hyperphagia

Summary

Summary: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.

Top Publications

  1. Schroeder M, Moran T, Weller A. Attenuation of obesity by early-life food restriction in genetically hyperphagic male OLETF rats: peripheral mechanisms. Horm Behav. 2010;57:455-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we used the OLETF rat model of early-onset hyperphagia induced obesity, which become obese as a result of the absence of CCK(1) receptors, to examine the influence of ..
  2. Harada H, Warabi E, Matsuki T, Yanagawa T, Okada K, Uwayama J, et al. Deficiency of p62/Sequestosome 1 causes hyperphagia due to leptin resistance in the brain. J Neurosci. 2013;33:14767-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that hyperphagia due to central leptin resistance is the cause of obesity in p62(-/-) mice...
  3. Vijay Kumar M, Aitken J, Carvalho F, Cullender T, Mwangi S, Srinivasan S, et al. Metabolic syndrome and altered gut microbiota in mice lacking Toll-like receptor 5. Science. 2010;328:228-31 pubmed publisher
    ..the innate immune system that is expressed in the gut mucosa and that helps defend against infection, exhibit hyperphagia and develop hallmark features of metabolic syndrome, including hyperlipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance,..
  4. Guo T, Bond N, Jou W, Gavrilova O, Portas J, McPherron A. Myostatin inhibition prevents diabetes and hyperphagia in a mouse model of lipodystrophy. Diabetes. 2012;61:2414-23 pubmed
    ..ectopic lipid deposition, peripheral insulin resistance, reduced adipokine levels, and increased food intake (hyperphagia)...
  5. Sejima E, Yamauchi A, Nishioku T, Koga M, Nakagama K, Dohgu S, et al. A role for hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase in the mediation of hyperphagia and weight gain induced by chronic treatment with olanzapine in female rats. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2011;31:985-9 pubmed publisher
    ..to ascertain if hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediates olanzapine-induced weight gain and hyperphagia. Body weight and food intake in each rat were evaluated every day and every two days, respectively...
  6. Yokum S, Ng J, Stice E. Attentional bias to food images associated with elevated weight and future weight gain: an fMRI study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19:1775-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Results indicate that overweight is related to greater attentional bias to food cues and that youth who show elevated reward circuitry responsivity during food cue exposure are at increased risk for weight gain...
  7. Thomas J, Doshi S, Crosby R, Lowe M. Ecological momentary assessment of obesogenic eating behavior: combining person-specific and environmental predictors. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19:1574-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Individuals practicing weight control may benefit from limiting their exposure to good tasting high-calorie food in their immediate environment...
  8. Ng J, Stice E, Yokum S, Bohon C. An fMRI study of obesity, food reward, and perceived caloric density. Does a low-fat label make food less appealing?. Appetite. 2011;57:65-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest that hyper-responsivity of somatosensory, gustatory, and reward valuation regions may be related to overeating and that top-down processing influence reward encoding, which could further contribute to weight gain...
  9. Plagemann A, Harder T, Brunn M, Harder A, Roepke K, Wittrock Staar M, et al. Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin promoter methylation becomes altered by early overfeeding: an epigenetic model of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. J Physiol. 2009;587:4963-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal overfeeding as an epigenetic risk factor of obesity programming and consecutive diabetic and cardiovascular disorders and diseases, in terms of the metabolic syndrome...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Bauwens J, Schmuck E, Lindholm C, Ertel R, Mulligan J, Hovis I, et al. Cold tolerance, cold-induced hyperphagia, and nonshivering thermogenesis are normal in ??-AMPK-/- mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011;301:R473-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, the degree of cold-induced hyperphagia was identical in the two groups...
  2. Tolson K, Gemelli T, Gautron L, Elmquist J, Zinn A, Kublaoui B. Postnatal Sim1 deficiency causes hyperphagic obesity and reduced Mc4r and oxytocin expression. J Neurosci. 2010;30:3803-12 pubmed publisher
  3. Burns B, Schmidt K, Williams S, Kim S, Girirajan S, Elsea S. Rai1 haploinsufficiency causes reduced Bdnf expression resulting in hyperphagia, obesity and altered fat distribution in mice and humans with no evidence of metabolic syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:4026-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression analyses revealed that Bdnf (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), a gene previously associated with hyperphagia and obesity, is downregulated in the Rai1(+/-) mouse hypothalamus, and reporter studies show that RAI1 directly ..
  4. Berthoud H, Lenard N, Shin A. Food reward, hyperphagia, and obesity. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011;300:R1266-77 pubmed publisher
    ..by internal state signals, we analyze the potentially circular relationship between palatable food intake, hyperphagia, and obesity...
