fat necrosis


Summary: A condition in which the death of adipose tissue results in neutral fats being split into fatty acids and glycerol.

Top Publications

  1. Peeters W, Nanhekhan L, Van Ongeval C, Fabre G, Vandevoort M. Fat necrosis in deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps: an ultrasound-based review of 202 cases. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;124:1754-8 pubmed publisher
    In autologous breast reconstruction after mastectomy, fat necrosis is a rather common complication that may lead to secondary corrective surgery...
  2. Glover M, Catterall M, Atherton D. Subcutaneous fat necrosis in two infants after hypothermic cardiac surgery. Pediatr Dermatol. 1991;8:210-2 pubmed
    Two infants experienced subcutaneous fat necrosis (SCFN) at a relatively late age after cardiac surgery with induced hypothermia. The condition resolved in both patients over four weeks without treatment...
  3. Fernando R, Somers S, Edmonson R, Sidhu P. Subcutaneous fat necrosis: hypoechoic appearance on sonography. J Ultrasound Med. 2003;22:1387-90 pubmed
  4. Iwasaki H, Morimoto K, Koh M, Okamura T, Wakasa K, Wakasa T, et al. A case of fat necrosis after breast quadrantectomy in which preoperative diagnosis was enabled by MRI with fat suppression technique. Magn Reson Imaging. 2004;22:285-90 pubmed
    ..MR imaging with fat suppression technique revealed an oil-containing lesion, indicating fat necrosis. It was confirmed histologically that the mass-forming lesion included no cancer tissue...
  5. Barbier C, Cneude F, Deliège R, El Kohen R, Kremy O, Leclerc F. [Subcutaneous fat necrosis in the newborn: a risk for severe hypercalcemia]. Arch Pediatr. 2003;10:713-5 pubmed
    Hypercalcemia associated with subcutaneous fat necrosis (SCN) is a well known but rare event in the newborn. A newborn infant with a history of SCN was admitted because of anorexia, adynamia, polyuria and polydipsia at 6 weeks of age...
  6. Tan P, Lai L, Carrington E, Opaluwa A, Ravikumar K, Chetty N, et al. Fat necrosis of the breast--a review. Breast. 2006;15:313-8 pubmed
    b>Fat necrosis of the breast is a benign condition that most frequently affects peri-menopausal women. It can mimic breast cancer clinically or radiologically. In other cases it can obscure malignant lesions...
  7. Tamvakopoulos G, Toms A, Glasgow M. Subcutaneous thigh fat necrosis as a result of tourniquet control during total knee arthroplasty. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2005;87:W11-3 pubmed
    ..b>Fat necrosis is a rare condition that presents as an ill-defined subcutaneous lesion...
  8. Strohm B, Hobson A, Brocklehurst P, Edwards A, Azzopardi D. Subcutaneous fat necrosis after moderate therapeutic hypothermia in neonates. Pediatrics. 2011;128:e450-2 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here 12 cases of subcutaneous fat necrosis among 1239 cases registered with a national registry of newborns treated with moderate whole-body hypothermia...
  9. Varan B, Gurakan B, Ozbek N, Emir S. Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn associated with anemia. Pediatr Dermatol. 1999;16:381-3 pubmed
    Subcutaneous fat necrosis (SFN) of the newborn characteristically affects full-term infants who have experienced perinatal distress, such as hypothermia, obstetric trauma, or asphyxia...

More Information


  1. Zifman E, Mouler M, Eliakim A, Nemet D, Pomeranz A. Subcutaneous fat necrosis and hypercalcemia following therapeutic hypothermia--a patient report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2010;23:1185-8 pubmed
    Subcutaneous fat necrosis (SCFN) of the newborn is an uncommon dermatologic disorder characterized by firm, palpable subcutaneous nodules or plaques with or without erythema...
  2. Lund J, Xia L, Kerr S, Stratman E, Patten S. The utility of a touch preparation in the diagnosis of fluctuant subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn. Pediatr Dermatol. 2009;26:241-3 pubmed publisher
    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SFNN) is an uncommon self-limiting panniculitis. Lesions may be fluctuant and spontaneously drain...
