Summary: Painful menstruation.

Top Publications

  1. Yang H, Liu C, Chen X, Ma L, Xie J, Guo N, et al. Systematic review of clinical trials of acupuncture-related therapies for primary dysmenorrhea. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87:1114-22 pubmed publisher
    Acupuncture-related therapies might be an effective intervention for primary dysmenorrhea.
  2. Mannix L, Martin V, Cady R, Diamond M, Lener S, White J, et al. Combination treatment for menstrual migraine and dysmenorrhea using sumatriptan-naproxen: two randomized controlled trials. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;114:106-13 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of sumatriptan-naproxen during the mild pain phase of a single menstrual migraine attack associated with dysmenorrhea.
  3. Sun L, Ge J, Yang J, She Y, Li W, Li X, et al. [Randomized controlled clinical study on ginger-partitioned moxibustion for patients with cold-damp stagnation type primary dysmenorrhea]. Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2009;34:398-402 pubmed
    To observe the effect of ginger-partitioned moxibustion in the treatment of patients with primary dysmenorrhea (PD) of cold-damp stagnation type.
  4. Liu C, Xie J, Wang L, Zheng Y, Ma Z, Yang H, et al. Immediate analgesia effect of single point acupuncture in primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized controlled trial. Pain Med. 2011;12:300-7 pubmed publisher
    Acupuncture is often used for primary dysmenorrhea.
  5. Liu F, Xiong J, Huang G, Wang W. [Study on the underlying mechanism of acupuncture in regulating neuroendocrine activity in dysmenorrhea rats]. Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2009;34:3-8 pubmed
    To observe the influence of acupuncture on neuroendocrine in rats with primary dysmenorrhea, so as to explore its underlying mechanism in relieving dysmenorrhea.
  6. Ogunfowokan A, Babatunde O. Management of primary dysmenorrhea by school adolescents in ILE-IFE, Nigeria. J Sch Nurs. 2010;26:131-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Dysmenorrhea is a problem that girls and women face and often manage themselves with or without support from health professionals...
  7. Ma H, Hong M, Duan J, Liu P, Fan X, Shang E, et al. Altered cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood monocytes across the menstrual cycle in primary dysmenorrhea: a case-control study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55200 pubmed publisher
    Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecological complaints in young women, but potential peripheral immunologic features underlying this condition remain undefined...
  8. Durham P, Vause C, Derosier F, McDonald S, Cady R, Martin V. Changes in salivary prostaglandin levels during menstrual migraine with associated dysmenorrhea. Headache. 2010;50:844-51 pubmed publisher
    To measure prostaglandin levels in the saliva of individuals during menstrual migraine associated with dysmenorrhea (MMaD) and in response to treatment with a single tablet combination of sumatriptan succinate and naproxen sodium.
  9. Unsal A, Ayranci U, Tozun M, Arslan G, Calik E. Prevalence of dysmenorrhea and its effect on quality of life among a group of female university students. Ups J Med Sci. 2010;115:138-45 pubmed publisher
    The objective was to evaluate the prevalence of dysmenorrhea and determine its effect on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among a group of female university students...

More Information


  1. Chung Y, Chen H, Yeh M. Acupoint stimulation intervention for people with primary dysmenorrhea: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Complement Ther Med. 2012;20:353-63 pubmed publisher
    Primary dysmenorrhea is a common gynecologic complain in women of reproductive age. Acupoint stimulation therapies might be an effective intervention for primary dysmenorrhea.
  2. Akdemir N, Cinemre H, Bilir C, Akin O, Akdemir R. Increased serum asymmetric dimethylarginine levels in primary dysmenorrhea. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2010;69:153-6 pubmed publisher
    Primary dysmenorrhea is a common disorder among young women, and uterine ischemia plays an important role in pelvic pain. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is accepted as a strong marker of endothelial dysfunction.
  3. Wong L, Khoo E. Dysmenorrhea in a multiethnic population of adolescent Asian girls. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2010;108:139-42 pubmed publisher
    To determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea, its impact, and the treatment-seeking behavior of adolescent Asian girls.
  4. Yang Y, Zhang X, Zhou C, Huang X, Lin J, Xu H. Elevated immunoreactivity of RANTES and CCR1 correlate with the severity of stages and dysmenorrhea in women with deep infiltrating endometriosis. Acta Histochem. 2013;115:434-9 pubmed publisher
    ..RANTES/CCR1 increased significantly according to the severity of dysmenorrhea. RANTES and CCR1 together may provide a potential biomarker for DIE-related pain and inflammatory response in ..
