients. Yonsei Med J. 2013;54:1273-81 pubmed publisher
    ..PCA) is popular method of postoperative pain control, but many patients suffer from IV PCA-related postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV)...
  9. Kim Y, Kim K, Lee H, Shim J, Yoon S. The efficacy of several neuromuscular monitoring modes at the P6 acupuncture point in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. 2011;112:819-23 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we tested the efficacy of several neuromuscular monitoring modes at the P6 acupuncture point for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV).

More Information

Publications60

  1. Song J, Park E, Lee J, Park Y, Kang B, Shim Y. The effect of combining dexamethasone with ondansetron for nausea and vomiting associated with fentanyl-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia. Anaesthesia. 2011;66:263-7 pubmed publisher
    ..combined dexamethasone and ondansetron is more effective than ondansetron alone in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients with fentanyl-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia...
  2. Janicki P, Vealey R, Liu J, Escajeda J, Postula M, Welker K. Genome-wide Association study using pooled DNA to identify candidate markers mediating susceptibility to postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesthesiology. 2011;115:54-64 pubmed publisher
    A family history has been established as a risk factor for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), but the identities of susceptibility genes remain unknown...
  3. Fero K, Jalota L, Hornuss C, Apfel C. Pharmacologic management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2011;12:2283-96 pubmed publisher
    ..in the safety and efficacy of surgery and anesthesia have been made, other complications such as postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) have become more apparent...
  4. El Deeb A, Ahmady M. Effect of acupuncture on nausea and/or vomiting during and after cesarean section in comparison with ondansetron. J Anesth. 2011;25:698-703 pubmed publisher
    Acupuncture has been used for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV)...
  5. Ajori L, Nazari L, Mazloomfard M, Amiri Z. Effects of gabapentin on postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting after abdominal hysterectomy: a double blind randomized clinical trial. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012;285:677-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This double blind randomized clinical trial (RCT) was conducted to evaluate whether the pre-emptive use of gabapentin 600 mg could reduce postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting, and meperidine consumption in patients after hysterectomy...
  6. Kim W, Kang H, Shin H, Baek C, Jung Y, Woo Y, et al. Ramosetron, midazolam, and combination of ramosetron and midazolam for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. J Int Med Res. 2013;41:1203-13 pubmed publisher
    To compare the efficacy of ramosetron, midazolam, and the combination of ramosetron and midazolam in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in female patients undergoing thyroidectomy.
  7. Vallejo M, Phelps A, Ibinson J, Barnes L, Milord P, Romeo R, et al. Aprepitant plus ondansetron compared with ondansetron alone in reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting in ambulatory patients undergoing plastic surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2012;129:519-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Postoperative nausea and vomiting is a major challenge in the perioperative setting. The incidence can be as high as 80 percent, and the majority of the symptoms among outpatients occur after discharge...
  8. Chen C, Siddiqui F, Chen T, Chan E, Tam K. Dexamethasone for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing thyroidectomy: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. World J Surg. 2012;36:61-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common complication after thyroidectomy. Steroids effectively reduce nausea, pain, and inflammation; therefore, preoperative administration of steroids ought to improve these surgical outcomes.
  9. Basu A, Saha D, Hembrom B, Roy A, Naaz A. Comparison of palanosetron, granisetron and ondansetron as anti-emetics for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing middle ear surgery. J Indian Med Assoc. 2011;109:327-9 pubmed
    ..25 mg) is a superior anti-emetic to granisetron (3.0 mg) or ondansetron (8.0 mg) in complete prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after middle ear surgery during the first 24 hours period.
  10. Tang W, Ma W, Fu G, Yuan L, Shen W. [Impacts of electroacupuncture at different frequencies on the postoperative nausea and vomiting of patients with laparoscopic surgery]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2013;33:159-62 pubmed
    To assess the impacts on postoperative nausea and vomiting of the patients with laparoscopic surgery undergoing the general anesthesia by electroacupuncture (EA) at different frequencies at bilateral Neiguan (PC 6).
  11. Lv J, Feng R, Li N. P6 acupoint stimulation for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing craniotomy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2013;14:153 pubmed publisher
    The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is 50 to 79% after neurosurgery...
  12. Majholm B, Møller A. Acupressure at acupoint P6 for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a randomised clinical trial. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2011;28:412-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Postoperative nausea and vomiting causes discomfort in many patients despite both antiemetic prophylactics and improved anaesthetic techniques...
