leukemoid reaction


Summary: A peripheral blood picture resembling that of leukemia or indistinguishable from it on the basis of morphologic appearance alone. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Halkes C, Dijstelbloem H, Eelkman Rooda S, Kramer M. Extreme leucocytosis: not always leukaemia. Neth J Med. 2007;65:248-51 pubmed
    ..Besides leukaemia, a leukaemoid reaction, which often has a dismal prognosis, should be considered in patients with an extreme leucocytosis...
  2. Tilak V, Rai M, Singh V, Rai A, Raman R. Hepatocellular carcinoma presenting as neutrophilic leukaemoid reaction--a rare entity. J Indian Med Assoc. 2007;105:462, 464-5 pubmed
    ..FNAC from the mass in the liver revealed features of moderately differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. The patient deteriorated within two weeks and died thereafter...
  3. Ho M, Ha S, Chan G, Ma E. Leukemia or leukemoid, Down syndrome or not?. Haematologica. 2004;89:ECR33 pubmed
  4. Alizadeh P, Rahbarimanesh A, Bahram M, Salmasian H. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 presenting as leukemoid reaction. Indian J Pediatr. 2007;74:1121-3 pubmed
    ..We present a male neonate referred with continuation of leukemoid reaction in spite of antibiotic therapy of simultaneous omphalitis...
  5. Nimieri H, Makoni S, Madziwa F, Nemiary D. Leukemoid reaction response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy in a patient with cervical carcinoma. Ann Hematol. 2003;82:316-7 pubmed
    A white blood cell count more than 50 x 10(9)/l associated with a cause outside the bone marrow is termed a leukemoid reaction. Although it simulates leukemia, most of its causes are benign...
  6. Jardin F, Vasse M, Debled M, Dominique S, Courville P, Callonnec F, et al. Intense paraneoplastic neutrophilic leukemoid reaction related to a G-CSF-secreting lung sarcoma. Am J Hematol. 2005;80:243-5 pubmed
    A white blood cell count more than 50 x 10(9)/l, not related to bone marrow involvement, is termed leukemoid reaction. We report on the first case of an undifferentiated sarcoma of the lung associated with an intense paraneoplastic ..
  7. Sun C, Lin H, Chen Y, Tsai C, Wu M. Leukemoid reaction after methotrexate-induced pancytopenia in a patient undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Chang Gung Med J. 2006;29:513-7 pubmed
    ..No evidence of leukemia was found on bone marrow biopsy. The leukocyte count gradually returned to normal with conservative therapy...
  8. Talmadge J, Gabrilovich D. History of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Nat Rev Cancer. 2013;13:739-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Timeline article, we discuss the history of MDSCs, their influence on tumour progression and metastasis, and the crosstalk between tumour cells, MDSCs and the host macroenvironment...
  9. Stav K, Leibovici D, Siegel Y, Lindner A. Leukemoid reaction associated with transitional cell carcinoma. Isr Med Assoc J. 2002;4:223-4 pubmed

