postoperative complications


Summary: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.

Top Publications

  1. Gunderson C, Java J, Moore K, Walker J. The impact of obesity on surgical staging, complications, and survival with uterine cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group LAP2 ancillary data study. Gynecol Oncol. 2014;133:23-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the association of body mass index (BMI) on complications, recurrence, and survival in GOG LAP2, a randomized comparison of laparoscopic versus open staging in clinically early stage uterine cancer (EC)...
  2. Fitzhenry F, Murff H, Matheny M, Gentry N, Fielstein E, Brown S, et al. Exploring the frontier of electronic health record surveillance: the case of postoperative complications. Med Care. 2013;51:509-16 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to build electronic algorithms using a combination of structured data and natural language processing (NLP) of text notes for potential safety surveillance of 9 postoperative complications.
  3. Wuethrich P, Burkhard F, Thalmann G, Stueber F, Studer U. Restrictive deferred hydration combined with preemptive norepinephrine infusion during radical cystectomy reduces postoperative complications and hospitalization time: a randomized clinical trial. Anesthesiology. 2014;120:365-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Norepinephrine counteracts this effect and thus allows for decreased intraoperative hydration. The authors investigated whether this approach could result in reduced postoperative complication rate...
  4. Moonesinghe S, Mythen M, Das P, Rowan K, Grocott M. Risk stratification tools for predicting morbidity and mortality in adult patients undergoing major surgery: qualitative systematic review. Anesthesiology. 2013;119:959-81 pubmed publisher
    ..There is also a need for studies examining the impact that the use of these tools has on clinical decision making and patient outcome. ..
  5. Bartels K, Karhausen J, Clambey E, Grenz A, Eltzschig H. Perioperative organ injury. Anesthesiology. 2013;119:1474-89 pubmed publisher
  6. Williams M, Kodali S, Hahn R, Humphries K, Nkomo V, Cohen D, et al. Sex-related differences in outcomes after transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis: Insights from the PARTNER Trial (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63:1522-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study sought to examine sex-specific differences in outcomes after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis...
  7. Cho S, Lu Y, Lee D. Dysphagia following anterior cervical spinal surgery: a systematic review. Bone Joint J. 2013;95-B:868-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed a systematic review to assess the incidence, aetiology, risk factors, methods of assessment and management of dysphagia following anterior cervical spinal surgery...
  8. Xu Z, Dong Y, Wang H, Culley D, Marcantonio E, Crosby G, et al. Age-dependent postoperative cognitive impairment and Alzheimer-related neuropathology in mice. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3766 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings would likely promote more research to investigate the pathogenesis of POCD. ..
  9. Jin S, Fu Q, Wuyun G, Wuyun T. Management of post-hepatectomy complications. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:7983-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This review article focuses on the major postoperative issues after hepatic resection and presents the current management. ..

More Information


  1. Robinson T, Wu D, Pointer L, Dunn C, Cleveland J, Moss M. Simple frailty score predicts postoperative complications across surgical specialties. Am J Surg. 2013;206:544-50 pubmed publisher
    Our purpose was to determine the relationship between preoperative frailty and the occurrence of postoperative complications after colorectal and cardiac operations.
  2. Wang X, Li Y, Crook N, Peng B, Niu T. Laparoscopic splenectomy: a surgeon's experience of 302 patients with analysis of postoperative complications. Surg Endosc. 2013;27:3564-71 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to evaluate the operative and clinical outcomes in a series of 302 consecutive laparoscopic splenectomies and to analyze the risk factors of postoperative complications.
  3. Rulli E, Biagioli E, Riva I, Gambirasio G, De Simone I, Floriani I, et al. Efficacy and safety of trabeculectomy vs nonpenetrating surgical procedures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013;131:1573-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, there is no strong evidence as to which surgical technique leads to the best results in terms of ocular hypotensive effect and safety...
  4. Yates D, Davies S, Milner H, Wilson R. Crystalloid or colloid for goal-directed fluid therapy in colorectal surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2014;112:281-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent work has demonstrated that new generations of HES have a good safety profile, but their routine use in the perioperative setting has not been demonstrated to confer outcome benefit...
  5. Ten Broek R, Stommel M, Strik C, van Laarhoven C, Keus F, van Goor H. Benefits and harms of adhesion barriers for abdominal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2014;383:48-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Barriers to prevent adhesion are seldom applied, despite their ability to reduce the severity of adhesion formation. We evaluated the benefits and harms of four adhesion barriers that have been approved for clinical use...
