Summary: A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.

Top Publications

  1. Beppu K, Osada T, Inoue K, Matsumoto K, Shibuya T, Sakamoto N, et al. Intestinal involvement in Wegener's granulomatosis diagnosed and followed up by double balloon enteroscopy. Intern Med. 2011;50:219-22 pubmed
    ..This case indicates the importance of considering a gastrointestinal complication of WG as the potential cause of abdominal symptoms among WG patients as well as the use of DBE in detecting such a complication...
  2. Ross A, Slain D, Cumpston A, Bryant A, Hamadani M, Craig M. Evaluation of an alternative posaconazole prophylaxis regimen in haematological malignancy patients receiving concomitant stress ulcer prophylaxis. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2012;40:557-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Cancer patients frequently receive stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) with PPIs or H2As...
  3. Prabhakar P, Narayanan P, Deshpande G, Das A, Neilsen G, Mehendale S, et al. Genital ulcer disease in India: etiologies and performance of current syndrome guidelines. Sex Transm Dis. 2012;39:906-10 pubmed publisher
    In India, genital ulcer disease (GUD) syndrome is clinically classified as herpetic or nonherpetic and managed accordingly; laboratory support is unavailable at most health facilities...
  4. Rivas Santiago B, Trujillo V, Montoya A, González Curiel I, Castañeda Delgado J, Cardenas A, et al. Expression of antimicrobial peptides in diabetic foot ulcer. J Dermatol Sci. 2012;65:19-26 pubmed publisher
    ..There are several factors that participate in diabetic ulcers development and limited information exists about the role of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) in its pathogenesis...
  5. Perito E, Mileti E, Dalal D, Cho S, Ferrell L, McCracken M, et al. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome in children and adolescents. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012;54:266-70 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to describe the presenting symptoms, endoscopic and histologic findings, and clinical courses of pediatric patients diagnosed with solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS).
  6. Mehta S, Moses S, Parker C, Agot K, Maclean I, Bailey R. Circumcision status and incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, genital ulcer disease, and HIV infection. AIDS. 2012;26:1141-9 pubmed publisher
    We assessed the protective effect of medical male circumcision (MMC) against HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and genital ulcer disease (GUD) incidence.
  7. Chen C, Ballard R. The molecular diagnosis of sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;903:103-12 pubmed publisher
    ..we describe an in-house developed TaqMan-based real-time multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay for the diagnosis of sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease (GUD) and discuss briefly on issues associated with validation of assay performance.
  8. Yoshida Y, Matsuda K, Tamai N, Yoshizawa K, Nikami T, Ishiguro H, et al. A pilot study using an infrared imaging system in prevention of post-endoscopic submucosal dissection ulcer bleeding. Gastric Cancer. 2014;17:116-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for superficial gastric neoplasm is a curative method. The aim of this study was to detect potential nonbleeding visible vessels (NBVVs) by using an infrared imaging (IRI) system...
  9. Karaman A, Baskol M, Gursoy S, Torun E, Yurci A, Ozel B, et al. Epinephrine plus argon plasma or heater probe coagulation in ulcer bleeding. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:4109-12 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the effectiveness of argon plasma coagulation (APC) and heater probe coagulation (HPC) in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding...

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Wong D, Pillai S, Kumarasinghe M, McGettigan B, Thin L, Segarajasingam D, et al. IgG4-related sclerosing disease of the small bowel presenting as necrotizing mesenteric arteritis and a solitary jejunal ulcer. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012;36:929-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The resected jejunum revealed an isolated, stenosing chronic ulcer associated with a necrotizing mesenteric arteritis...
  2. Zakaria Z, Abdul Hisam E, Norhafizah M, Rofiee M, Othman F, Hasiah A, et al. Methanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaf possesses anti-ulcer activity. Med Princ Pract. 2012;21:476-82 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-ulcer activity of a methanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaf (MEBP).
  3. Mahendradas P, Avadhani K, Anandula V, Shetty R. Unilateral conjunctival ulcer due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2012;60:134-6 pubmed publisher
    We report a case of unilateral conjunctival ulcer due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection in an immunocompetent individual. A 44-year-old male presented with complaints of pain and yellowish discharge in the right eye for one week...
