wallerian degeneration

Summary

Summary: Degeneration of distal aspects of a nerve axon following injury to the cell body or proximal portion of the axon. The process is characterized by fragmentation of the axon and its MYELIN SHEATH.

Top Publications

  1. Moldovan M, Alvarez S, Krarup C. Motor axon excitability during Wallerian degeneration. Brain. 2009;132:511-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Following loss of axonal continuity, the isolated nerve stump distal to the lesion undergoes Wallerian degeneration in several phases...
  2. Rotshenker S, Reichert F, Gitik M, Haklai R, Elad Sfadia G, Kloog Y. Galectin-3/MAC-2, Ras and PI3K activate complement receptor-3 and scavenger receptor-AI/II mediated myelin phagocytosis in microglia. Glia. 2008;56:1607-13 pubmed publisher
    The removal of degenerated myelin is essential for repair in Wallerian degeneration that follows traumatic injury to axons and in autoimmune demyelinating diseases (e.g., multiple sclerosis)...
  3. Puig J, Pedraza S, Blasco G, Daunis i Estadella J, Prats A, Prados F, et al. Wallerian degeneration in the corticospinal tract evaluated by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with motor deficit 30 days after middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010;31:1324-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the anisotropy by using DTI and signal-intensity changes on conventional MR imaging in the CST to determine whether these findings are correlated with limb motor deficit in patients with MCA ischemic stroke...
  4. Griffin J, Thompson W. Biology and pathology of nonmyelinating Schwann cells. Glia. 2008;56:1518-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonmyelin-forming Schwann cells, including those associated with uninjured fibers, have the capacity to act as the "first responders" to injury or disease in their neighborhoods...
  5. Zhang J, Jones M, Deboy C, Reich D, Farrell J, Hoffman P, et al. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging of Wallerian degeneration in rat spinal cord after dorsal root axotomy. J Neurosci. 2009;29:3160-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that there is an early imaging signature associated with axon transections that could be used in a variety of neurological disease processes...
  6. Kirsch M, Campos Friz M, Vougioukas V, Hofmann H. Wallerian degeneration and axonal regeneration after sciatic nerve crush are altered in ICAM-1-deficient mice. Cell Tissue Res. 2009;338:19-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies investigating its involvement in the process of Wallerian degeneration and focusing on its potential role in macrophage recruitement have come to controversial conclusions...
  7. Alvarez S, Moldovan M, Krarup C. Acute energy restriction triggers Wallerian degeneration in mouse. Exp Neurol. 2008;212:166-78 pubmed publisher
    ..of peripheral axons to the free radical Nitric Oxide (NO) may trigger conduction block and, if prolonged, Wallerian degeneration. It was hypothesized that this neurotoxic effect of NO may be due primarily to energy restriction by ..
  8. Dziedzic T, Metz I, Dallenga T, König F, Muller S, Stadelmann C, et al. Wallerian degeneration: a major component of early axonal pathology in multiple sclerosis. Brain Pathol. 2010;20:976-85 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the contribution of Wallerian degeneration to axonal pathology is not known...
  9. Goethals S, Ydens E, Timmerman V, Janssens S. Toll-like receptor expression in the peripheral nerve. Glia. 2010;58:1701-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, acute neurodegeneration induces a shift in TLR expression pattern, most likely illustrating specialized functions of TLRs in basal versus activated conditions of the peripheral nerve...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Lama S, Qiao M, Kirton A, Sun S, Cheng E, Foniok T, et al. Imaging corticospinal degeneration in neonatal rats with unilateral cerebral infarction. Exp Neurol. 2011;228:192-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates directly the utility of ADC and T(2) MRI to detect acute changes in axons associated with early Wallerian degeneration.
  2. Cohen Adad J, Leblond H, Delivet Mongrain H, Martinez M, Benali H, Rossignol S. Wallerian degeneration after spinal cord lesions in cats detected with diffusion tensor imaging. Neuroimage. 2011;57:1068-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This decrease was specific to the type of fibers, i.e., rostrally to the lesion on the dorsal aspect of the cord and caudally to the lesion ipsilaterally, suggesting the detection of Wallerian degeneration.
  3. Li M, Guo W, Zhang P, Li H, Gu X, Yao D. Signal flow and pathways in response to early Wallerian degeneration after rat sciatic nerve injury. Neurosci Lett. 2013;536:56-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Wallerian degeneration (WD) remains a subject of critical research interest in modern neurobiology...