  13. Ziemann Gimmel P, Goldfarb A, Koppman J, Marema R. Opioid-free total intravenous anaesthesia reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting in bariatric surgery beyond triple prophylaxis. Br J Anaesth. 2014;112:906-11 pubmed publisher
    Patients undergoing bariatric surgery are at high risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Despite triple PONV prophylaxis, up to 42.7% of patients require antiemetic rescue medication (AERM).
  14. Gan T, Diemunsch P, Habib A, Kovac A, Kranke P, Meyer T, et al. Consensus guidelines for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. 2014;118:85-113 pubmed publisher
    The present guidelines are the most recent data on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and an update on the 2 previous sets of guidelines published in 2003 and 2007...
  15. Xu M, Zhou S, Jiang C, Wu Y, Shi W, Gu H, et al. The effects of P6 electrical acustimulation on postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients after infratentorial craniotomy. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2012;24:312-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are frequent and harmful complications after neurosurgery. Current pharmacy-based treatment is the standard of care; it, however, lacks efficiency...
  16. Tang D, Malone D. A network meta-analysis on the efficacy of serotonin type 3 receptor antagonists used in adults during the first 24 hours for postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis. Clin Ther. 2012;34:282-94 pubmed publisher
    ..and dolasetron are potential prophylactic agents for patients with mild to moderate risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). A few trials have been conducted to compare the efficacy among 2 to 3 of these 4 agents...
  17. Green M, Green P, Malayaman S, Hepler M, Neubert L, Horrow J. Randomized, double-blind comparison of oral aprepitant alone compared with aprepitant and transdermal scopolamine for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Br J Anaesth. 2012;109:716-22 pubmed publisher
    ..monotherapy and multimodal therapy by looking at complete response, nausea, vomiting, and rescue medication in patients at high risk for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) treated with oral aprepitant with or without scopolamine.
  18. Chandrakantan A, Glass P. Multimodal therapies for postoperative nausea and vomiting, and pain. Br J Anaesth. 2011;107 Suppl 1:i27-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and pain are two of the major concerns for patients presenting for surgery...
  19. Morino R, Ozaki M, Nagata O, Yokota M. Incidence of and risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting at a Japanese Cancer Center: first large-scale study in Japan. J Anesth. 2013;27:18-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The second purpose of this study was to collect information on PONV risk factors, independently, in the categories of patient-related, anesthesia-related, and surgery-related factors...
  20. Griffiths J, Gyte G, Paranjothy S, Brown H, Broughton H, Thomas J. Interventions for preventing nausea and vomiting in women undergoing regional anaesthesia for caesarean section. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;:CD007579 pubmed publisher
    ..Nausea and vomiting are distressing symptoms which are experienced commonly during caesarean section under regional anaesthesia and can also occur in the period following the procedure. ..
  21. East J, Mitchell D. Postoperative nausea and vomiting in laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy at two major hospitals in Jamaica. West Indian Med J. 2009;58:130-7 pubmed
    b>Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a distressing and potentially dangerous complication of general anaesthesia with volatile agents. The internationally reported average risk is 20 to 30%...
  22. Song J, Shim J, Song Y, Yang S, Park S, Kwak Y. Effect of ketamine as an adjunct to intravenous patient-controlled analgesia, in patients at high risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting undergoing lumbar spinal surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2013;111:630-5 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the effect of ketamine as an adjunct to a fentanyl-based i.v. patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients at high risk of PONV undergoing lumbar spinal surgery.
  23. Mihara T, Tojo K, Uchimoto K, Morita S, Goto T. Reevaluation of the effectiveness of ramosetron for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Anesth Analg. 2013;117:329-39 pubmed publisher
    Ramosetron has been shown to have a very strong effect for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in previous meta-analyses. However, these previous meta-analyses included a number of studies by Fujii et al...
  24. Arslan M, Demir M. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting with a small dose of propofol combined with dexamethasone 4 mg or dexamethasone 8 mg in patients undergoing middle ear surgery: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2011;112:332-6 pubmed
    b>Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common complication after middle ear surgery...
  25. Holmér Pettersson P, Wengstrom Y. Acupuncture prior to surgery to minimise postoperative nausea and vomiting: a systematic review. J Clin Nurs. 2012;21:1799-805 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this systematic review was to assess the outcome of acupuncture treatment prior to surgery in order to avoid or minimise postoperative nausea and vomiting.
