retrograde degeneration

Summary

Summary: Pathologic changes that occur in the axon and cell body of a neuron proximal to an axonal lesion. The process is characterized by central chromatolysis which features flattening and displacement of the nucleus, loss of Nissl bodies, and cellular edema. Central chromatolysis primarily occurs in lower motor neurons.

Top Publications

  1. Pham A, Meng S, Chu Q, Chan D. Loss of Mfn2 results in progressive, retrograde degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal circuit. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:4817-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that perturbations of mitochondrial dynamics can cause nigrostriatal defects and may be a risk factor for the neurodegeneration in PD...
  2. Penas C, Font Nieves M, Fores J, Petegnief V, Planas A, Navarro X, et al. Autophagy, and BiP level decrease are early key events in retrograde degeneration of motoneurons. Cell Death Differ. 2011;18:1617-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides, Bcl2 is strongly implicated in the survival pathway activated by BiP overexpression...
  3. Cheng H, Kim S, Oo T, Kareva T, Yarygina O, Rzhetskaya M, et al. Akt suppresses retrograde degeneration of dopaminergic axons by inhibition of macroautophagy. J Neurosci. 2011;31:2125-35 pubmed publisher
    ..autophagy mediator Atg7 in adult mice also achieves striking axon protection in these acute models of retrograde degeneration. The protection afforded by both Myr-Akt and Atg7 deletion is robust and lasting, because it is still ..
  4. Dhondt J, Peeraer E, Verheyen A, Nuydens R, Buysschaert I, Poesen K, et al. Neuronal FLT1 receptor and its selective ligand VEGF-B protect against retrograde degeneration of sensory neurons. FASEB J. 2011;25:1461-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Concomitantly, mice lacking VEGF-B or a functional FLT1 developed more retrograde degeneration of sensory neurons in a model of distal neuropathy...
  5. Liang Z, Zeng J, Zhang C, Liu S, Ling X, Xu A, et al. Longitudinal investigations on the anterograde and retrograde degeneration in the pyramidal tract following pontine infarction with diffusion tensor imaging. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2008;25:209-16 pubmed publisher
    ..stroke has been detected by some studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), but the anterograde and retrograde degeneration in pyramidal tract after pontine infarction and its potential clinical significance are not well ..
  6. Park H, Park Y, Cho A, Park C. Transneuronal retrograde degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells in patients with cerebral infarction. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:1292-9 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to determine whether transneuronal retrograde degeneration (TRD) of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) could be detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in humans with lesions other than of the ..
  7. Cowey A, Alexander I, Stoerig P. Transneuronal retrograde degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and optic tract in hemianopic monkeys and humans. Brain. 2011;134:2149-57 pubmed publisher
    Transneuronal retrograde degeneration of retinal ganglion cells after removal of primary visual cortex (area V1) is well established by quantitative neurohistological analysis of the ganglion cell layer in monkeys, but remains ..
  8. Kobayashi S, Hasegawa S, Maki T, Murayama S. Retrograde degeneration of the corticospinal tract associated with pontine infarction. J Neurol Sci. 2005;236:91-3 pubmed
    ..An autopsy confirmed the existence of retrograde degeneration extending from the pons to the internal capsule, evidence that retrograde degeneration in the ..
  9. Kilic E, Hermann D, Isenmann S, Bahr M. Effects of pinealectomy and melatonin on the retrograde degeneration of retinal ganglion cells in a novel model of intraorbital optic nerve transection in mice. J Pineal Res. 2002;32:106-11 pubmed
    The effects of pinealectomy and of intraperitoneally administered melatonin on the retrograde degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were examined in a novel model of optic nerve (ON) transection in C57BL/16J mice...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Mori F, Tanji K, Yoshida Y, Wakabayashi K. Thalamic retrograde degeneration in the congenitally hydrocephalic rat is attributable to apoptotic cell death. Neuropathology. 2002;22:186-93 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the neuronal cell death observed in the thalamus in hydrocephalic HTX rats is retrograde degeneration due to extensive damage of axons in the cerebral white matter and that the thalamic retrograde ..