  5. Scopinho A, Guimarães F, Correa F, Resstel L. Cannabidiol inhibits the hyperphagia induced by cannabinoid-1 or serotonin-1A receptor agonists. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011;98:268-72 pubmed publisher
    ..implicated in food intake control, the aim of the present work was to investigate the effects caused by CBD on hyperphagia induced by agonists of CB1 or 5-HT1A receptors. Fed or fasted Wistar rats received intraperitoneal (i.p...
  6. Hambly C, Duncan J, Archer Z, Moar K, Mercer J, Speakman J. Repletion of TNF? or leptin in calorically restricted mice suppresses post-restriction hyperphagia. Dis Model Mech. 2012;5:83-94 pubmed publisher
    The causes of post-restriction hyperphagia (PRH) represent a target for drug-based therapies to prevent obesity. However, the factors causing PRH are poorly understood...
  7. Mifune H, Nishi Y, Tajiri Y, Masuyama T, Hosoda H, Kangawa K, et al. Increased production of active ghrelin is relevant to hyperphagia in nonobese spontaneously diabetic Torii rats. Metabolism. 2012;61:491-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The SDT rats with uncontrolled hyperglycemia show hyperphagia with a concomitant increase of plasma active ghrelin concentration...
  8. Kenny S, Gamble J, Lyons S, Vlatkovic N, Dimaline R, Varro A, et al. Gastric expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is associated with hyperphagia and obesity in mice. Endocrinology. 2013;154:718-26 pubmed publisher
    ..PAI-1-H/K? mice had increased plasma concentrations of PAI-1 and increased body mass, adiposity, and hyperphagia compared with wild-type mice...
  9. Sanghez V, Razzoli M, Carobbio S, Campbell M, McCallum J, Cero C, et al. Psychosocial stress induces hyperphagia and exacerbates diet-induced insulin resistance and the manifestations of the Metabolic Syndrome. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013;38:2933-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Subordinate mice fed a standard diet showed marked hyperphagia, high leptin, low adiponectin, and dyslipidemia...
  10. La Fleur S, van Rozen A, Luijendijk M, Groeneweg F, Adan R. A free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet induces changes in arcuate neuropeptide expression that support hyperphagia. Int J Obes (Lond). 2010;34:537-46 pubmed publisher
  11. Becskei C, Lutz T, Riediger T. Blunted fasting-induced hypothalamic activation and refeeding hyperphagia in late-onset obesity. Neuroendocrinology. 2009;90:371-82 pubmed publisher
    ..A similar impact of hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia in LOO mice is also likely although under the current experimental conditions responsiveness to some effects of these hormones appeared to be reduced...
  12. Schroeder M, Zagoory Sharon O, Shbiro L, Marco A, Hyun J, Moran T, et al. Development of obesity in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rat. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R1749-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat model of obesity is characterized by hyperphagia-induced obesity, due to a spontaneous lack of CCK(1) receptors...
  13. Bumaschny V, Yamashita M, Casas Cordero R, Otero Corchon V, de Souza F, Rubinstein M, et al. Obesity-programmed mice are rescued by early genetic intervention. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:4203-12 pubmed publisher
    ..To challenge this hypothesis, we generated a reversible genetic mouse model of early-onset hyperphagia and severe obesity by selectively blocking the expression of the proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc) in ..
  14. Martins P, Marques M, Tufik S, D Almeida V. Orexin activation precedes increased NPY expression, hyperphagia, and metabolic changes in response to sleep deprivation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E726-34 pubmed publisher
    ..However, no study has verified the relationship between neuropeptide Y (NPY) and orexin changes during hyperphagia induced by sleep deprivation...
  15. Purtell L, Sze L, Loughnan G, Smith E, Herzog H, Sainsbury A, et al. In adults with Prader-Willi syndrome, elevated ghrelin levels are more consistent with hyperphagia than high PYY and GLP-1 levels. Neuropeptides. 2011;45:301-7 pubmed publisher
    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a leading genetic cause of obesity, characterized by hyperphagia, endocrine and developmental disorders. It is suggested that the intense hyperphagia could stem, in part, from impaired gut hormone signaling...
  16. Mansur S, Terenzi M, Marino Neto J, Faria M, Paschoalini M. Alpha1 receptor antagonist in the median raphe nucleus evoked hyperphagia in free-feeding rats. Appetite. 2011;57:498-503 pubmed publisher
    ..PRA in the MnR followed by PHE did not change the feeding behavior, PRA injection alone into the MnR caused hyperphagia accompanied by a reduction in the latency to start eating, an increase in feeding frequency and an increase in ..