  26. Jo Y, Lee J, Shim J, Lee W, Choi Y. Ramosetron, dexamethasone, and their combination for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in women undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc. 2012;26:2306-11 pubmed publisher
    ..controlled study, we evaluated the antiemetic efficacy of ramosetron combined with dexamethasone for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) compared with that of dexamethasone or ramosetron alone in women who underwent laparoscopic ..
  27. Kranke P, Eberhart L. Possibilities and limitations in the pharmacological management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2011;28:758-65 pubmed publisher
    The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after a standard anaesthetic technique consisting of inhalational anaesthetics and opioids and no PONV prophylaxis is up to 30%...
  28. Mishriky B, Habib A. Metoclopramide for nausea and vomiting prophylaxis during and after Caesarean delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Anaesth. 2012;108:374-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This meta-analysis assesses the efficacy of metoclopramide for prophylaxis against intra- and postoperative nausea and vomiting (IONV and PONV) in parturients undergoing CD under neuraxial anaesthesia...
  29. Voigt M, Fröhlich C, Hüttel C, Kranke P, Mennen J, Boessneck O, et al. Prophylaxis of intra- and postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients during cesarean section in spinal anesthesia. Med Sci Monit. 2013;19:993-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper describes a randomized prospective study conducted in 308 patients undergoing caesarean section in spinal anaesthesia at a single hospital between 2010 and 2012 to find a suitable anti-emetic strategy for these patients...
  30. Moon Y, Joo J, Kim J, Lee Y. Anti-emetic effect of ondansetron and palonosetron in thyroidectomy: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Br J Anaesth. 2012;108:417-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This study compared the effects of i.v. ondansetron and palonosetron administered at the end of surgery in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in high-risk patients receiving i.v. PCA after thyroidectomy.
  31. Sánchez Rodríguez P, Fuentes Orozco C, Gonzalez Ojeda A. Effect of dexamethasone on postoperative symptoms in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy: randomized clinical trial. World J Surg. 2010;34:895-900 pubmed publisher
    Dexamethasone has been reported to reduce postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). However, its effects on other surgical outcomes, such as pain and fatigue, have been unclear...
  32. Rodseth R, Gopalan P, Cassimjee H, Goga S. Reduced incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in black South Africans and its utility for a modified risk scoring system. Anesth Analg. 2010;110:1591-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common occurrence with a reported incidence between 20% and 40%...
  33. Habib A, Keifer J, Borel C, White W, Gan T. A comparison of the combination of aprepitant and dexamethasone versus the combination of ondansetron and dexamethasone for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing craniotomy. Anesth Analg. 2011;112:813-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) occur commonly after craniotomy. In patients receiving prophylaxis with ondansetron and dexamethasone, vomiting occurred in 45% of patients at 48 hours...
  34. Hahm T, Ko J, Choi S, Gwak M. Comparison of the prophylactic anti-emetic efficacy of ramosetron and ondansetron in patients at high-risk for postoperative nausea and vomiting after total knee replacement. Anaesthesia. 2010;65:500-4 pubmed publisher
    ..of ramosetron, a newly developed 5-HT(3) antagonist, and ondansetron in patients at high-risk for postoperative nausea and vomiting after total knee replacement...
  35. Grover V, Mathew P, Hegde H. Efficacy of orally disintegrating ondansetron in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomised, double-blind placebo controlled study. Anaesthesia. 2009;64:595-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we aimed to study the efficacy of orally disintegrating ondansetron for postoperative nausea and vomiting. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial on 109 patients scheduled for laparoscopic ..
  36. Rojas C, Stathis M, Thomas A, Massuda E, Massuda E, Alt J, et al. Palonosetron exhibits unique molecular interactions with the 5-HT3 receptor. Anesth Analg. 2008;107:469-78 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these attributes alone are not sufficient to explain the results with palonosetron. We sought to elucidate additional differences among 5-HT(3)-RAs that could help explain the observations in the clinic...
  37. Okuno S, Hirayama K, Inoue J, Yamasaki K, Kawahara R, Yokoi T, et al. [Effects of rikkunshito on the postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after laparoscopic gynecological surgery]. Masui. 2008;57:1502-9 pubmed
    b>Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of unignorable complications after general anesthesia...
  38. Kranke P, Eberhart L. [Postoperative nausea and vomiting: rational algorithms for prevention and treatment based on current evidence]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 2009;44:286-94; quiz 295 pubmed publisher
    b>Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) constitutes a major unpleasant symptom in the postoperative period. The prevention of PONV is judged equally important as the prevention of postoperative pain...