  5. Mechsner S, Grum B, Gericke C, Loddenkemper C, Dudenhausen J, Ebert A. Possible roles of oxytocin receptor and vasopressin-1? receptor in the pathomechanism of dysperistalsis and dysmenorrhea in patients with adenomyosis uteri. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:2541-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the expression of oxytocin (OTR) and/or vasopressin (VP1?R) receptor in patients with and without adenomyosis uteri...
  6. Kashefi F, Ziyadlou S, Khajehei M, Ashraf A, Fadaee A, Jafari P. Effect of acupressure at the Sanyinjiao point on primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2010;16:198-202 pubmed publisher
    We conducted this study to assess the effect of acupressure at the Sanyinjiao point on primary dysmenorrhea.
  7. Yeh L, Liu J, Liu Y, Lin K, Tsai T, Wang L. Anemia-related hemogram, uterine artery pulsatility index, and blood pressure for the effects of Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15:531-8 pubmed publisher
    ..reported pain intensity as the primary outcome of Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) for treating primary dysmenorrhea. We further explored other effects of this formula in accordance with the theory of Traditional Chinese ..
  8. Hosono T, Takashima Y, Morita Y, Nishimura Y, Sugita Y, Isami C, et al. Effects of a heat- and steam-generating sheet on relieving symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea in young women. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2010;36:818-24 pubmed publisher
    To test the efficacy of heat- and steam-generating (HSG) sheets for the relief of symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea in young women.
  9. Eccles R, Holbrook A, Jawad M. A double-blind, randomised, crossover study of two doses of a single-tablet combination of ibuprofen/paracetamol and placebo for primary dysmenorrhoea. Curr Med Res Opin. 2010;26:2689-99 pubmed publisher
  10. Tu C, Niddam D, Chao H, Liu R, Hwang R, Yeh T, et al. Abnormal cerebral metabolism during menstrual pain in primary dysmenorrhea. Neuroimage. 2009;47:28-35 pubmed publisher
    Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM, menstrual pain without pelvic abnormality) is the most common gynecological disorder for women in the reproductive age...
  11. Wang M, Hsu M, Chien L, Kao C, Liu C. Effects of auricular acupressure on menstrual symptoms and nitric oxide for women with primary dysmenorrhea. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15:235-42 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of auricular acupressure on relieving menstrual symptoms and decreasing nitric oxide (NO) for women with primary dysmenorrhea.
  12. Yang J, Sun L, She Y, Ge J, Li X, Zhang R. [Influence of ginger-partitioned moxibustion on serum NO and plasma endothelin-1 contents in patients with primary dysmenorrhea of cold-damp stagnation type]. Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2008;33:409-12 pubmed
    To explore the mechanism of ginger-partitioned moxibustion in the treatment of cold-damp stagnation type primary dysmenorrhea (PD) patients.
  13. Ma Y, Ma L, Liu X, Ma Y, Lv K, Wang D, et al. A comparative study on the immediate effects of electroacupuncture at Sanyinjiao (SP6), Xuanzhong (GB39) and a non-meridian point, on menstrual pain and uterine arterial blood flow, in primary dysmenorrhea patients. Pain Med. 2010;11:1564-75 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of Sanyinjiao (SP6), Xuanzhong (GB39), and an adjacent non-meridian point on menstrual pain and uterine arterial blood flow in primary dysmenorrhea patients.
  14. Rakhshaee Z. Effect of three yoga poses (cobra, cat and fish poses) in women with primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized clinical trial. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2011;24:192-6 pubmed publisher
    We have evaluated the clinical efficacy of yoga for primary dysmenorrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea occurs in 50% of female adolescents and is a common problem in women of reproductive age...
  15. Xiong J, Liu F, Zhang M, Wang W, Huang G. De-qi, not psychological factors, determines the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture treatment for primary dysmenorrhea. Chin J Integr Med. 2012;18:7-15 pubmed publisher
    ..study the impact of De-qi (, obtaining qi) and psychological factors on the efficacy of acupuncture treatment for primary dysmenorrhea, with an attempt to explore the relationship among De-qi, psychological factors, and clinical efficacy.