  17. Finlayson G, Arlotti A, Dalton M, King N, Blundell J. Implicit wanting and explicit liking are markers for trait binge eating. A susceptible phenotype for overeating. Appetite. 2011;57:722-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Trait binge eating is functional at low levels and implicit wanting measured simultaneously with explicit liking may be useful markers for reward-driven overconsumption in this susceptible phenotype...
  18. Trujillo M, Spuch C, Carro E, Senaris R. Hyperphagia and central mechanisms for leptin resistance during pregnancy. Endocrinology. 2011;152:1355-65 pubmed publisher
    ..resistance during mid/late-pregnancy, which is not due to maternal hormones and which allows the maintenance of hyperphagia in the presence of hyperleptinemia driven by an increase in NPY and AgRP and a decrease in POMC mRNA...
  19. Stucchi P, Gil Ortega M, Merino B, Guzmán Ruiz R, Cano V, Valladolid Acebes I, et al. Circadian feeding drive of metabolic activity in adipose tissue and not hyperphagia triggers overweight in mice: is there a role of the pentose-phosphate pathway?. Endocrinology. 2012;153:690-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because PPP is the main source of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, we suggest that PPP inhibition might be an early marker of adipose dysfunction in diet-induced obesity...
  20. Varela L, Martínez Sánchez N, Gallego R, Vazquez M, Roa J, Gándara M, et al. Hypothalamic mTOR pathway mediates thyroid hormone-induced hyperphagia in hyperthyroidism. J Pathol. 2012;227:209-22 pubmed publisher
    Hyperthyroidism is characterized in rats by increased energy expenditure and marked hyperphagia. Alterations of thermogenesis linked to hyperthyroidism are associated with dysregulation of hypothalamic AMPK and fatty acid metabolism; ..
  21. Devenny J, Godonis H, Harvey S, Rooney S, Cullen M, Pelleymounter M. Weight loss induced by chronic dapagliflozin treatment is attenuated by compensatory hyperphagia in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012;20:1645-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The degree of weight loss was increased by an additional 9% if hyperphagia was prevented by restricting food intake to that of vehicle controls...
  22. Schroeder M, Shbiro L, Moran T, Weller A. Maternal environmental contribution to adult sensitivity and resistance to obesity in Long Evans rats. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13825 pubmed publisher
    The OLETF rat is an animal model of early onset hyperphagia induced obesity, presenting multiple pre-obese characteristics during the suckling period...
  23. Vienberg S, Brøns C, Nilsson E, Astrup A, Vaag A, Andersen B. Impact of short-term high-fat feeding and insulin-stimulated FGF21 levels in subjects with low birth weight and controls. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012;167:49-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic factor involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about the physiological role of FGF21 during a dietary challenge in humans...
  24. Lopez M, Varela L, Vazquez M, Rodriguez Cuenca S, González C, Velagapudi V, et al. Hypothalamic AMPK and fatty acid metabolism mediate thyroid regulation of energy balance. Nat Med. 2010;16:1001-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects are reversed by pharmacological blockade of the SNS. Thus, thyroid hormone-induced modulation of AMPK activity and lipid metabolism in the hypothalamus is a major regulator of whole-body energy homeostasis...
  25. Mitchell C, Savage D, Dufour S, Schoenmakers N, Murgatroyd P, Befroy D, et al. Resistance to thyroid hormone is associated with raised energy expenditure, muscle mitochondrial uncoupling, and hyperphagia. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:1345-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Raised energy expenditure and hyperphagia are recognized features of hyperthyroidism, but the effects of comparable hyperthyroxinemia in RTH patients are ..
  26. D Angelo C, Kohl I, Varela M, De Castro C, Kim C, Bertola D, et al. Extending the phenotype of monosomy 1p36 syndrome and mapping of a critical region for obesity and hyperphagia. Am J Med Genet A. 2010;152A:102-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work reinforces the association of monosomy 1p36 and obesity and hyperphagia, and further suggests that these features may be associated with non-classical manifestations of this disorder ..
  27. Han Y, Joe Y, Seo E, Lee S, Park M, Lee H, et al. The hyperleptinemia and ObRb expression in hyperphagic obese rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;394:70-4 pubmed publisher
    ..in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats and aged obese rats is well established, but it is not clear whether hyperphagia-induced obese rats also develop leptin resistance...
  28. Chung H, Yang T, Chen M, Chou M, Cheng J. Improvement of hyperphagia by activation of cerebral I(1)-imidazoline receptors in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Horm Metab Res. 2012;44:645-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we used the agonist of I1R to investigate the effect on hyperphagia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice...