  4. Lee G, Yim D, Cheong J, Kang T. The n-Hexane, ethylacetate, and butanol fractions from Hydnocarpi Semen enhanced wound healing in a mice ulcer model. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2012;34:968-74 pubmed publisher
    Our previous report showed that Hydnocarpi Semen (HS) extract has wound repair activity at ulcer lesion in diabetic mice...
  5. Kovalenko P, Kunovska L, Chen J, Gallo K, Basson M. Loss of MLK3 signaling impedes ulcer healing by modulating MAPK signaling in mouse intestinal mucosa. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012;303:G951-60 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ulcer healing was 20.8% less at day 3 (P < 0.05) and 18.9% less at day 5 (P < 0.05) in MLK3 KO than WT mice...
  6. Hou C, Shen L, Huang Q, Mi J, Wu Y, Yang M, et al. The effect of heme oxygenase-1 complexed with collagen on MSC performance in the treatment of diabetic ischemic ulcer. Biomaterials. 2013;34:112-20 pubmed publisher
    Diabetic ischemic ulcer is an intractable diabetic complication. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have great potential in variety of tissue repair...
  7. Muraki M, Mikami T, Yoshimoto T, Fujimoto S, Tokuda K, Kaneko S, et al. New criteria for the sonographic diagnosis of a plaque ulcer in the extracranial carotid artery. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012;198:1161-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of new criteria that we devised through a preliminary analysis of 50 endarterectomy cases before the present series...
  8. Erin N, Turker S, Elpek O, Yildirim B. Differential changes in Substance P, VIP as well as neprilysin levels in patients with gastritis or ulcer. Peptides. 2012;35:218-24 pubmed publisher
    ..related peptide (CGRP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in patients with chronic gastritis or ulcer. Furthermore changes in neprilysin levels, which hydrolyse these neuropeptides, were determined...
  9. Lewis D, Muller E, Steele L, Sternberg M, Radebe F, Lyall M, et al. Prevalence and associations of genital ulcer and urethral pathogens in men presenting with genital ulcer syndrome to primary health care clinics in South Africa. Sex Transm Dis. 2012;39:880-5 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genital ulcer and urethral pathogens, as well as their association with clinical features, in men with genital ulcer disease (GUD) enrolled in a clinical trial.
  10. Blackburn C, McDermott M, Bourke B. Clinical presentation of and outcome for solitary rectal ulcer syndrome in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012;54:263-5 pubmed publisher
    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is an uncommon but troublesome and easily misdiagnosed condition of childhood...
  11. Kargar S, Salmanroughani H, Binesh F, Taghipoor S, Kargar S. Laparoscopic rectopexy in solitary rectal ulcer. Acta Med Iran. 2011;49:810-3 pubmed
    Patients with Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome (SRUS) come to a physician with passage of mucus and bloody liquid within defecation. The treatment for SRUS is depended to the severity of symptoms and the existance of rectal prolapse...
  12. Yamada M, Shiroeda H, Nomura T, Hayashi R, Sato K, Tsutsumi M, et al. Colon cancer arising in an ulcer scar due to intestinal Behçet's disease. Intern Med. 2011;50:429-32 pubmed
    ..The lesion was associated with destroyed tunica muscularis and severe fibrosis suggesting a transmural ulcer scar (Ul-IVs). The p53 gene mutation analysis of the tumor showed a heterozygous deletion...
  13. Dehghani S, Malekpour A, Haghighat M. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome in children: a literature review. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18:6541-5 pubmed publisher
    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a benign and chronic disorder well known in young adults and less in children...
  14. Chanda S, Baravalia Y, Kaneria M. Protective effect of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula leaves on ethanol and ethanol/HCl induced ulcer in rats and its antimicrobial potency. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011;4:673-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The reduction of ulcer index in Polyalthia longifolia treated animals was found to be statistically significant with respect to control ..
  15. Heym B, Gehanno P, Friocourt V, Bougnoux M, Le Moal M, Husson C, et al. Molecular detection of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans as the etiological agent of a chronic tongue ulcer in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:4269-71 pubmed
    ..A new ulcer appeared while the patient was being treated with itraconazole, and the gene for 16S rRNA of Cellulosimicrobium ..