  4. Mishra B, Carson R, Hume R, Collins C. Sodium and potassium currents influence Wallerian degeneration of injured Drosophila axons. J Neurosci. 2013;33:18728-39 pubmed publisher
    ..We have used a Drosophila model to study the Wallerian degeneration of motoneuron axons and their neuromuscular junction synapses...
  5. Coleman M, Freeman M. Wallerian degeneration, wld(s), and nmnat. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2010;33:245-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the cellular and molecular events that underlie this process, termed Wallerian degeneration. We describe the biphasic nature of axon degeneration after axotomy and our current understanding of how ..
  6. Lee H, Jo E, Choi S, Oh S, Park K, Kim J, et al. Necrotic neuronal cells induce inflammatory Schwann cell activation via TLR2 and TLR3: implication in Wallerian degeneration. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;350:742-7 pubmed
    ..In summary, these results suggest that necrotic neuronal cells induce inflammatory Schwann cell activation via TLR2 and TLR3, which might be involved in Wallerian degeneration upon peripheral nerve injury.
  7. Yan T, Feng Y, Zheng J, Ge X, Zhang Y, Wu D, et al. Nmnat2 delays axon degeneration in superior cervical ganglia dependent on its NAD synthesis activity. Neurochem Int. 2010;56:101-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Nmnat2 delayed Wallerian degeneration in cultured superior cervical ganglia (SCGs) from morphological changes, microtubule destruction and ..
  8. Qin W, Zhang M, Piao Y, Guo D, Zhu Z, Tian X, et al. Wallerian degeneration in central nervous system: dynamic associations between diffusion indices and their underlying pathology. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41441 pubmed publisher
    Although diffusion tensor imaging has been used to monitor Wallerian degeneration, the exact relationship between the evolution of diffusion indices and its underlying pathology, especially in central nervous system, remains largely ..
  9. Ramaglia V, King R, Morgan B, Baas F. Deficiency of the complement regulator CD59a exacerbates Wallerian degeneration. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:1892-6 pubmed publisher
    The complement system is implicated in Wallerian degeneration (WD)...
  10. Murray L, Thomson D, Conklin A, Wishart T, Gillingwater T. Loss of translation elongation factor (eEF1A2) expression in vivo differentiates between Wallerian degeneration and dying-back neuronal pathology. J Anat. 2008;213:633-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Wallerian degeneration and dying-back pathology are two well-known cellular pathways capable of regulating the breakdown and loss of axonal and synaptic compartments of neurons in vivo...
  11. Ajilogba K, Rao P. Diffusion-weighted imaging of Wallerian degeneration in non-accidental head injury. Pediatr Radiol. 2006;36:1326 pubmed
  12. Baxter B, Gillingwater T, Parson S. Rapid loss of motor nerve terminals following hypoxia-reperfusion injury occurs via mechanisms distinct from classic Wallerian degeneration. J Anat. 2008;212:827-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We have also demonstrated that nerve terminal loss occurs by a mechanism distinct from Wallerian degeneration, as the slow Wallerian degeneration (Wld(s)) gene did not modify the extent of nerve terminal pathology...
  13. Bridge K, Berg N, Adalbert R, Babetto E, Dias T, Spillantini M, et al. Late onset distal axonal swelling in YFP-H transgenic mice. Neurobiol Aging. 2009;30:309-21 pubmed
    ..The ability of a foreign protein to exacerbate age-related axon pathology is an important clue to the mechanisms by which such pathology can arise...
  14. Martini R, Fischer S, Lopez Vales R, David S. Interactions between Schwann cells and macrophages in injury and inherited demyelinating disease. Glia. 2008;56:1566-77 pubmed publisher
    ..first discuss the factors that regulate macrophage recruitment, activation, and myelin phagocytosis during Wallerian degeneration and some of the factors involved in the termination of inflammation at the end of the period of Wallerian ..
  15. Cámara Lemarroy C, Guzmán De La Garza F, Fernández Garza N. Molecular inflammatory mediators in peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2010;17:314-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Wallerian degeneration, the self-destructive set of cellular and molecular processes by which degenerating axons and myelin are cleared after injury, is initiated by macrophages and Schwann cells...
  16. Massoll C, Mando W, Chintala S. Excitotoxicity upregulates SARM1 protein expression and promotes Wallerian-like degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:2771-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the role of sterile alpha/Armadillo/Toll-Interleukin receptor homology domain 1 protein (SARM1) in Wallerian-like degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons after inducing excitotoxicity...
  17. Yang D, Kim J, Syed N, Tung Y, Bhaskaran A, Mindos T, et al. p38 MAPK activation promotes denervated Schwann cell phenotype and functions as a negative regulator of Schwann cell differentiation and myelination. J Neurosci. 2012;32:7158-68 pubmed publisher
    ..to the peripheral nerves triggers Schwann cell injury response in the distal nerves in an event termed Wallerian degeneration: the Schwann cells degrade their myelin sheaths and dedifferentiate, reverting to a phenotype that ..