  2. Botero L, Gomez R, Chaparro O. [Pathogenesis of spinal cord injuries and mechanisms of repair induced by olfactory ensheathing cells]. Rev Neurol. 2013;56:521-31 pubmed
  3. Tsolakidou A, Alexopoulos P, Guo L, Grimmer T, Westerteicher C, Kratzer M, et al. ?-Site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 activity is related to cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of sortilin-related receptor with A-type repeats, soluble amyloid precursor protein, and tau. Alzheimers Dement. 2013;9:386-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) activity determines the rate of APP cleavage and is therefore the main driver of amyloid ? production, which is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  4. Hägglund M, Berghard A, Strotmann J, Bohm S. Retinoic acid receptor-dependent survival of olfactory sensory neurons in postnatal and adult mice. J Neurosci. 2006;26:3281-91 pubmed
    ..Collectively, the results provide evidence for a role of locally regulated retinoid metabolism in neuroprotection and in determining population size of neurons at a late stage of neural circuit formation...
  5. Trip S, Schlottmann P, Jones S, Li W, Garway Heath D, Thompson A, et al. Optic nerve atrophy and retinal nerve fibre layer thinning following optic neuritis: evidence that axonal loss is a substrate of MRI-detected atrophy. Neuroimage. 2006;31:286-93 pubmed
    ..By inference, axonal loss due to other post-inflammatory brain lesions is likely to contribute to the global MRI measure of brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis...
  6. Park E, Velumian A, Fehlings M. The role of excitotoxicity in secondary mechanisms of spinal cord injury: a review with an emphasis on the implications for white matter degeneration. J Neurotrauma. 2004;21:754-74 pubmed
    ..The latter mechanism appears key to glutamatergic white matter degeneration after SCI and may represent an attractive therapeutic target...
  7. Kodama F, Ogawa T, Sugihara S, Kamba M, Kohaya N, Kondo S, et al. Transneuronal degeneration in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy: evaluation by MR imaging. Eur Radiol. 2003;13:2180-5 pubmed
    ..8 vs 11.8%). Transneuronal degeneration of the limbic system is clearly demonstrated by MR imaging in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, and surgical intervention induces transneuronal degeneration more frequently...
  8. Almarcegui C, Dolz I, Alejos M, Fernandez F, Valdizan J, Honrubia F. [Pattern electroretinogram in anterior ischemic optic neuropathy]. Rev Neurol. 2001;32:18-21 pubmed
    ..Anterior ischemia optic neuropathy is defined as ischemia of the disc optic papilla nerve. The aetiology is multifactorial and causes ischemia of the optic disc and apoptosis of the nerve cells of the retina...
  9. Meguro K, Constans J, Courtheoux P, Theron J, Viader F, Yamadori A. Atrophy of the corpus callosum correlates with white matter lesions in patients with cerebral ischaemia. Neuroradiology. 2000;42:413-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings could indicate that CC atrophy is associated with cerebral ischaemia...
  10. Unlu A, Hariharan N, Iskandar B. Spinal cord regeneration induced by a voltage-gated calcium channel agonist. Neurol Res. 2002;24:639-42 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, depending on the dose used, the effect of calcium agonist supplementation on spinal regeneration can be supportive or inhibitory...
  11. Ries V, Silva R, Oo T, Cheng H, Rzhetskaya M, Kholodilov N, et al. JNK2 and JNK3 combined are essential for apoptosis in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra, but are not required for axon degeneration. J Neurochem. 2008;107:1578-88 pubmed publisher
  12. Gamo K, Kiryu Seo S, Konishi H, Aoki S, Matsushima K, Wada K, et al. G-protein-coupled receptor screen reveals a role for chemokine receptor CCR5 in suppressing microglial neurotoxicity. J Neurosci. 2008;28:11980-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may suggest that CCR5-mediated neuron-glia signaling functions to protect neurons by suppressing microglia toxicity...
  13. Kobayashi S, Uchida K, Kokubo Y, Takeno K, Yayama T, Miyazaki T, et al. Synapse involvement of the dorsal horn in experimental lumbar nerve root compression: a light and electron microscopic study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33:716-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was aimed at investigating changes in the dorsal horn of the lumbar cord induced by mechanical compression using an in vivo model...