  16. Yuan S, Tager S. Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer aneurysm of the innominate artery. Vasa. 2009;38:263-6 pubmed publisher
    Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer of the aorta is uncommon, and usually develops in the descending thoracic aorta. Rarely this condition involves the branch vessels of the aorta...
  17. Rayment E, Upton Z, Shooter G. Increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity observed in chronic wound fluid is related to the clinical severity of the ulcer. Br J Dermatol. 2008;158:951-61 pubmed publisher
    ..MMPs specifically have been implicated by a number of studies as the major protease family responsible for the degradation of key factors critical to the ulcer's ability to heal.
  18. Matsumoto T, Iida M, Matsui T, Watanabe H, Yao T, Okabe H. Non-specific multiple ulcers of the small intestine unrelated to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. J Clin Pathol. 2004;57:1145-50 pubmed
    ..Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) enteropathy is a cause of chronic blood and protein loss from the intestine. The aim of this investigation was to compare NSAID enteropathy with enteropathy not related to chronic NSAID use...
  19. Eggebrecht H, Herold U, Schmermund A, Lind A, Kuhnt O, Martini S, et al. Endovascular stent-graft treatment of penetrating aortic ulcer: results over a median follow-up of 27 months. Am Heart J. 2006;151:530-6 pubmed
    Penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU) is increasingly acknowledged as a pathological variant of classic false-lumen aortic dissection with a high incidence of bleeding complications and rupture in up to 40% of patients...
  20. Bonnard A, Mougenot J, Ferkdadji L, Huot O, Aigrain Y, De Lagausie P. Laparoscopic rectopexy for solitary ulcer of rectum syndrome in a child. Surg Endosc. 2003;17:1156-7 pubmed
    Solitary ulcer of rectum syndrome occurs rarely in children, and the diagnosis may be difficult. Rectopexy has already been reported with good results in adults and children. We report the first laparoscopic rectopexy in children.
  21. Graham S, Masese L, Gitau R, Mwakangalu D, Jaoko W, Ndinya Achola J, et al. Increased risk of genital ulcer disease in women during the first month after initiating antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;52:600-3 pubmed publisher
    Genital ulcer disease (GUD) is common in HIV-1-infected women, and a small number of studies have suggested increased GUD risk after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation...
  22. Timperley J, Banning A. Prognosis of aortic intramural hematoma with and without penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer: a clinical and radiological analysis. Circulation. 2003;107:e63 pubmed
  23. Felt Bersma R, Tiersma E, Stella M, Cuesta M. Rectal prolapse, rectal intussusception, rectocele, solitary rectal ulcer syndrome, and enterocele. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2008;37:645-68, ix pubmed publisher
    ..Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is a consequence of chronic straining and therapy should be aimed at restoring a normal bowel habit with ..
  24. Faisy C, Guerot E, Diehl J, Iftimovici E, Fagon J. Clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding in critically ill patients with and without stress-ulcer prophylaxis. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29:1306-13 pubmed
    To compare the rates of clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding and the number of blood units and endoscopies required for gastrointestinal hemorrhage between patients receiving or not receiving stress-ulcer prophylaxis.
  25. Gupta S, Sandhir R, Jaiswal A, Kumar S. Marjolin's ulcer of the scalp invading calvarial bone, dura and brain. J Clin Neurosci. 2005;12:693-6 pubmed
    A Marjolin's ulcer arising in a chronic scalp scar is reported. Malignant transformation occurred after four decades. The tumour had invaded the skull, dura mater and underlying brain tissue...
  26. Passos M, Ferreira D, Arze W, Silva J, Passos F, Curvelo J. Penile myiasis as a differential diagnosis for genital ulcer: a case report. Braz J Infect Dis. 2008;12:155-7 pubmed
    ..Penile myiasis is not a very frequent situation, although it must be considered as an option in differential diagnosis of genital infectious diseases, even among people of low economical level, as in the case presented...
  27. Chan F. Primer: managing NSAID-induced ulcer complications--balancing gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risks. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;3:563-73 pubmed
    b>Ulcer complications associated with the use of NSAIDs, in high-risk patients, are often caused by a failure to identify patients' risk factors, concomitant use of aspirin or multiple NSAIDs, and underutilization of gastroprotective ..