  18. Bosse F. Extrinsic cellular and molecular mediators of peripheral axonal regeneration. Cell Tissue Res. 2012;349:5-14 pubmed publisher
    ..During this fine-tuned process, named Wallerian degeneration, a remodeling of the distal nerve fragment prepares a permissive microenvironment that permits successful ..
  19. Rotshenker S. Wallerian degeneration: the innate-immune response to traumatic nerve injury. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:109 pubmed publisher
    ..Recovery by regeneration depends on the cellular and molecular events of Wallerian degeneration that injury induces distal to the lesion site, the domain through which severed axons regenerate back to ..
  20. Jung J, Cai W, Lee H, Pellegatta M, Shin Y, Jang S, et al. Actin polymerization is essential for myelin sheath fragmentation during Wallerian degeneration. J Neurosci. 2011;31:2009-15 pubmed publisher
    The mechanisms that trigger Wallerian degeneration (WD) of peripheral nerves after injury are not well understood...
  21. Meyer zu Horste G, Miesbach T, Muller J, Fledrich R, Stassart R, Kieseier B, et al. The Wlds transgene reduces axon loss in a Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1A rat model and nicotinamide delays post-traumatic axonal degeneration. Neurobiol Dis. 2011;42:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical impairments are determined by the amount of axonal loss. Axons of the spontaneous mouse mutant Wallerian degeneration slow (Wlds) show markedly reduced degeneration following various types of injuries...
  22. Touma E, Kato S, Fukui K, Koike T. Calpain-mediated cleavage of collapsin response mediator protein(CRMP)-2 during neurite degeneration in mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:3368-81 pubmed
    ..No cleavage of CRMP-2 or -4 occurred in NGF-deprived neurites from Wld(s) (Wallerian degeneration slow) mutant mice in which neurite degeneration is markedly delayed...
  23. Sawai S, Kanai K, Nakata M, Hiraga A, Misawa S, Isose S, et al. Changes in excitability properties associated with axonal regeneration in human neuropathy and mouse Wallerian degeneration. Clin Neurophysiol. 2008;119:1097-105 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in excitability properties associated with axonal regeneration in human neuropathy and a mouse Wallerian degeneration model.
  24. Beirowski B, Babetto E, Gilley J, Mazzola F, Conforti L, Janeckova L, et al. Non-nuclear Wld(S) determines its neuroprotective efficacy for axons and synapses in vivo. J Neurosci. 2009;29:653-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The Wallerian degeneration slow (Wld(S)) protein protects axons dose-dependently in many circumstances but is paradoxically abundant ..
  25. Yu C, Zhu C, Zhang Y, Chen H, Qin W, Wang M, et al. A longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study on Wallerian degeneration of corticospinal tract after motor pathway stroke. Neuroimage. 2009;47:451-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tract (CST) after motor pathway ischemic stroke can be characterized by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
  26. Parkinson D, Bhaskaran A, Arthur Farraj P, Noon L, Woodhoo A, Lloyd A, et al. c-Jun is a negative regulator of myelination. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:625-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Negative regulation of myelination is likely to have significant implications for three areas of Schwann cell biology: the molecular analysis of plasticity, demyelinating pathologies, and the response of peripheral nerves to injury...
  27. Gaudet A, Leung M, Poirier F, Kadoya T, Horie H, Ramer M. A role for galectin-1 in the immune response to peripheral nerve injury. Exp Neurol. 2009;220:320-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Gal1 is necessary to direct the typical accumulation of macrophages in the injured peripheral nerve, and that Gal1 is sufficient to promote macrophage accumulation in the uninjured nerve of wild-type mice...
  28. Domi T, Deveber G, Shroff M, Kouzmitcheva E, MacGregor D, Kirton A. Corticospinal tract pre-wallerian degeneration: a novel outcome predictor for pediatric stroke on acute MRI. Stroke. 2009;40:780-7 pubmed publisher
    In neonatal arterial ischemic stroke, pre-Wallerian degeneration in descending corticospinal tracts (DCST) on diffusion MRI (DWI) predicts poor outcome. This signal has not been studied in older children.
  29. Wishart T, Paterson J, Short D, Meredith S, Robertson K, Sutherland C, et al. Differential proteomics analysis of synaptic proteins identifies potential cellular targets and protein mediators of synaptic neuroprotection conferred by the slow Wallerian degeneration (Wlds) gene. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2007;6:1318-30 pubmed
    ..Axons and synapses are protected from degeneration by the slow Wallerian degeneration (Wld(s)) gene...