  3. Lombardi G, Cabano R, Bollani L, del Forno C, Stronati M. Effectiveness of pamidronate in severe neonatal hypercalcemia caused by subcutaneous fat necrosis: a case report. Eur J Pediatr. 2009;168:625-7 pubmed publisher
    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SCFN) is a panniculitis that develops in fatty areas during the first weeks of life after foetal distress or perinatal complications...
  4. Bonnemains L, Rouleau S, Sing G, Bouderlique C, Coutant R. Severe neonatal hypercalcemia caused by subcutaneous fat necrosis without any apparent cutaneous lesion. Eur J Pediatr. 2008;167:1459-61 pubmed publisher
    Subcutaneous fat necrosis is a classic, albeit uncommon, cause of neonatal hypercalcemia. It occurs in newborn infants within the first month of life following a complicated delivery...
  5. Lövey K, Fodor J, Major T, Szabo E, Orosz Z, Sulyok Z, et al. Fat necrosis after partial-breast irradiation with brachytherapy or electron irradiation versus standard whole-breast radiotherapy--4-year results of a randomized trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;69:724-31 pubmed
    To examine the incidence and clinical relevance of fat necrosis after accelerated partial-breast irradiation (PBI) using interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in comparison with partial-breast electron irradiation (ELE) and ..
  6. Mahe E, Girszyn N, Hadj Rabia S, Bodemer C, Hamel Teillac D, De Prost Y. Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn: a systematic evaluation of risk factors, clinical manifestations, complications and outcome of 16 children. Br J Dermatol. 2007;156:709-15 pubmed
    Subcutaneous fat necrosis (SFN) of the newborn is a rare acute transient hypodermatitis that develops within the first weeks of life in term infants. It often follows a difficult delivery...
  7. Wazer D, Kaufman S, Cuttino L, DiPetrillo T, Arthur D. Accelerated partial breast irradiation: an analysis of variables associated with late toxicity and long-term cosmetic outcome after high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;64:489-95 pubmed
    ..To perform a detailed analysis of variables associated with late tissue effects of high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in a large cohort of patients with prolonged follow-up...
  8. Ichimiya H, Arakawa S, Sato T, Shimada T, Chiba M, Soma Y, et al. Involvement of brown adipose tissue in subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn. Dermatology. 2011;223:207-10 pubmed publisher
    Subcutaneous fat necrosis (SCFN) of the newborn is a rare condition that manifests within days after birth...
  9. Takao H, Yamahira K, Watanabe T. Gallium uptake in pericardial fat necrosis. Clin Nucl Med. 2004;29:378-9 pubmed
  10. Oliveira A, Selores M, Pereira O. Fat necrosis of the newborn--report on two cases. An Bras Dermatol. 2011;86:S114-7 pubmed
    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn is an uncommon disorder occurring during the prenatal stage...
  11. Sharata H, Postellon D, Hashimoto K. Subcutaneous fat necrosis, hypercalcemia, and prostaglandin E. Pediatr Dermatol. 1995;12:43-7 pubmed
    ..These two cases demonstrate the association between SCFN and elevated PGE levels (endogenous in patient 1, exogenous in patient 2). No previous reports of SCFN after the administration of PGE1 have appeared in the literature...
  12. Wazer D, Lowther D, Boyle T, Ulin K, Neuschatz A, Ruthazer R, et al. Clinically evident fat necrosis in women treated with high-dose-rate brachytherapy alone for early-stage breast cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001;50:107-11 pubmed
    To investigate the incidence of and variables associated with clinically evident fat necrosis in women treated on a protocol of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy alone without external-beam whole-breast irradiation for early-stage breast ..
  13. Tran J, Sheth A. Complications of subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn: a case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Dermatol. 2003;20:257-61 pubmed
    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn is an uncommon, self-limited panniculitis of neonates. Rare complications such as hypercalcemia, thrombocytopenia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypoglycemia have been reported...