  28. Shioya T, Yoshino M, Ogata M, Shibuya T, Tokunaga A, Matsumoto K, et al. Successful treatment of a colonic ulcer penetrating the urinary bladder caused by the administration of calcium polystyrene sulfonate and sorbitol. J Nippon Med Sch. 2007;74:359-63 pubmed
    A 77-year-old woman was urgently admitted for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis and a duodenal ulcer hemorrhage in March 1999. She had a history of diabetes and angina pectoris...
  29. Saito Y, Sasaki K, Katsuda Y, Murohara T, Takeshita Y, Okazaki T, et al. Effect of autologous bone-marrow cell transplantation on ischemic ulcer in patients with Buerger's disease. Circ J. 2007;71:1187-92 pubmed
    ..The present study focused on the patients with Buerger's disease presenting with rest pain and/or skin ulcer uncontrolled by conventional treatments.
  30. Steen K, Nurmohamed M, Visman I, Heijerman M, Boers M, Dijkmans B, et al. Decreasing incidence of symptomatic gastrointestinal ulcers and ulcer complications in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008;67:256-9 pubmed
    ..Over the same time period, a decline of GI events over the last decade was reported for US patients...
  31. Chong V, Jalihal A. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome: characteristics, outcomes and predictive profiles for persistent bleeding per rectum. Singapore Med J. 2006;47:1063-8 pubmed
    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a rare disorder of defaecation and persistence of symptoms is common, particularly bleeding per rectum (BPR)...
  32. Martín de Carpi J, Vilar P, Varea V. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome in childhood: a rare, benign, and probably misdiagnosed cause of rectal bleeding. Report of three cases. Dis Colon Rectum. 2007;50:534-9 pubmed
    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is an uncommon and often underdiagnosed condition that usually presents with hematochezia, mucous discharge, and tenesmus. Its etiology is unknown but it seems related to excessive straining with defecation...
  33. den Hollander J, Ossewaarde J, de Marie S. Anorectal ulcer in HIV patients, don't forget lymphogranuloma venereum!. AIDS. 2004;18:1484-5 pubmed
  34. Rivera Irigoin R, De Sola Earle C, Palma Carazo F, Montiel Quezel Guerraz N, Fernández Moreno N. [Active lower gastrointestinal bleeding due to appendiceal ulcer]. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;28:445-6 pubmed
    We present a case of severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding due to appendiceal ulcer associated with intake of enteric coated aspirin...
  35. Uza N, Nakase H, Nishimura K, Yoshida S, Kawabata K, Chiba T. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome associated with ulcerative colitis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2006;63:355-6 pubmed
  36. Chai J, Norng M, Tarnawski A, Chow J. A critical role of serum response factor in myofibroblast differentiation during experimental oesophageal ulcer healing in rats. Gut. 2007;56:621-30 pubmed
    ..Injection of SRF expression plasmid into rat gastric ulcers significantly accelerated restoration of epithelium and smooth muscle structures...
  37. Edden Y, Shih S, Wexner S. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome and stercoral ulcers. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2009;38:541-5 pubmed publisher
    ..An ulcer may also herald a concealed malignant disease...
  38. Erickson D, Tomaszewski J, Kunselman A, Stetter C, Peters K, Rovner E, et al. Urine markers do not predict biopsy findings or presence of bladder ulcers in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. J Urol. 2008;179:1850-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested for associations between urine markers, bladder biopsy features and bladder ulcers in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome...
  39. Paz Bailey G, Sternberg M, Puren A, Markowitz L, Ballard R, Delany S, et al. Improvement in healing and reduction in HIV shedding with episodic acyclovir therapy as part of syndromic management among men: a randomized, controlled trial. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:1039-49 pubmed publisher
    It is uncertain whether episodic acyclovir will enhance ulcer healing if delivered at primary health care settings, because there is often a delay in treatment initiation.
  40. Gray R, Serwadda D, Tobian A, Chen M, Makumbi F, Suntoke T, et al. Effects of genital ulcer disease and herpes simplex virus type 2 on the efficacy of male circumcision for HIV prevention: Analyses from the Rakai trials. PLoS Med. 2009;6:e1000187 pubmed publisher
    ..MC) reduces the incidence of HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections, and symptomatic genital ulcer disease (GUD). We assessed the role of GUD and HSV-2 in the protection against HIV afforded by MC...