  14. Thomas C, Birkett D, Anozie I, Castro M, Lowenstein P. Acute direct adenoviral vector cytotoxicity and chronic, but not acute, inflammatory responses correlate with decreased vector-mediated transgene expression in the brain. Mol Ther. 2001;3:36-46 pubmed
  15. Kazuo Ikeda K, Masaki Matsuda M, Daisuke Yamauchi D, Katsuro Tomita K, Shigenori Tanaka S. Gradual nerve elongation affects nerve cell bodies and neuro-muscular junctions. Hand Surg. 2005;10:7-15 pubmed
    ..Hence, the safe speed for nerve cells appeared to be 0.8-mm/day, critical speed to be 2.0-mm/day, and dangerous speed to be 4.0-mm/day in this elongation model...
  16. Colby G, Coon A, Connolly E, Ambron R. Activation of c-Jun and ATF-2 in primate motor cranial nerve nuclei is not associated with apoptosis following axotomy. Exp Neurol. 2005;194:57-65 pubmed
    ..This report serves as a basic inquiry into the neuronal response to cranial nerve injury in primates...
  17. Schwartz E, Chin C, Shumsky J, Jawad A, Brown B, Wehrli S, et al. Apparent diffusion coefficients in spinal cord transplants and surrounding white matter correlate with degree of axonal dieback after injury in rats. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005;26:7-18 pubmed
    ..We proposed that ADC values would correlate with quantitative axonal tracing in the transected rubrospinal tract (RST)...
  18. Lidman O, Fraidakis M, Lycke N, Olson L, Olsson T, Piehl F. Facial nerve lesion response; strain differences but no involvement of IFN-gamma, STAT4 or STAT6. Neuroreport. 2002;13:1589-93 pubmed
  19. Bodofsky E. A mathematical model for peripheral nerve conduction velocity. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol. 2003;43:223-9 pubmed
    ..To derive a mathematical model for peripheral axon geometry, and apply it to the prediction of latencies along a nerve...
  20. Fink J. Hereditary spastic paraplegia. Neurol Clin. 2002;20:711-26 pubmed
    ..Nonetheless, the identification of these genes and the ability to generate animal models of these forms of HSP will permit direct exploration of the molecular basis of HSP...
  21. Herrera A, de Pablos R, Carreño Müller E, Villarán R, Venero J, Tomás Camardiel M, et al. The intrastriatal injection of thrombin in rat induced a retrograde apoptotic degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons through synaptic elimination. J Neurochem. 2008;105:750-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results point out the possible relationship between synapse elimination and retrograde degeneration in the nigral dopaminergic system.
  22. Dempf R, Hausamen J. Lesions of the inferior alveolar nerve arising from endodontic treatment. Aust Endod J. 2000;26:67-71 pubmed
    ..If the filling material is forced directly within the endoneurium between the nerve bundles, the damaged nerve sections must be resected and bridged using transplants from the sural or greater auricular nerves...
  23. Pedersen M, Minuzzi L, Wirenfeldt M, Meldgaard M, Slidsborg C, Cumming P, et al. Up-regulation of PK11195 binding in areas of axonal degeneration coincides with early microglial activation in mouse brain. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24:991-1000 pubmed
  24. Wakeling E, Joussemet B, Costiou P, Fanuel D, Moullier P, Barkats M, et al. Failure of lower motor neuron radial outgrowth precedes retrograde degeneration in a feline model of spinal muscular atrophy. J Comp Neurol. 2012;520:1737-50 pubmed publisher
  25. Kelley B, Farkas O, Lifshitz J, Povlishock J. Traumatic axonal injury in the perisomatic domain triggers ultrarapid secondary axotomy and Wallerian degeneration. Exp Neurol. 2006;198:350-60 pubmed
    ..Collectively, this DBI-mediated ultrarapid perisomatic axotomy and its sequelae further illustrate the varied axonal responses to trauma...
  26. Li J, Lu K, Ai Y. [Investigation on skin retrograde degeneration after tissue expansion]. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2001;17:347-9 pubmed
    To study the effects of tissue expansion on tissue damage and retrograde degeneration.
  27. Zaprianova E, Sotnikov O, Sergeeva S, Deleva D, Filchev A, Sultanov B. [Axonal reaction precedes demyelination in experimental models of multiple sclerosis]. Morfologiia. 2002;122:54-9 pubmed
  28. Floriddia E, Rathore K, Tedeschi A, Quadrato G, Wuttke A, Lueckmann J, et al. p53 Regulates the neuronal intrinsic and extrinsic responses affecting the recovery of motor function following spinal cord injury. J Neurosci. 2012;32:13956-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we propose p53 as a novel potential multilevel therapeutic target for spinal cord injury...