  16. Wijesiri H, Suresh T. Knowledge and attitudes towards dysmenorrhea among adolescent girls in an urban school in Sri Lanka. Nurs Health Sci. 2013;15:58-64 pubmed publisher
    Knowledge of and attitudes towards dysmenorrhea among adolescent school girls were assessed in this study...
  17. Janssen E, Rijkers A, Hoppenbrouwers K, Meuleman C, D Hooghe T. Prevalence of endometriosis diagnosed by laparoscopy in adolescents with dysmenorrhea or chronic pelvic pain: a systematic review. Hum Reprod Update. 2013;19:570-82 pubmed publisher
    ..laparoscopic investigation, 75% (237/314) in girls with CPP resistant to treatment, 70% (102/146) in girls with dysmenorrhea and 49% (204/420) in girls with CPP that is not necessarily resistant to treatment...
  18. Westling A, Tu F, Griffith J, Hellman K. The association of dysmenorrhea with noncyclic pelvic pain accounting for psychological factors. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013;209:422.e1-422.e10 pubmed publisher
    The factors that underlie pelvic pain are poorly understood. Specifically, the relative influence of dysmenorrhea and psychological factors in the etiology of noncyclic pelvic pain conditions, such as interstitial cystitis and irritable ..
  19. Mirbagher Ajorpaz N, Adib Hajbaghery M, Mosaebi F. The effects of acupressure on primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2011;17:33-6 pubmed publisher
    The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of acupressure on primary dysmenorrhea in Iranian medical sciences students.
  20. Shi G, Liu C, Zhu J, Guan L, Wang D, Wu M. Effects of acupuncture at Sanyinjiao (SP6) on prostaglandin levels in primary dysmenorrhea patients. Clin J Pain. 2011;27:258-61 pubmed publisher
    To explore the physiologic mechanism of immediate analgesic effect of acupuncture in primary dysmenorrhea patients.
  21. Maybin J, Critchley H, Jabbour H. Inflammatory pathways in endometrial disorders. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;335:42-51 pubmed publisher
  22. Wong L. Premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea: urban-rural and multiethnic differences in perception, impacts, and treatment seeking. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2011;24:272-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Recognizing the influential effects that these factors might have on shaping adolescents' attitudes is crucial in designing a more effective means of transmitting health information...
  23. Lee C, Roh J, Lim C, Hong J, Lee J, Min E. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of a far infrared-emitting sericite belt in patients with primary dysmenorrhea. Complement Ther Med. 2011;19:187-93 pubmed publisher
    To determine the efficacy and safety of a sericite which emits far infrared rays in the management of primary dysmenorrhea.
  24. Wickstrom K, Bruse C, Sjösten A, Spira J, Edelstam G. Pertubation with lignocaine as a new treatment of dysmenorrhea due to endometriosis: a randomized controlled trial. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:695-701 pubmed publisher
    Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology that can cause severe dysmenorrhea. Lignocaine has anti-inflammatory properties and exerts effects on nerve endings and intra-peritoneal macrophages...
  25. Guo S, Mao X, Ma Q, Liu X. Dysmenorrhea and its severity are associated with increased uterine contractility and overexpression of oxytocin receptor (OTR) in women with symptomatic adenomyosis. Fertil Steril. 2013;99:231-40 pubmed publisher
    ..MSMCs) derived from uterine tissues from women with and without adenomyosis correlate OTR expression with uterine contractility and dysmenorrhea severity, and see whether trichostatin A (TSA) and andrographolide inhibit OTR expression.
  26. Wong C, Lai K, Tse H. Effects of SP6 acupressure on pain and menstrual distress in young women with dysmenorrhea. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2010;16:64-9 pubmed publisher
    This study aims to evaluate the effects of Sanyinjiao (SP6) acupressure in reducing the pain level and menstrual distress resulting from dysmenorrhea.
  27. Eryilmaz G, Ozdemir F. Evaluation of menstrual pain management approaches by Northeastern Anatolian adolescents. Pain Manag Nurs. 2009;10:40-7 pubmed publisher
    ..05 +/- 1.05 years of age). We investigated the characteristics of dysmenorrhea in adolescents, dysmenorrhea management strategies used by adolescents, and use of medication...