  30. Farah M, Pan B, Hoffman P, Ferraris D, Tsukamoto T, Nguyen T, et al. Reduced BACE1 activity enhances clearance of myelin debris and regeneration of axons in the injured peripheral nervous system. J Neurosci. 2011;31:5744-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations were reproduced in part by pharmacological inhibition of BACE1. These data suggest BACE1 inhibition as a therapeutic approach to accelerate regeneration and recovery after peripheral nerve damage...
  31. Ramaglia V, King R, Nourallah M, Wolterman R, de Jonge R, Ramkema M, et al. The membrane attack complex of the complement system is essential for rapid Wallerian degeneration. J Neurosci. 2007;27:7663-72 pubmed
    The complement (C) system plays an important role in myelin breakdown during Wallerian degeneration (WD). The pathway and mechanism involved are, however, not clear...
  32. Mejdoubi M, Catalaa I, Cognard C, Manelfe C. Bilateral wallerian degeneration of the middle cerebellar peduncles due to unilateral pontine infarction. J Neuroradiol. 2006;33:263-5 pubmed
    ..She had a history of left pontine infarction 8 months before. This was attributed to bilateral Wallerian degeneration. MR Spectroscopy showed decreased N-acetyl aspartate/Creatine (NAA/Cr) ratio in the cerebellar peduncles ..
  33. Liang Z, Zeng J, Zhang C, Liu S, Ling X, Xu A, et al. Longitudinal investigations on the anterograde and retrograde degeneration in the pyramidal tract following pontine infarction with diffusion tensor imaging. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2008;25:209-16 pubmed publisher
  34. DeVetten G, Coutts S, Hill M, Goyal M, Eesa M, O Brien B, et al. Acute corticospinal tract Wallerian degeneration is associated with stroke outcome. Stroke. 2010;41:751-6 pubmed publisher
    In children with stroke, poor motor outcome is associated with early Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tract that is seen on diffusion-weighted MRI...
  35. Ma M, Ferguson T, Schoch K, Li J, Qian Y, Shofer F, et al. Calpains mediate axonal cytoskeleton disintegration during Wallerian degeneration. Neurobiol Dis. 2013;56:34-46 pubmed publisher
    In both the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS), transected axons undergo Wallerian degeneration. Even though Augustus Waller first described this process after transection of axons in 1850, the molecular ..
  36. Beirowski B, Morreale G, Conforti L, Mazzola F, Di Stefano M, Wilbrey A, et al. WldS can delay Wallerian degeneration in mice when interaction with valosin-containing protein is weakened. Neuroscience. 2010;166:201-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In some, the mechanism is related to injury-induced Wallerian degeneration, a proactive death program that can be strongly delayed by the neuroprotective slow Wallerian degeneration ..
  37. Xiong X, Hao Y, Sun K, Li J, Li X, Mishra B, et al. The Highwire ubiquitin ligase promotes axonal degeneration by tuning levels of Nmnat protein. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001440 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in hiw strongly inhibit Wallerian degeneration in multiple neuron types and developmental stages...
  38. Keilhoff G, Schild L, Fansa H. Minocycline protects Schwann cells from ischemia-like injury and promotes axonal outgrowth in bioartificial nerve grafts lacking Wallerian degeneration. Exp Neurol. 2008;212:189-200 pubmed publisher
    ..The negative effect of minocycline on Wallerian degeneration, the essential initial phase of degeneration/regeneration after nerve injury, that was recently ..
  39. Dubovy P. Wallerian degeneration and peripheral nerve conditions for both axonal regeneration and neuropathic pain induction. Ann Anat. 2011;193:267-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Wallerian degeneration is a cascade of stereotypical events in reaction to injury of nerve fibres...
  40. Suzuki K, Koike T. Resveratrol abolishes resistance to axonal degeneration in slow Wallerian degeneration (WldS) mice: activation of SIRT2, an NAD-dependent tubulin deacetylase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;359:665-71 pubmed
    ..investigated the effect of resveratrol on neurodegeneration in cultured cerebellar granule cells from slow Wallerian degeneration (Wld(S)) mice, characteristic of substantial delay of degeneration in the distal stump of transected axons...
  41. Conforti L, Janeckova L, Wagner D, Mazzola F, Cialabrini L, Di Stefano M, et al. Reducing expression of NAD+ synthesizing enzyme NMNAT1 does not affect the rate of Wallerian degeneration. FEBS J. 2011;278:2666-79 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of endogenous NMNAT1 in normal axon maintenance and in Wallerian degeneration has not been elucidated yet. To address this question we disrupted the Nmnat1 locus by gene targeting...