  29. Coers S, Tanzer L, Jones K. Testosterone treatment attenuates the effects of facial nerve transection on glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels in the hamster facial motor nucleus. Metab Brain Dis. 2002;17:55-63 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the regulatory actions of gonadal steroids on GFAP expression manifested in parallel at the mRNA/protein levels...
  30. Kanamori A, Catrinescu M, Traistaru M, Beaubien R, Levin L. In vivo imaging of retinal ganglion cell axons within the nerve fiber layer. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:2011-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Intravitreal CMFDA can be used to longitudinally monitor RGC axons within the RNFL in vivo. Imaging the disappearance of retrograde-labeled RGC somas and axons indicates that axonal and somal degeneration occur in parallel after axotomy...
  31. Barkhof F, Karas G, van Walderveen M. T1 hypointensities and axonal loss. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2000;10:739-52 ,ix pubmed
    ..They correlate better with clinical disability than T2-weighted images, are found in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis, and can be used as surrogate outcome measures in treatment trials...
  32. Krämer H, Schmidt K, Leis S, Schmelz M, Sommer C, Birklein F. Angiotensin converting enzyme has an inhibitory role in CGRP metabolism in human skin. Peptides. 2006;27:917-20 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that NEP and ACE do not have additive effects regarding neuropeptide degradation. In contrast, inhibition of ACE seems to augment CGRP catabolism...
  33. Offner H, Subramanian S, Wang C, Afentoulis M, Vandenbark A, Huan J, et al. Treatment of passive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in SJL mice with a recombinant TCR ligand induces IL-13 and prevents axonal injury. J Immunol. 2005;175:4103-11 pubmed
  34. Rodicio M, Barreiro Iglesias A. [Lampreys as an animal model in regeneration studies after spinal cord injury]. Rev Neurol. 2012;55:157-66 pubmed
  35. Nadeau S, Hein P, Fernandes K, Peterson A, Miller F. A transcriptional role for C/EBP beta in the neuronal response to axonal injury. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2005;29:525-35 pubmed
    ..Thus, C/EBPbeta is essential for the neuronal injury response, acting to transcriptionally activate regeneration-associated gene expression...
  36. Cowey A, Stoerig P, Williams C. Variance in transneuronal retrograde ganglion cell degeneration in monkeys after removal of striate cortex: effects of size of the cortical lesion. Vision Res. 1999;39:3642-52 pubmed
    The extent of transneuronal retrograde degeneration of ganglion cells in the primate retina depends on the age at which striate cortex was damaged, the survival time, the species, and retinal eccentricity...
  37. Margolis D, Wu E, Truchan L. Axonal loss in murine peripheral nerves following exposure to recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in an absorbable collagen sponge. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013;95:611-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Little is known about changes that result when rhBMP-2 is used in the vicinity of peripheral nerves. The purpose of this study is to characterize changes in peripheral nerves following exposure to rhBMP-2-soaked collagen sponges...
  38. Potashner S, Suneja S, Benson C. Regulation of D-aspartate release and uptake in adult brain stem auditory nuclei after unilateral middle ear ossicle removal and cochlear ablation. Exp Neurol. 1997;148:222-35 pubmed
    ..v) The strengthening of excitatory glutamatergic transmission may facilitate and maintain symptoms such as loudness recruitment and tinnitus which often accompany hearing loss...
  39. Rao K, Lund R. Optic nerve degeneration induces the expression of MHC antigens in the rat visual system. J Comp Neurol. 1993;336:613-27 pubmed
    ..If foreign antigens were present in the brain while these events were taking place, it is possible that such antigens would be recognised and destroyed by the host immune system...
  40. Ben Yaakov K, Fainzilber M. Retrograde injury signaling in lesioned axons. Results Probl Cell Differ. 2009;48:327-38 pubmed publisher
    ..This chapter reviews the progress on understanding the different mechanistic aspects of the axonal response to injury, and how the information is conveyed from the injury site to the cell body to initiate regeneration...