  6. Topal B, Fieuws S, Aerts R, Weerts J, Feryn T, Roeyen G, et al. Pancreaticojejunostomy versus pancreaticogastrostomy reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic or periampullary tumours: a multicentre randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14:655-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We did a multicentre, randomised superiority trial to compare the outcomes of different reconstructive techniques in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic or periampullary tumours...
  7. Arulkumaran N, Corredor C, Hamilton M, Ball J, Grounds R, Rhodes A, et al. Cardiac complications associated with goal-directed therapy in high-risk surgical patients: a meta-analysis. Br J Anaesth. 2014;112:648-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of high-risk surgical patients GDT is not associated with an increased risk of cardiac complications; GDT with fluids and inotropes to optimize DO2I during early GDT reduces postoperative CVS complications. ..
  8. Israelsson L, Millbourn D. Prevention of incisional hernias: how to close a midline incision. Surg Clin North Am. 2013;93:1027-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Excessive tension should not be placed on the suture. Closure must always be with a suture length to wound length ratio higher than 4. ..
  9. Brooks Carthon J, Jarrín O, Sloane D, Kutney Lee A. Variations in postoperative complications according to race, ethnicity, and sex in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013;61:1499-507 pubmed publisher
    To explore differences in the incidence of postoperative complications between three racial and ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic) before and after taking into account potentially confounding patient and hospital characteristics.
  10. Li Q, Li P, Tang D, Chen J, Wang D. Impact of postoperative complications on long-term survival after radical resection for gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:4060-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the potential impact of complications in gastric cancer patients who survive the initial postoperative period...
  11. Marano L, Porfidia R, Pezzella M, Grassia M, Petrillo M, Esposito G, et al. Clinical and immunological impact of early postoperative enteral immunonutrition after total gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients: a prospective randomized study. Ann Surg Oncol. 2013;20:3912-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the impact of early postoperative enteral immunonutrition on clinical and immunological outcomes in a homogeneous group of gastric cancer patients submitted to total gastrectomy...
  12. Toner A, Hamilton M. The long-term effects of postoperative complications. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2013;19:364-8 pubmed publisher
    This review examines the long-term influence of postoperative complications on survival...
  13. Goepfert M, Richter H, zu Eulenburg C, Gruetzmacher J, Rafflenbeul E, Roeher K, et al. Individually optimized hemodynamic therapy reduces complications and length of stay in the intensive care unit: a prospective, randomized controlled trial. Anesthesiology. 2013;119:824-36 pubmed publisher
  14. Futier E, Constantin J, Paugam Burtz C, Pascal J, Eurin M, Neuschwander A, et al. A trial of intraoperative low-tidal-volume ventilation in abdominal surgery. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:428-37 pubmed publisher
    ..However, its role in anesthetized patients undergoing major surgery is not known...
  15. Pearse R, Harrison D, MacDonald N, Gillies M, Blunt M, Ackland G, et al. Effect of a perioperative, cardiac output-guided hemodynamic therapy algorithm on outcomes following major gastrointestinal surgery: a randomized clinical trial and systematic review. JAMA. 2014;311:2181-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Small trials suggest that postoperative outcomes may be improved by the use of cardiac output monitoring to guide administration of intravenous fluid and inotropic drugs as part of a hemodynamic therapy algorithm...
  16. Sato T, Morita S, Bando H, Sato S, Ikeda T, Emi K. Early vitreous hemorrhage after vitrectomy with preoperative intravitreal bevacizumab for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2013;20:51-5 pubmed publisher
    ..the effect of preoperative intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) on surgical procedures, visual prognosis, and postoperative complications, especially postoperative vitreous hemorrhage, in cases with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).
  17. Arigami T, Uenosono Y, Yanagita S, Okubo K, Kijima T, Matsushita D, et al. Clinical application and outcomes of sentinel node navigation surgery in patients with early gastric cancer. Oncotarget. 2017;8:75607-75616 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no significant difference in postoperative complications between the SNM and SND groups (P = 0.781)...
  18. Lee J, Lee Y, Son J, Lee J, Kim H. The effect of lidocaine jelly on a taper-shaped cuff of an endotracheal tube on the postoperative sore throat: a prospective randomized study: A CONSORT compliant article. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8094 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that lidocaine jelly applied to the tapered cuff of the endotracheal tube (ETT) might decrease the incidence of POST most commonly arising from endotracheal intubation...