  28. Ou M, Hsu T, Lai A, Lin Y, Lin C. Pain relief assessment by aromatic essential oil massage on outpatients with primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2012;38:817-22 pubmed publisher
    This study assessed the effectiveness of blended essential oils on menstrual cramps for outpatients with primary dysmenorrhea and explored the analgesic ingredients in the essential oils.
  29. Rahnama P, Montazeri A, Huseini H, Kianbakht S, Naseri M. Effect of Zingiber officinale R. rhizomes (ginger) on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea: a placebo randomized trial. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12:92 pubmed publisher
    ..rhizome (ginger) is a popular spice that has traditionally been used to combat the effects of various inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginger on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea.
  30. Liu Y, Ma L, Xing J, Cao H, Wang Y, Tang L, et al. Does Traditional Chinese Medicine pattern affect acupoint specific effect? Analysis of data from a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial for primary dysmenorrhea. J Altern Complement Med. 2013;19:43-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study assessed the importance of the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) pattern on an acupoint-specific effect...
  31. Chapron C, Souza C, Borghese B, Lafay Pillet M, Santulli P, Bijaoui G, et al. Oral contraceptives and endometriosis: the past use of oral contraceptives for treating severe primary dysmenorrhea is associated with endometriosis, especially deep infiltrating endometriosis. Hum Reprod. 2011;26:2028-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore compared various characteristics of OC use and the surgical diagnosis of endometriosis histologically graded as superficial peritoneal endometriosis (SUP), ovarian endometrioma (OMA) or deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE)...
  32. Harada T, Momoeda M, Terakawa N, Taketani Y, Hoshiai H. Evaluation of a low-dose oral contraceptive pill for primary dysmenorrhea: a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:1928-31 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-dose oral contraceptives (IKH-01; 0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethisterone) for patients with primary dysmenorrhea.
  33. Dorn L, Negriff S, Huang B, Pabst S, Hillman J, Braverman P, et al. Menstrual symptoms in adolescent girls: association with smoking, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. J Adolesc Health. 2009;44:237-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Dysmenorrhea affects quality of life and contributes to absenteeism from school and work, thereby diminishing opportunities for successful psychosocial and cognitive development during adolescence...
  34. Singh A, Kiran D, Singh H, Nel B, Singh P, Tiwari P. Prevalence and severity of dysmenorrhea: a problem related to menstruation, among first and second year female medical students. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;52:389-97 pubmed
    b>Dysmenorrhea is the most common of gynecologic complaints. It affects half of all female adolescents today and represents the leading cause of periodic college/school absenteeism among that population...
  35. Ortiz M, Rangel Flores E, Carrillo Alarcón L, Veras Godoy H. Prevalence and impact of primary dysmenorrhea among Mexican high school students. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009;107:240-3 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate factors affecting the prevalence of dysmenorrhea in a group of Mexican students.
  36. Nahid K, Fariborz M, Ataolah G, Solokian S. The effect of an Iranian herbal drug on primary dysmenorrhea: a clinical controlled trial. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2009;54:401-404 pubmed publisher
    Our objective was to examine the effect of an Iranian herbal drug in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial among 180 female students at Isfahan University dormitory aged 18 to 27 ..
  37. Zhu Y, Chen R, Le J, Miao F. [Efficacy observation of primary dysmenorrhea treated with isolated-herbal moxibustion on Shenque (CV 8)]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2010;30:453-5 pubmed
    To observe the clinical efficacy on primary dysmenorrhea treated with isolated herbal moxibustion on Shenque (CV 8).
  38. Abdul Razzak K, Ayoub N, Abu Taleb A, Obeidat B. Influence of dietary intake of dairy products on dysmenorrhea. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2010;36:377-83 pubmed publisher
    To determine the frequency of dysmenorrhea and its associated symptoms amongst a number of adolescent female students and to investigate the possible association between daily dairy product intake and dysmenorrhea.
  39. Zahradnik H, Hanjalic Beck A, Groth K. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and hormonal contraceptives for pain relief from dysmenorrhea: a review. Contraception. 2010;81:185-96 pubmed publisher
    This article is a comprehensive overview of dysmenorrhea and a systematic review of the available literature on the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and hormonal contraceptives for the therapy and management of ..
  40. Akin M, Weingand K, Hengehold D, Goodale M, Hinkle R, Smith R. Continuous low-level topical heat in the treatment of dysmenorrhea. Obstet Gynecol. 2001;97:343-9 pubmed
    ..To compare the efficacy of topically applied heat for menstrual pain with oral ibuprofen and placebo treatment...