  41. Kleinschnitz C, Meuth S, Kieseier B, Wiendl H. [Update on pathophysiologic and immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of multiple sclerosis]. Nervenarzt. 2007;78:883-911 pubmed
    ..The pathogenetic rationale of these novel drugs for the treatment of MS and accompanying preclinical and clinical data are highlighted...
  42. Bezchlibnyk Y, Sun X, Wang J, MacQueen G, McEwen B, Young L. Neuron somal size is decreased in the lateral amygdalar nucleus of subjects with bipolar disorder. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2007;32:203-10 pubmed
    ..Morphometric studies of postmortem brains from subjects with mood disorders have reported altered density of glial cells in the amygdala; however, the nuclear regions have not been examined individually...
  43. Wang Q, Ding Y, Kohtz D, Kohtz S, Mizushima N, Cristea I, et al. Induction of autophagy in axonal dystrophy and degeneration. J Neurosci. 2006;26:8057-68 pubmed
    ..We propose that induction of autophagy serves as an early stress response in axonal dystrophy and may participate in the remodeling of axon structures...
  44. Giardino L, Giuliani A, Bettelli C, Calza L. Thyroid hormone and retinoids affect motoneuron phenotype and reaction after axotomy in the spinal cord of adult rats. Brain Res. 2002;925:122-32 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the motoneuron phenotype is regulated by transcription factors, which also play a role in phenotype switch regulation after axotomy...
  45. Wakabayashi T, Kosaka J, Hommura S. Up-regulation of Hrk, a regulator of cell death, in retinal ganglion cells of axotomized rat retina. Neurosci Lett. 2002;318:77-80 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that Hrk was expressed in a sub-population of axotomized RGCs. These results suggest that Hrk is involved in the induction of apoptosis in RGCs after optic nerve transection...
  46. Starikov A. [Neurophysiologic and neuropathological analysis of Parkinson's disease and its treatment with stereotaxic method]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2004;104:29-33 pubmed
    ..The results obtained in the study are used for explanation of tremor mechanism...
  47. Horowitz S, Spollen L, Yu W. Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy: fulminant development with axonal loss during military training. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:1629-31 pubmed
    ..Genetic testing revealed PMP-22 gene deletion. This case report demonstrates that HNPP can present with rapidly progressive peripheral nerve dysfunction and electrophysiological evidence of focal axonal loss...
  48. Kim D, Kim H, Ahn M, Chun M. Ganglion cell death in rat retina by persistent intraocular pressure elevation. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2004;18:15-22 pubmed
    ..We concluded that elevated intraocular pressure caused apoptotic RGC death through retrograde axoplasmic flow blockage. Further studies will elucidate the neuroprotection strategies in glaucoma patients...
  49. Takenami T, Yagishita S, Asato F, Arai M, Hoka S. Intrathecal lidocaine causes posterior root axonal degeneration near entry into the spinal cord in rats. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2002;27:58-67 pubmed
    ..The neurotoxicity of lidocaine is not fully understood, and the primary lesion of lidocaine-induced spinal neurotoxicity has not been defined. Here we examine the effects of various concentrations of intrathecally administered lidocaine...
  50. Wang Y, Tseng G. Spinal axonal injury transiently elevates the level of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5, but not 1, in cord-projection central neurons. J Neurotrauma. 2004;21:479-89 pubmed
    ..Their decrease following rubrospinal axotomy suggests that axonal injury may also compromise the presynaptic regulation of afferent activities onto injured cord-projection central neurons...
  51. Weise J, Isenmann S, Bahr M. Increased expression and activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) contribute to retinal ganglion cell death following rat optic nerve transection. Cell Death Differ. 2001;8:801-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, PARP inhibition may constitute a relevant strategy for clinical treatment of traumatic brain injury...
  52. Abreu Villaca Y, Schanuel S, Schmidt S. Time course of the effects of prenatal gamma irradiation on the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of Swiss mice. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2001;19:639-47 pubmed
    ..A possible interpretation for thalamic neuronal loss is that geniculate neurons fail to establish cortical arbors after major target loss. In this case, the loss of trophic support should also be considered...
  53. Polgár E, Hughes D, Arham A, Todd A. Loss of neurons from laminas I-III of the spinal dorsal horn is not required for development of tactile allodynia in the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. J Neurosci. 2005;25:6658-66 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that a significant loss of neurons from the dorsal horn is not necessary for the development of tactile allodynia in the SNI model...