  19. Schulman Marcus J, Weintraub W, Boden W. Reconsidering the Gatekeeper Paradigm for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Stable Coronary Disease Management. Am J Cardiol. 2017;120:1450-1452 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we offer suggestions that can redefine the gatekeeper role to facilitate an evidence-based approach that embraces shared decision-making. ..
  20. Wittig Wells D, Shapiro S, Higgins M, Samms McPherson J, Winterboer D, Johnson I, et al. Self-Reported Rates of Adherence to Aspirin Prescribed as an Antithrombotic Therapy Following Postoperative Total Joint Replacement. Orthop Nurs. 2017;36:287-292 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients may not understand the importance of medication adherence when discharged with aspirin (ASA) as an anticoagulant for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis after joint replacement surgery...
  21. van den Heijkant F, Vermeer T, Vrijhof E, Nieuwenhuijzen G, Koldewijn E, Rutten H. Psoas hitch ureteral reimplantation after surgery for locally advanced and locally recurrent colorectal cancer: Complications and oncological outcome. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2017;43:1869-1875 pubmed publisher
    ..The mean age was 62 years (range: 39-86). Postoperative complications occurred in 38.6% of patients, the most frequent were urinary leakage (22...
  22. Li Q, Dai B, Xu J, Yao Y, Song K, Zhang H, et al. Can patients with femoral neck fracture benefit from preoperative thromboprophylaxis?: A prospective randomized controlled trial. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7604 pubmed publisher
    ..The effectiveness of preoperative thromboprophylaxis remains obscure in patients with femoral neck fracture. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether these patients benefit from preoperative thromboprophylaxis...
  23. Mery C, De León L, Rodriguez J, Nieto R, Zhang W, Adachi I, et al. Effect of Gastrointestinal Malformations on the Outcomes of Patients With Congenital Heart Disease. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017;104:1590-1596 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of GI malformations should likely not preclude patients from undergoing congenital heart operations, but careful family counseling is necessary, especially for thoracic GI malformations. ..
  24. Mishima T, Ito Y, Nishizawa N, Amano H, Tsujikawa K, Miyaji K, et al. RAMP1 signaling improves lymphedema and promotes lymphangiogenesis in mice. J Surg Res. 2017;219:50-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study examined whether RAMP1 plays a role in increased lymphangiogenesis during secondary lymphedema...
  25. Shen M, Dodd A, Lakomkin N, Mousavi I, Bulka C, Jahangir A, et al. Open treatment of ankle fracture as inpatient increases risk of complication. J Orthop Traumatol. 2017;18:431-438 pubmed publisher to reveal whether inpatient treatment after ankle fracture is associated with higher incidence of postoperative complications. As the USA moves towards a bundled payment healthcare system, it is imperative that orthopaedists ..
  26. Probst P, Ohmann S, Klaiber U, Hüttner F, Billeter A, Ulrich A, et al. Meta-analysis of immunonutrition in major abdominal surgery. Br J Surg. 2017;104:1594-1608 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of immunonutrition in major abdominal surgery with special regard to subgroups and influence of bias...
  27. Koh C, Inaba C, Sujatha Bhaskar S, Hohmann S, Ponce J, Nguyen N. Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band Explantation and Implantation at Academic Centers. J Am Coll Surg. 2017;225:532-537 pubmed publisher
    ..Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band revision or explantation is associated with longer length of stay, higher rate of postoperative ICU admissions, and higher overall morbidity compared with LAGB implantation. ..
  28. Ford A, Rogerson L, Cody J, Aluko P, Ogah J. Mid-urethral sling operations for stress urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;7:CD006375 pubmed publisher
    ..This would substantially increase the evidence base and provide clarification regarding uncertainties about long-term effectiveness and adverse event profile. ..
  29. Kumar S, Keshavamurthy R, Karthikeyan V, Mallya A. Complications after prone PCNL in pediatric, adult and geriatric patients - a single center experience over 7 years. Int Braz J Urol. 2017;43:704-712 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed association of complications with length of hospitalization (LOH) and operation time (OT)...
  30. Liu Y, Tang W, Gong S, Chan C. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Acupressure for Postoperative Gastrointestinal Symptoms among Abdominal Surgery Patients. Am J Chin Med. 2017;45:1127-1145 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, other signs and symptoms of postoperative ileus should be explored in future...
  31. Mitzman B, Lutfi W, Wang C, Krantz S, Howington J, Kim K. Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy Provides Equivalent Survival to Open Esophagectomy: An Analysis of the National Cancer Database. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2017;29:244-253 pubmed publisher
    ..Although short-term outcomes are limited in the National Cancer Database, MIE appears to have equivalent oncological outcomes and survival when compared with the open approach. ..