  14. Ganau S, Tortajada L, Escribano F, Andreu X, Sentis M. The great mimicker: fat necrosis of the breast--magnetic resonance mammography approach. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2009;38:189-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Fat necrosis of the breast is a common benign inflammatory process resulting from injury to breast fat. The pathogenesis of fat necrosis helps to explain its imaging features, which range from benign to malignant-appearing findings...
  15. Trombetta M, Valakh V, Julian T, Werts E, Parda D. Mammary fat necrosis following radiotherapy in the conservative management of localized breast cancer: does it matter?. Radiother Oncol. 2010;97:92-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Fat necrosis is a well-described and relatively common complication arising from post-lumpectomy irradiation of the breast, most commonly breast brachytherapy...
  16. Lee B, Song K. Calcified chronic pericardial fat necrosis in localized lipomatosis of pericardium. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188:W21-4 pubmed
  17. Pai S, Nagesh K, Radhakrishnan C. Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn mimicking generalized lymphadenopathy. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2007;73:357-8 pubmed
  18. Srinath G, Cohen M. Imaging findings in subcutaneous fat necrosis in a newborn. Pediatr Radiol. 2006;36:361-3 pubmed
    We describe the ultrasonography, the contrast-enhanced computed tomography and the magnetic resonance imaging of subcutaneous fat necrosis in a newborn infant.
  19. Parvathidevi G, Vijayashankar M, Belagavi C, Deepak -, Vijaya -, Narendra G, et al. Cytological diagnosis of subcutaneous fat necrosis of newborn: a case report. Dermatol Online J. 2005;11:20 pubmed
    Cytological findings of subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn, a rare and transient disorder of neonates, is described in a 20-day-old male baby, who presented with a 2-week history of firm, erythematous nodules and plaques on the back ..
  20. Kadry R, Hamadah I, Al Issa A, Field L, Alrabiah F. Multifocal scalp abscess with subcutaneous fat necrosis and scarring alopecia as a complication of scalp mesotherapy. J Drugs Dermatol. 2008;7:72-3 pubmed
    ..We report multifocal scalp abscesses with subcutaneous fat necrosis as a direct result of mesotherapy; therefore, requiring extensive surgical repair.
  21. Pineda V, Cáceres J, Andreu J, Vilar J, Domingo M. Epipericardial fat necrosis: radiologic diagnosis and follow-up. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005;185:1234-6 pubmed
  22. Tillman C, Holst R, Svedman C. Traumatic fat necrosis: a case report. Acta Derm Venereol. 2003;83:227-8 pubmed
  23. Burden A, Krafchik B. Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn: a review of 11 cases. Pediatr Dermatol. 1999;16:384-7 pubmed
    Subcutaneous fat necrosis (SFN) of the newborn is uncommon and usually occurs in the first weeks of life following a complicated delivery. The frequency with which hypercalcemia develops as a complication is uncertain...
  24. Lin C, Wu D, Shih P, Liu G, Chuang W. Supraumbilical skin rash and fat necrosis after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization: a case report. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2004;20:36-40 pubmed
    ..Skin biopsy of the lesion 1 year later showed fat necrosis with foreign body reaction and fibrosis. We discuss this rare complication of TACE and review the literature.
  25. Rubenstein J, Hairston J, Eggener S, Gonzalez C. Irritative voiding symptoms and microscopic hematuria caused by intraperitoneal calcified fat necrosis. Urology. 2002;59:444 pubmed
    ..Removal and histologic examination of the mass revealed calcified fat necrosis, most likely due to the spontaneous torsion and calcification of an appendix epiploicae...
  26. Diaz Cascajo C, Borghi S. Subcutaneous pseudomembranous fat necrosis: new observations. J Cutan Pathol. 2002;29:5-10 pubmed
    Pseudomembranous fat necrosis is a peculiar manifestation of necrosis of adipose tissue characterized by formation of pseudocystic cavities lined by crenulated membranes...