  29. Xu Y, Nedungadi T, Zhu L, Sobhani N, Irani B, Davis K, et al. Distinct hypothalamic neurons mediate estrogenic effects on energy homeostasis and reproduction. Cell Metab. 2011;14:453-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that brain-specific deletion of ER? in female mice causes abdominal obesity stemming from both hyperphagia and hypometabolism...
  30. Fox E, Biddinger J, Jones K, McAdams J, Wörman A. Mechanism of hyperphagia contributing to obesity in brain-derived neurotrophic factor knockout mice. Neuroscience. 2013;229:176-99 pubmed publisher
    ..of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) cause late- and early-onset obesity, respectively, both involving hyperphagia. Little is known about the mechanism underlying this hyperphagia or whether BDNF loss from peripheral tissues ..
  31. Tiesjema B, la Fleur S, Luijendijk M, Adan R. Sustained NPY overexpression in the PVN results in obesity via temporarily increasing food intake. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009;17:1448-50 pubmed publisher
    ..nucleus (PVN) by recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated overexpression of NPY in rats, results in hyperphagia and obesity in rats...
  32. Fernø J, Varela L, Skrede S, Vazquez M, Nogueiras R, Dieguez C, et al. Olanzapine-induced hyperphagia and weight gain associate with orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide signaling without concomitant AMPK phosphorylation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20571 pubmed publisher
    ..drug treatment in patients with schizophrenia is limited by the propensity of these drugs to induce hyperphagia, weight gain and other metabolic disturbances, particularly evident for olanzapine and clozapine...
  33. Barnes M, Argyropoulos G, Bray G. Preference for a high fat diet, but not hyperphagia following activation of mu opioid receptors is blocked in AgRP knockout mice. Brain Res. 2010;1317:100-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The orexigenic peptide Agouti Related Peptide (AgRP) also produces hyperphagia and increased the preference for a high fat diet...
  34. Yeh T, Beiswenger K, Li P, Bolin K, Lee R, Tsao T, et al. Hypermetabolism, hyperphagia, and reduced adiposity in tankyrase-deficient mice. Diabetes. 2009;58:2476-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Its chromosomal locus 8p23.1 is linked to monogenic forms of diabetes in certain kindred. We hypothesize that TNKS is involved in energy homeostasis in mammals...
  35. Barrera J, Jones K, Herman J, D Alessio D, Woods S, Seeley R. Hyperphagia and increased fat accumulation in two models of chronic CNS glucagon-like peptide-1 loss of function. J Neurosci. 2011;31:3904-13 pubmed publisher
    ..NTS PPG knockdown caused hyperphagia and exacerbated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced fat accumulation and glucose intolerance...
  36. Davis C. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: associations with overeating and obesity. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2010;12:389-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This view conforms with the well-established evidence that drug use and abuse are substantially higher among those with ADHD than among the general population...
  37. Mena J, Sadeghian K, Baldo B. Induction of hyperphagia and carbohydrate intake by ?-opioid receptor stimulation in circumscribed regions of frontal cortex. J Neurosci. 2011;31:3249-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that hyperphagia can be driven by ?-opioid receptor stimulation in restricted regions of ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)..
  38. Subramanian M, Metya S, Sadaf S, Kumar S, Schwudke D, Hasan G. Altered lipid homeostasis in Drosophila InsP3 receptor mutants leads to obesity and hyperphagia. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6:734-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, reduced InsP3R function alters lipid metabolism and causes hyperphagia in adults. Together, the metabolic and behavioral changes lead to obesity...
  39. Revelli J, Smith D, Allen J, Jeter Jones S, Shadoan M, Desai U, et al. Profound obesity secondary to hyperphagia in mice lacking kinase suppressor of ras 2. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19:1010-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The obesity and T2D of KSR2(-/-) mice resulted from hyperphagia which was unresponsive to leptin and did not originate downstream of MC4R...
  40. Luo N, Marcelin G, Liu S, Schwartz G, Chua S. Neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide mediate complementary functions of hyperphagia and reduced energy expenditure in leptin receptor deficiency. Endocrinology. 2011;152:883-9 pubmed publisher
    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AGRP) can produce hyperphagia, reduce energy expenditure, and promote triglyceride deposition in adipose depots...