  39. Turgut S, Ozalp G, Dikmen S, Savli S, Tuncel G, Kadiogullari N. Acupressure for postoperative nausea and vomiting in gynaecological patients receiving patient-controlled analgesia. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2007;24:87-91 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the effectiveness of acupressure in preventing nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing gynaecological operations and receiving a patient-controlled analgesia device...
  40. Meng L, Quinlan J. Assessing risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting: a retrospective study in patients undergoing retromastoid craniectomy with microvascular decompression of cranial nerves. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2006;18:235-9 pubmed
    ..craniectomy (RMC) with microvascular decompression (MVD) of cranial nerves, frequently experienced postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV)...
  41. Lee D, Kim J, Shin J, Ku C, Park Y, Kwak H. The effect of oral and IV ramosetron on postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopy with total intravenous anesthesia. J Anesth. 2009;23:46-50 pubmed publisher
    Ramosetron can be administered orally as well as intravenously. We investigated the effect of oral ramosetron on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopy.
  42. Ionescu D, Margarit S, Vlad L, Iancu C, Alexe A, Deac D, et al. [TIVA-TCI (Total IntraVenous Anesthesia-Target Controlled Infusion) versus isoflurane anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Postoperative nausea and vomiting, and patient satisfaction]. Chirurgia (Bucur). 2009;104:167-72 pubmed
    ..Besides implementing TIVA-TCI in clinical practice in Romania, our study was designed to evaluate the impact of TIVA-TCI on postoperative outcome and our patient satisfaction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy...
  43. Ruiz J, Kee S, Frenzel J, Ensor J, Selvan M, Riedel B, et al. The effect of an anatomically classified procedure on antiemetic administration in the postanesthesia care unit. Anesth Analg. 2010;110:403-9 pubmed publisher
    The effect of the type of surgical procedure on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) rate has been debated in the literature...
  44. Cruz N, Portilla P, Vela R. Timing of ondansetron administration to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting. P R Health Sci J. 2008;27:43-7 pubmed
    ..The original guidelines for using ondansetron recommending its administration prior to induction of anesthesia have been questioned...
  45. Neufeld S, Newburn Cook C, Drummond J. Prognostic models and risk scores: can we accurately predict postoperative nausea and vomiting in children after craniotomy?. J Perianesth Nurs. 2008;23:300-10 pubmed
    b>Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a problem for many children after craniotomy. Prognostic models and risk scores help identify who is at risk for an adverse event such as PONV to help guide clinical care...
  46. Bolton C, Myles P, Nolan T, Sterne J. Prophylaxis of postoperative vomiting in children undergoing tonsillectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Anaesth. 2006;97:593-604 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, dexamethasone and the anti-serotinergic agents appear to be the most effective agents for the prophylaxis for POV in children undergoing tonsillectomy...
  47. Silva A, O Ryan F, Poor D. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after orthognathic surgery: a retrospective study and literature review. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;64:1385-97 pubmed
    b>Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is the most common postoperative complication after surgery and general anesthesia...
  48. Sah N, Ramesh V, Kaul B, Dalby P, Shestak K, Vallejo M. Transdermal scopolamine patch in addition to ondansetron for postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis in patients undergoing ambulatory cosmetic surgery. J Clin Anesth. 2009;21:249-52 pubmed publisher
    To determine the efficacy of transdermal scopolamine in addition to ondansetron in decreasing the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV).
  49. McKean S, Kochilas X, Kelleher R, Dockery M. Use of intravenous steroids at induction of anaesthesia for adult tonsillectomy to reduce post-operative nausea and vomiting and pain: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Clin Otolaryngol. 2006;31:36-40 pubmed
    ..To assess the effectiveness of intravenous steroids at induction of anaesthetic to reduce post-operative nausea and vomiting and pain after adult tonsillectomy...
  50. Sadrolsadat S, Shoroghi M, Farahbakhsh F, Moharreri R, Sheikhvatan M, Abbasi A. The effect of supplemental 70% oxygen on postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing inguinal hernia surgery. Hernia. 2008;12:167-71 pubmed
    b>Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are among the leading side-effects after surgery performed under general anaesthesia. The role of oxygen as an important method for treatment of PONV was studied...
  51. Diemunsch P, Joshi G, Brichant J. Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Br J Anaesth. 2009;103:7-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Aprepitant is the first NK1 receptor antagonist approved for use in postoperative nausea and vomiting, but several other compounds are currently being investigated for their potential as antiemetics in ..