  41. Taylor D, Miaskowski C, Kohn J. A randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of an acupressure device (relief brief) for managing symptoms of dysmenorrhea. J Altern Complement Med. 2002;8:357-70 pubmed
    To develop and test the safety and effectiveness of an acupressure garment (the Relief Brief) in decreasing the pain and symptom distress associated with dysmenorrhea.
  42. Akerlund M. Involvement of oxytocin and vasopressin in the pathophysiology of preterm labor and primary dysmenorrhea. Prog Brain Res. 2002;139:359-65 pubmed
    ..In women with primary dysmenorrhea the plasma concentration of vasopressin is elevated...
  43. Morita M, Asakawa Y, Nakakuma M, Kubo H. Laparoscopic excision of myometrial adenomyomas in patients with adenomyosis uteri and main symptoms of severe dysmenorrhea and hypermenorrhea. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc. 2004;11:86-9 pubmed
    ..and localized portions of adenomyosis uteri in all women in whom the disorder was accompanied by severe dysmenorrhea and hypermenorrhea. We used the same procedure as for laparoscopic myomectomy...
  44. Hondras M, Long C, Brennan P. Spinal manipulative therapy versus a low force mimic maneuver for women with primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized, observer-blinded, clinical trial. Pain. 1999;81:105-14 pubmed
    Non-drug therapies for women with primary dysmenorrhea are primarily based on anecdotal evidence and small-scale clinical studies...
  45. Tzafettas J. Painful menstruation. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2006;3 Suppl 1:160-3 pubmed
    ..Plasma levels of vasopressin appear to be higher in women with dysmenorrhea suggesting a possible aetiological role in the uterine prostaglandin synthesis...
  46. Chopin N, Ballester M, Borghese B, Fauconnier A, Foulot H, Malartic C, et al. Relation between severity of dysmenorrhea and endometrioma. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85:1375-80 pubmed
    To evaluate the relationship between the severity of dysmenorrhea and endometrioma.
  47. Bahamondes L, Petta C, Fernandes A, Monteiro I. Use of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in women with endometriosis, chronic pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea. Contraception. 2007;75:S134-9 pubmed
    This report is a review of the medical literature on the use of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in women with endometriosis, adenomyosis, cyclic pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea.
  48. Mannix L. Menstrual-related pain conditions: dysmenorrhea and migraine. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2008;17:879-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common menstrual disorders are dysmenorrhea and headache; these conditions are leading causes of work or school absenteeism and substantially impact ..
  49. Chantler I, Mitchell D, Fuller A. Actigraphy quantifies reduced voluntary physical activity in women with primary dysmenorrhea. J Pain. 2009;10:38-46 pubmed publisher
    ..was able to detect and measure the reduced physical activity reported by women with moderate to severe primary dysmenorrhea. Twelve young women with a history of primary dysmenorrhea and 12 young women without a history of dysmenorrhea ..
  50. Juang C, Yen M, Horng H, Cheng C, Yuan C, Chang C. Natural progression of menstrual pain in nulliparous women at reproductive age: an observational study. J Chin Med Assoc. 2006;69:484-8 pubmed
    ..Menstrual pain can be alleviated after childbirth. The purpose of this observational study was to evaluate the natural progression of menstrual pain among nulliparous women at their reproductive age...
  51. Burnett M, Antao V, Black A, Feldman K, Grenville A, Lea R, et al. Prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea in Canada. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2005;27:765-70 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence, clinical effect, characteristics, and underlying risk factors of primary dysmenorrhea (PD) in Canada.
  52. Zullo F, Palomba S, Zupi E, Russo T, Morelli M, Sena T, et al. Long-term effectiveness of presacral neurectomy for the treatment of severe dysmenorrhea due to endometriosis. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc. 2004;11:23-8 pubmed
    To assess the long-term effectiveness of presacral neurectomy (PSN) in women with severe dysmenorrhea due to endometriosis treated with conservative laparoscopic surgical intervention.
  53. Fujiwara T. Diet during adolescence is a trigger for subsequent development of dysmenorrhea in young women. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2007;58:437-44 pubmed
    ..The intensity of dysmenorrhea was classified into three grades...