  41. Karatsoreos I, Bhagat S, Bowles N, Weil Z, Pfaff D, McEwen B. Endocrine and physiological changes in response to chronic corticosterone: a potential model of the metabolic syndrome in mouse. Endocrinology. 2010;151:2117-27 pubmed publisher
    ..increases in weight gain, increased adiposity, elevated plasma leptin, insulin and triglyceride levels, hyperphagia, and decreased home-cage locomotion...
  42. Xi D, Gandhi N, Lai M, Kublaoui B. Ablation of Sim1 neurons causes obesity through hyperphagia and reduced energy expenditure. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36453 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously we showed that Sim1(+/-) mice and conditional postnatal Sim1(-/-) mice exhibit hyperphagia, obesity, increased linear growth and susceptibility to diet-induced obesity, but no decrease in energy ..
  43. Astrand O, Carlsson M, Nilsson I, Lindstrom T, Borga M, Nystrom F. Weight gain by hyperalimentation elevates C-reactive protein levels but does not affect circulating levels of adiponectin or resistin in healthy subjects. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010;163:879-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Increase of resistin and/or reduction of adiponectin have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance following weight gain. We aimed to study this prospectively in humans...
  44. la Fleur S, Ji H, Manalo S, Friedman M, Dallman M. The hepatic vagus mediates fat-induced inhibition of diabetic hyperphagia. Diabetes. 2003;52:2321-30 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, common branch hepatic vagotomy without diabetes induced indexes of obesity. Abnormal function of the hepatic vagus, as occurs in diabetic neuropathy, may contribute to diabetic obesity...
  45. Bohlooly Y M, Bohlooly M, Olsson B, Bruder C, Lindén D, Sjögren K, et al. Growth hormone overexpression in the central nervous system results in hyperphagia-induced obesity associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Diabetes. 2005;54:51-62 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, GH overexpression in the CNS results in hyperphagia-induced obesity indicating a dual effect of GH with a central stimulation of appetite and a peripheral ..
  46. Barboza P, Peltier T, Forster R. Ruminal fermentation and fill change with season in an arctic grazer: responses to hyperphagia and hypophagia in muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus). Physiol Biochem Zool. 2006;79:497-513 pubmed
    ..b>Hyperphagia in autumn was accompanied by increased bacterial counts in ruminal fluid (30%), declines in ruminal pH, and ..
  47. Holsen L, Zarcone J, Brooks W, Butler M, Thompson T, Ahluwalia J, et al. Neural mechanisms underlying hyperphagia in Prader-Willi syndrome. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006;14:1028-37 pubmed
    ..The most striking symptom of PWS is hyperphagia; as such, PWS may provide important insights into factors leading to overeating and obesity in the general ..
  48. Crenn P, Rakotoanbinina B, Raynaud J, Thuillier F, Messing B, Melchior J. Hyperphagia contributes to the normal body composition and protein-energy balance in HIV-infected asymptomatic men. J Nutr. 2004;134:2301-6 pubmed
    ..Moderate hyperphagia, which occurred despite increased levels of cytokines, in conjunction with increased protein synthesis ..
  49. Barutca S, Turgut M, Meydan N, Ozsunar Y. Subthalamic nucleus tumor causing hyperphagia--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2003;43:457-60 pubmed
    ..The patient gained 19 kg body weight during 4 months follow up because of hyperphagia. This solitary tumor, either a breast cancer metastasis or a primary tumor, involving the STN is extremely ..
  50. Densmore V, Morton N, Mullins J, Seckl J. 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 induction in the arcuate nucleus by high-fat feeding: A novel constraint to hyperphagia?. Endocrinology. 2006;147:4486-95 pubmed
    ..Although overexpression of 11 beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue causes hyperphagia and the metabolic syndrome, male 11 beta-HSD1 null (11 beta-HSD1-/-) mice resist metabolic disease on high-fat (..
  51. Martins P, D Almeida V, Nobrega J, Tufik S. A reassessment of the hyperphagia/weight-loss paradox during sleep deprivation. Sleep. 2006;29:1233-8 pubmed
    ..This phenomenon has been attributed to increased metabolism. However, most previous studies have failed to account for food spillage, which may be considerable during sleep deprivation...
  52. Ferriday D, Brunstrom J. How does food-cue exposure lead to larger meal sizes?. Br J Nutr. 2008;100:1325-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we found evidence that restrained eaters are less 'cue reactive' than unrestrained eaters. In future, our approach might be adapted to consider whether heightened 'cue reactivity' represents a risk factor for obesity...
  53. Coyle C, Strand S, Good D. Reduced activity without hyperphagia contributes to obesity in Tubby mutant mice. Physiol Behav. 2008;95:168-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that motivation for food and exercise is an underlying defect in TUB MUT mice...