  32. Talwar S, Singh S, Sreenivas V, Kapoor K, Gupta S, Ramakrishnan S, et al. Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Primary Fontan Operation Beyond First Decade of Life. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2017;8:487-494 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies on older patients undergoing primary Fontan operation (FO) are limited, with conflicting results. We review our experience with these patients beyond the first decade of life...
  33. Tomouk T, Mohan A, Azizi A, Conci E, Brickley E, Malata C. Donor site morbidity in DIEP free flap breast reconstructions: A comparison of unilateral, bilateral, and bipedicled surgical procedure types. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2017;70:1505-1513 pubmed publisher
  34. Tang Z, Yang Y, Meng W, Li X. Best option for preoperative biliary drainage in Klatskin tumor: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8372 pubmed publisher
    ..Well-conducted randomized controlled trials with a universial criterion for PBD are required to confirm these findings. ..
  35. Li H, Chang C, Lee C, Wu V, Chen D, Chu P, et al. Risk analysis of dialysis-dependent patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting: Effects of dialysis modes on outcomes. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8146 pubmed publisher
    ..All data of demographics, medical history, surgical details, postoperative complications, and in-hospital mortality were analyzed, and patients were categorized as those with or without in-..
  36. Sharoky C, Bailey E, Sellers M, Kaufman E, Sinnamon A, Wirtalla C, et al. Outcomes of hospitalized patients undergoing emergency general surgery remote from admission. Surgery. 2017;162:612-619 pubmed publisher
    ..A longer hospital course before an emergency operation is a predictor of poor outcomes, as is undergoing exploratory laparotomy only. ..
  37. Halbfass P, Pavlov B, Muller P, Nentwich K, Sonne K, Barth S, et al. Progression From Esophageal Thermal Asymptomatic Lesion to Perforation Complicating Atrial Fibrillation Ablation: A Single-Center Registry. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2017;10: pubmed publisher
    ..One out of 10 postablation esophageal ulcers progressed to perforation, and no patient without esophageal thermal ulcers showed the occurrence of perforating esophageal complications. ..
  38. Mack M, Acker M, Gelijns A, Overbey J, Parides M, Browndyke J, et al. Effect of Cerebral Embolic Protection Devices on CNS Infarction in Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2017;318:536-547 pubmed publisher
    ..Potential benefits for reduction in delirium, cognition, and symptomatic stroke merit larger trials with longer follow-up. Identifier: NCT02389894. ..
  39. Vaduganathan M, Harrington R, Stone G, Steg P, Gibson C, Hamm C, et al. Cangrelor Versus Clopidogrel on a Background of Unfractionated Heparin (from CHAMPION PHOENIX). Am J Cardiol. 2017;120:1043-1048 pubmed publisher
    ..4% vs 0.2%; OR 1.87 [0.83 to 4.21]; p?=?0.12). In conclusion, cangrelor reduces early ischemic periprocedural complications without increasing severe bleeding compared with clopidogrel in patients undergoing PCI with UFH. ..
  40. Cory L, Latif N, Brensinger C, Zhang X, Giuntoli R, Burger R, et al. Readmission After Gynecologic Surgery: A Comparison of Procedures for Benign and Malignant Indications. Obstet Gynecol. 2017;130:285-295 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare 30-day postsurgical readmission rates and associated risk factors for readmission among women undergoing gynecologic surgery for benign and malignant conditions...
  41. Choi B, Jeong W, Kim S, Lee S. Impact of obesity on the short-term outcomes of single-port laparoscopic colectomy for colorectal cancer in the Asian population: A retrospective cohort study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6649 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, SPLS can be safely recommended for colorectal cancer in obese patients if the surgeon is experienced. Nevertheless, the technique used warrants further investigation, and a large-scale prospective study is required...
  42. Mancini A, Castriotta G, Angelini P, Bozzi M, Giancaspro V, La Raia E, et al. [Brachial artery pseudoaneurysm: a rare but serious complication in hemodialysis patients with arteriovenous fistula]. G Ital Nefrol. 2017;34:44-53 pubmed
    ..Treatment options include: compression, percutaneous thrombin injection, endovascular exclusion with covered stents, aneurysmectomy and surgical repair...