  42. Zhao X, Wang W, Tan J, Huang J, Zhang X, Zhang B, et al. Expression of beta-amyloid induced age-dependent presynaptic and axonal changes in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2010;30:1512-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Abeta accumulation depletes presynaptic and axonal mitochondria, leading to other presynaptic deficits...
  43. Antenor Dorsey J, O Malley K. WldS but not Nmnat1 protects dopaminergic neurites from MPP+ neurotoxicity. Mol Neurodegener. 2012;7:5 pubmed publisher
    The WldS mouse mutant ("Wallerian degeneration-slow") delays axonal degeneration in a variety of disorders including in vivo models of Parkinson's disease...
  44. Rose F, Meehan P, Coady T, Garcia V, Garcia M, Lorson C. The Wallerian degeneration slow (Wld(s)) gene does not attenuate disease in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;375:119-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The Wallerian degeneration slow (Wld(s)) gene is a spontaneous dominant mutation in mice that delays axon degeneration by ..
  45. Beirowski B, Babetto E, Coleman M, Martin K. The WldS gene delays axonal but not somatic degeneration in a rat glaucoma model. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:1166-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigated the mechanism of axon loss in glaucoma, studying axon degeneration in slow Wallerian degeneration (Wld(S)) rats after increasing intraocular pressure...
  46. Wang L, Hu B, Wong W, Lu P, Wu W, Xu X. Glial and axonal responses in areas of Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal and dorsal ascending tracts after spinal cord dorsal funiculotomy. Neuropathology. 2009;29:230-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Wallerian degeneration (WD), composed of the breakdown and phagocytosis of damaged axons and their myelin sheaths distal to the injury, is a major sequela of spinal cord injury (SCI)...
  47. Somandin C, Gerber D, Pereira J, Horn M, Suter U. LITAF (SIMPLE) regulates Wallerian degeneration after injury but is not essential for peripheral nerve development and maintenance: implications for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Glia. 2012;60:1518-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In injured nerves, however, we found that lack of Litaf led to increased numbers of macrophages during Wallerian degeneration, accelerated myelin destruction, and the emergence of more axonal sprouts...
  48. Avery M, Rooney T, Pandya J, Wishart T, Gillingwater T, Geddes J, et al. WldS prevents axon degeneration through increased mitochondrial flux and enhanced mitochondrial Ca2+ buffering. Curr Biol. 2012;22:596-600 pubmed publisher
    Wld(S) (slow Wallerian degeneration) is a remarkable protein that can suppress Wallerian degeneration of axons and synapses, but how it exerts this effect remains unclear...
  49. Kim D, Lee S, Lee S. Toll-like receptors in peripheral nerve injury and neuropathic pain. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2009;336:169-86 pubmed publisher
    ..genetically modified mice indicate that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in nerve degeneration (Wallerian degeneration) and chronic pain (neuropathic pain) development after nerve injury...
  50. Chen Y, Chung S, Chung S. Aldose reductase deficiency improves Wallerian degeneration and nerve regeneration in diabetic thy1-YFP mice. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2010;69:294-305 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Wallerian degeneration and nerve regeneration were evaluated at 1 and 2 weeks postaxotomy by fluorescence microscopy...
  51. Yang D, Zhang D, Mak K, Bonder D, Pomeroy S, Kim H. Schwann cell proliferation during Wallerian degeneration is not necessary for regeneration and remyelination of the peripheral nerves: axon-dependent removal of newly generated Schwann cells by apoptosis. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008;38:80-8 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, distal Schwann cell numbers in wild type and cyclin D1 null mice converge to equivalence in regenerated nerves. Therefore, distal Schwann cell proliferation is not required for functional recovery of injured nerves...
  52. Gültner S, Laue M, Riemer C, Heise I, Baier M. Prion disease development in slow Wallerian degeneration (Wld(S)) mice. Neurosci Lett. 2009;456:93-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of Wld(S)-mice in comparison to wild-type C57Bl/6 controls to determine whether mechanisms involved in Wallerian degeneration contribute to disease development in this murine model system...
  53. Shi F, Zhu H, Yang S, Liu Y, Feng Y, Shi J, et al. Glial response and myelin clearance in areas of wallerian degeneration after spinal cord hemisection in the monkey Macaca fascicularis. J Neurotrauma. 2009;26:2083-96 pubmed publisher
    Spinal cord injury (SCI) in mammals not only damages the focal area, but also leads to wallerian degeneration (WD) of axons and myelin distal to the injury...