  27. Murat F, Gettman M. Free-floating organized fat necrosis: rare presentation of pelvic mass managed with laparoscopic techniques. Urology. 2004;63:176-7 pubmed
    ..These abnormalities, typically composed of organized fat necrosis, are most commonly thought to occur after spontaneous torsion and subsequent infarction of an appendix ..
  28. Martin S, Agarwal G, Lynch G. Subcutaneous fat necrosis as the presenting feature of a pancreatic carcinoma: the challenge of differentiating endocrine and acinar pancreatic neoplasms. Pancreas. 2009;38:219-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of subcutaneous fat necrosis as the presenting feature in a 61-year-old man with metastatic carcinoma of pancreatic origin...
  29. Chan L, Gee R, Keogh C, Munk P. Imaging features of fat necrosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2003;181:955-9 pubmed
    We describe five cases of biopsy-proven fat necrosis and review the imaging with an emphasis on MRI.
  30. Kroll S. Fat necrosis in free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous and deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000;106:576-83 pubmed
    ..epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps was reviewed to see if there were any differences in the incidence of fat necrosis and/or partial flap loss between the two techniques...
  31. Ramdial P, Jogessar V, Dada M. Membranous fat necrosis due to subcutaneous elemental mercury injections. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1999;20:369-73 pubmed
    Membranous fat necrosis (MFN) is a distinct abnormality in systemic and subcutaneous fatty tissue. Although ischemia and trauma have been implicated in its causation, the exact pathogenesis of MFN remains unknown...
  32. Alos N, Eugène D, Fillion M, Powell J, Kokta V, Chabot G. Pamidronate: Treatment for severe hypercalcemia in neonatal subcutaneous fat necrosis. Horm Res. 2006;65:289-94 pubmed
    Subcutaneous fat necrosis (SCFN) of the newborn is an uncommon disorder that occurs in the first weeks of life after foetal distress. It can be complicated by potentially life-threatening hypercalcemia...
  33. Ohno Y, Le Pavoux A, Saeki H, Asahina A, Tamaki K. A case of subcutaneous nodular fat necrosis with lipase-secreting acinar cell carcinoma. Int J Dermatol. 2003;42:384-5 pubmed
  34. Baillie M, Mok P. Fat necrosis in the breast: review of the mammographic and ultrasound features, and a strategy for management. Australas Radiol. 2004;48:288-95 pubmed
    The present study reviews the mammographic and ultrasound features of fat necrosis, the degree of correlation between the two modalities, and proposes a strategy for management, especially in cases with atypical appearances.
  35. Chala L, de Barros N, de Camargo Moraes P, Endo E, Kim S, Pincerato K, et al. Fat necrosis of the breast: mammographic, sonographic, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2004;33:106-26 pubmed
    b>Fat necrosis of the breast is a benign inflammatory process that may be mistaken for cancer in clinical examination or imaging studies...
  36. Ali A, Essam A. Abdominoplasty combined with Cesarean delivery: evaluation of the practice. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2011;35:80-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The study concluded that abdominoplasty combined with Cesarean delivery carries a higher incidence of complications and does not give the desired aesthetic outcome. The authors do not recommend this practice...
  37. Gatta G, Pinto A, Romano S, Ancona A, Scaglione M, Volterrani L. Clinical, mammographic and ultrasonographic features of blunt breast trauma. Eur J Radiol. 2006;59:327-30 pubmed
    ..mammography may be the first radiographic study to suggest this history, particularly if it shows findings of fat necrosis. Clinical, mammographic and sonographic findings resulting from non-iatrogenic trauma to the breast can be ..
  38. Aljaser F, Weinstein M. A 1-week-old newborn with hypercalcemia and palpable nodules: subcutaneous fat necrosis. CMAJ. 2008;178:1653-4 pubmed publisher
    We present a 1-week-old newborn with subcutaneous fat necrosis complicated by hypercalcemia. She received conservative treatment of adequate hydration and restricted supplementary vitamin D.