  43. Saegusa N, Sarukawa S, Ohta K, Takamatsu K, Watanabe M, Sugino T, et al. Sutureless microvascular anastomosis assisted by an expandable shape-memory alloy stent. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181520 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrated the safety and effectiveness, as well as the operability, of the new method, suggesting its great benefit for surgeons by simplifying the technique for microvascular anastomosis...
  44. Ishizuka M, Shibuya N, Nagata H, Takagi K, Iwasaki Y, Hachiya H, et al. Perioperative Administration of Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine Daikenchuto Relieves Postoperative Ileus in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Gastrointestinal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:5967-5974 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether perioperative administration of DKT relieves PI in patients with GI cancer...
  45. Yilgor C, Sogunmez N, Boissière L, Yavuz Y, Obeid I, Kleinstück F, et al. Global Alignment and Proportion (GAP) Score: Development and Validation of a New Method of Analyzing Spinopelvic Alignment to Predict Mechanical Complications After Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2017;99:1661-1672 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a score based on pelvic-incidence-based proportional parameters to better predict mechanical complications...
  46. Su A, Wang B, Gong Y, Gong R, Li Z, Zhu J. Risk factors of hypoparathyroidism following total thyroidectomy with central lymph node dissection. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8162 pubmed publisher
    ..Autotransplantation is only performed when a PG is resected inadvertently or devascularized. TT with BCND should be better performed by an experienced surgeon to reduce the incidence of hypoparathyroidism...
  47. de Buck van Overstraeten A, Mark Christensen A, Wasmann K, Bastiaenen V, Buskens C, Wolthuis A, et al. Transanal Versus Transabdominal Minimally Invasive (Completion) Proctectomy With Ileal Pouch-anal Anastomosis in Ulcerative Colitis: A Comparative Study. Ann Surg. 2017;266:878-883 pubmed publisher
    ..64-3.36] P = 0.13), which was not significant. Ta-IPAA for UC is a safe procedure, resulting in fewer patients with morbidity, but comparable CCI when morbidity is present. Overall, ta-IPAA led to lower CCI scores. ..
  48. Idossa D, Simonetto D. Infectious Complications and Malignancies Arising After Liver Transplantation. Anesthesiol Clin. 2017;35:381-393 pubmed publisher
    ..However, technical surgical complications, infections, rejections, and chronic medical conditions persist. This article discusses the infectious complications and malignancies that may arise after liver transplantation. ..
  49. Ravindra V, Christensen M, Onwuzulike K, Smith J, Halvorson K, Brockmeyer D, et al. Risk factors for progressive neuromuscular scoliosis requiring posterior spinal fusion after selective dorsal rhizotomy. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2017;20:456-463 pubmed publisher
    ..Although our analysis suggests SDR via limited laminectomy may not significantly accelerate the development of neuromuscular scoliosis, further case-control studies are critical to elucidate the impact of SDR on spinal deformity...
  50. Akhabue E, Seok Park C, Pinney S, Anyanwu A, Chaudhry F, Narula J, et al. Usefulness of Speckle Tracking Strain Echocardiography for Assessment of Risk of Ventricular Arrhythmias After Placement of a Left Ventricular Assist Device. Am J Cardiol. 2017;120:1578-1583 pubmed publisher
    ..02). LVCS above a cut-off value of -9.7% was associated with significantly reduced arrhythmia-free survival (log-rank p?=?0.001). In conclusion, global LVCS is an independent predictor of ventricular arrhythmias after LVAD placement. ..
  51. Li P, Han Y, Yang Y, Guo H, Hao F, Tang Y, et al. Retrospective review of laparoscopic versus open surgery in the treatment of appendiceal abscess in pediatric patients: Laparoscopic versus open surgery for appendiceal abscess. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7514 pubmed publisher
    ..with an abscess and associated with beneficial clinical effects, such as postoperative gastrointestinal function recovery and reduced postoperative complications. LA should be seriously considered as the first line procedure of choice.
  52. Nagata T, Nakase Y, Nakamura K, Sougawa A, Mochiduki S, Kitai S, et al. Impact of nutritional status on outcomes in laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy. J Surg Res. 2017;219:78-85 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a high morbidity rate after digestive surgery in patients with nutritional disorders such as high body mass index and depletion of skeletal muscle...
  53. Suzuki Y, Yokoyama K, Terao M, Morioka T, Tsuda B, Niikura N, et al. Pyoderma Gangrenosum after Breast Mastectomy and Primary Rectus Abdominis Flap Reconstruction. Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 2017;42:133-138 pubmed
    ..This report describes the disease characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment of post-surgical pyoderma gangrenosum and discusses the case in the context of previous literature. ..