  41. Paz Bailey G, Rahman M, Chen C, Ballard R, Moffat H, Kenyon T, et al. Changes in the etiology of sexually transmitted diseases in Botswana between 1993 and 2002: implications for the clinical management of genital ulcer disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:1304-12 pubmed
    In recent years, increasing evidence has accumulated that suggests the majority of cases of genital ulcer disease in sub-Saharan Africa are due to viral and not bacterial infections...
  42. Borekci B, Kumtepe Y, Karaca M, Halici Z, Cadirci E, Albayrak F, et al. Role of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in anti-ulcer effect mechanism of estrogen and luteinising hormone on rats. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2009;25:264-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate anti-ulcer effect of estrogen and luteinising hormone (LH) on indomethacin-induced ulcer model in female rats.
  43. Brankin A, Tobian A, Laeyendecker O, Suntoke T, Kizza A, Mpoza B, et al. Aetiology of genital ulcer disease in female partners of male participants in a circumcision trial in Uganda. Int J STD AIDS. 2009;20:650-1 pubmed publisher
    HIV acquisition is associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection and genital ulcer disease (GUD)...
  44. Rao S, Ozturk R, De Ocampo S, Stessman M. Pathophysiology and role of biofeedback therapy in solitary rectal ulcer syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:613-8 pubmed
    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a behavioral disorder whose pathophysiology is incompletely understood. Likewise, its treatment, particularly the role of biofeedback therapy (BT) is unclear.
  45. Chu B, Yuan C, Takaya N, Shewchuk J, Clowes A, Hatsukami T. Images in cardiovascular medicine. Serial high-spatial-resolution, multisequence magnetic resonance imaging studies identify fibrous cap rupture and penetrating ulcer into carotid atherosclerotic plaque. Circulation. 2006;113:e660-1 pubmed
  46. Cohen D. A man with an umbilical ulcer. Medscape J Med. 2008;10:11 pubmed
  47. Martin I, Tsang R, Sutherland K, Tilley P, Read R, Anderson B, et al. Molecular characterization of syphilis in patients in Canada: azithromycin resistance and detection of Treponema pallidum DNA in whole-blood samples versus ulcerative swabs. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:1668-73 pubmed publisher
    ..However, further research is required to determine what specimen(s) would be most appropriate for molecular investigation of syphilis in secondary and latent syphilis...
  48. Jimenez Saenz M, Gonzalez Campora R, Linares Santiago E, Herrerías Gutiérrez J. Bleeding colonic ulcer and eosinophilic colitis: a rare complication of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006;40:84-5 pubmed
  49. Kibadi A. [Relapses after surgical treatment of Buruli ulcer in Africa]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2006;99:230-5 pubmed
    Very few documents are available on Buruli ulcer (BU) in the world in general and in Africa in particular, even though this continent is the worst hit by Buruli ulcer. Information has been reported by hospitals protocols...
  50. Hope Rapp E, Anyfantakis V, Fouéré S, Bonhomme P, Louison J, de Marsac T, et al. Etiology of genital ulcer disease. A prospective study of 278 cases seen in an STD clinic in Paris. Sex Transm Dis. 2010;37:153-8 pubmed publisher
    The goal of this study was to identify the causes and factors associated with genital ulcer disease (GUD) among patients attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Paris.
  51. Chiang J, Changchien C, Chen J. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome: an endoscopic and histological presentation and literature review. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2006;21:348-56 pubmed
    Although the clinicopathologic features of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) are well documented, the heterogeneous endoscopic appearance of lesions that the syndrome produces and its rare incidence may make for clinical confusion.
  52. Dong Xu S, Zhong Li Z, Huang F, Yang J, Wang X, Zhang Z, et al. Treating aortic dissection and penetrating aortic ulcer with stent graft: thirty cases. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;80:864-8 pubmed
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and safety of stent graft in the treatment of aortic dissection and penetrating aortic ulcer.
  53. Cho K, Stanson A, Potter D, Cherry K, Schaff H, Sundt T. Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer of the descending thoracic aorta and arch. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004;127:1393-9; discussion 1399-1401 pubmed
    ..The clinical behavior of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcers of the aorta is controversial. We reviewed our experience with this entity over a 25-year interval...