  39. Cooper L, Palmer M, Oien K. Cirrhosis with steatohepatitis following longterm stilboestrol treatment. J Clin Pathol. 2003;56:639 pubmed
  40. Paige K, Bostwick J, Bried J. TRAM flap breast reconstruction: tumescent technique reduces blood loss and transfusion requirement. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;113:1645-9 pubmed
    ..Medical records were reviewed, and rates of partial flap loss, fat necrosis (> or =10 percent flap volume), flap full-thickness skin loss, donor-site complication (skin loss, hernia, ..
  41. Carasso S, Oren I, Alroy G, Krivoy N. Disseminated fat necrosis with asymptomatic pancreatitis: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Med Sci. 2000;319:68-72 pubmed
    ..Biochemical profile, imaging, and skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of disseminated fat necrosis (DFN) accompanying asymptomatic pancreatitis...
  42. Chen X, Yu K, Tong G, Hood M, Storper I, Hamele Bena D. Fine needle aspiration of pleomorphic lipoma of the neck: report of two cases. Diagn Cytopathol. 2010;38:184-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report two cases of pleomorphic lipoma, the diagnoses of which were suggested on fine needle aspiration biopsies and subsequently confirmed by surgical excisions...
  43. Zelger B. Panniculitides, an algorithmic approach. G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2013;148:351-70 pubmed
    ..Several types of fat necrosis are observed: xanthomatized macrophages in lipophagic necrosis; granular fat necrosis and fat micropseudocysts ..
  44. Panariello L, Ayala F. Nicolau syndrome following intramuscular diclofenac injection: a case report. Dermatol Ther. 2008;21 Suppl 1:S10-2 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a case of NS following intramuscular injection of diclofenac...
  45. Bachmeyer C, Moguelet P. [Encapsulated and calcified fat necrosis]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2007;134:801-2 pubmed
  46. Liao G, Su Y, Yang X, Zeng R, Zhang Z, Xu Y. [Risk factors of fat necrosis in pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps]. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2007;23:315-7 pubmed
    To explore the risk factors of fat necrosis in pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps.
  47. Donuru A, Obaid H, al Attar M, Kandula V, Purnell D. Axillary lump: an unusual presentation of fat necrosis in the breast. Australas Radiol. 2007;51 Spec No.:B40-2 pubmed
    ..In this case report, we established a diagnosis of an axillary lump caused by fat necrosis. We present this case report with review of the literature to familiarize clinicians with this condition.
  48. Kim E, Lee T, Eom J. Comparison of fat necrosis between zone II and zone III in pedicled transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flaps: a prospective study of 400 consecutive cases. Ann Plast Surg. 2007;59:256-9 pubmed
    b>Fat necrosis in transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap is considered to be mainly affected by blood supply...
  49. Youn A. Nonsurgical face lift. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;119:1951; author reply 1951-2 pubmed
  50. Kwak J, Lee S, Park H, Kim J, Kim S, Kim E. Sonographic findings in complications of cosmetic breast augmentation with autologous fat obtained by liposuction. J Clin Ultrasound. 2004;32:299-301 pubmed
    ..Mammography and sonography demonstrated fat necrosis in the right breast and a solid inflammatory mass in the left breast. The diagnoses were confirmed by biopsy.
  51. Agarwal S, Nelson J, Stevens S, Gilliam A. An unusual case of cutaneous pancreatic fat necrosis. J Cutan Med Surg. 2002;6:16-8 pubmed
    Cutaneous pancreatic fat necrosis is a pathognomonic sign for pancreatic disease and usually presents as subcutaneous nodules in the pretibial region.
  52. Al Allaf A, Pullar T. A non-infective cause of recurrent purulent arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol. 2002;31:311-3 pubmed
    ..We describe a case of recurrent attacks of acute sterile pyogenic arthritis in a 66-year old man. Seven years after the first presentation the diagnosis of acute disseminated fatty necrosis (DFN) was made...
  53. Haj M, Loberant N, Salamon V, Cohen I. Membranous fat necrosis of the breast: diagnosis by minimally invasive technique. Breast J. 2004;10:504-8 pubmed
    Clinical and mammographic features of membranous fat necrosis (MFN) may simulate breast malignancy and tissue sampling is essential for accurate diagnosis...