More Information


  1. Qureshi K, Raman A, Tan D, Fakih M. Leukemoid reaction in pancreatic cancer: a case report and review of the literature. JOP. 2006;7:631-4 pubmed
    The presentation of pancreatic cancer with a leukemoid reaction is rare with no prior reports in the English language literature.
  2. Ma X, Li G, Cai Z, Sun W, Liu J, Zhang F. Leukemoid reaction in malignant bone tumor patients - a retrospective, single-institution study. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2012;16:1895-9 pubmed
    To the Authors' knowledge, the literature regarding leukemoid reaction in patients with malignant bone tumor is sparse, and most of patients with leukemoid reaction have poor prognosis.
  3. Hsiao R, Omar S. Outcome of extremely low birth weight infants with leukemoid reaction. Pediatrics. 2005;116:e43-51 pubmed
    b>Leukemoid reaction (LR) is defined as an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of >30 x 10(3)/mm(3)...
  4. Wilcox R. Cancer-associated myeloproliferation: old association, new therapeutic target. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010;85:656-63 pubmed publisher
    The association between malignancy and development of a paraneoplastic leukocytosis, the so-called leukemoid reaction, has long been appreciated...
  5. Zanardo V, Savio V, Giacomin C, Rinaldi A, Marzari F, Chiarelli S. Relationship between neonatal leukemoid reaction and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in low-birth-weight infants: a cross-sectional study. Am J Perinatol. 2002;19:379-86 pubmed
    b>Leukemoid reaction in low-birth-weight (LBW) infants is a rare, recently documented phenomenon, implicated in the sequence of multiorgan inflammatory diseases of preterm infants...
  6. Kalra M, Dinand V, Sachdeva A, Bhat S, Piplani T, Yadav S. Pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma presenting with pulmonary nodules and leukemoid reaction. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010;55:193-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Investigations revealed a leukemoid reaction and bilateral diffuse nodular opacities on chest X-ray...
  7. Laad G, Miranda M. Eosinophilic leukemoid reaction associated with carbamazepine hypersensitivity. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2005;71:35-7 pubmed
    ..The eosinophil counts returned to normal after 2 weeks of oral prednisolone therapy. This case is reported because of its rarity in the Indian medical literature...
  8. Boşoteanu C, Boşoteanu M, Aşchie M. Differential diagnosis issues in a case of gastric carcinoma associated with leukemoid reaction. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2009;50:701-5 pubmed
    ..We report a case of gastric carcinoma with abnormal hematological picture dominated by leukemoid reaction and peculiar histopathological aspect...
  9. Aldape M, Bryant A, Ma Y, Stevens D. The leukemoid reaction in Clostridium sordellii infection: neuraminidase induction of promyelocytic cell proliferation. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:1838-45 pubmed
    ..Shock, diffuse capillary leak, and a leukemoid reaction (LR) are cardinal features of these infections. The magnitude of the LR is highly correlated with mortality...
  10. Dupré S, Hunter K. Murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 induces a leukemoid reaction with splenomegaly: association with tumor-derived growth factors. Exp Mol Pathol. 2007;82:12-24 pubmed
    A leukemoid reaction with granulocytosis and splenomegaly has been observed in animals and humans with a variety of tumors...
  11. Ohkawa T, Miyamoto S, Sugie M, Tomizawa D, Imai K, Nagasawa M, et al. Transient abnormal myelopoiesis in non-Down syndrome neonate. Pediatr Int. 2015;57:e14-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The possibility of transient abnormal myelopoiesis should be carefully considered before intensive chemotherapy is adopted. ..
  12. Awad M, Singleton J, Lyras D. The Sialidase NanS Enhances Non-TcsL Mediated Cytotoxicity of Clostridium sordellii. Toxins (Basel). 2016;8: pubmed publisher
    ..although previous work has suggested that the sialidase enzyme NanS may be involved in the characteristic leukemoid reaction that occurs during severe disease. In this study we investigated the role of NanS in C...
  13. Wang Z, Cai Q, Li G, Jiang N, Niu Y. Giant Pheochromocytoma With Leukemoid Reaction: A Case Report. Urology. 2017;99:e17-e19 pubmed publisher
    We present a rare case of silent giant pheochromocytoma with leukemoid reaction that has not been reported before. The patient was a 61-year-old woman who complained of progressive weight loss for 3 months...
  14. Singh S, Mandal A, Agarwal M, Das A. Primary renal inflammatory malignant fibrous histiocytoma: a diagnostic challenge. Int J Urol. 2006;13:1000-2 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis, histology, therapeutic options and prognosis of this rare lesion are discussed. ..
  15. Kondo S, Tanimoto K, Okamura S. [Transient leukemoid reaction of plasma cells in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis]. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2007;48:632-6 pubmed
    ..The lymphadenopathy and the increase of plasma cells in the peripheral blood and the bone marrow gradually decreased after the cessation of MTX and SSA. ..
  16. Yoshida K, Toki T, Okuno Y, Kanezaki R, Shiraishi Y, Sato Otsubo A, et al. The landscape of somatic mutations in Down syndrome-related myeloid disorders. Nat Genet. 2013;45:1293-9 pubmed publisher
  17. Ganti A, Potti A, Mehdi S. Uncommon syndromes and treatment manifestations of malignancy: Case 2. Metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer presenting with leukocytosis. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:168-70 pubmed
  18. Ashraf M. Myeloid leukaemoid reaction in a surgical case. Bristol Med Chir J. 1969;84:72-6 pubmed
  19. Dukes J, Tierney L. Paraneoplastic leukemoid reaction as marker for transitional cell carcinoma recurrence. Urology. 2009;73:928.e17-9 pubmed publisher
    A case of a 78-year-old man with transitional cell carcinoma and a paraneoplastic leukemoid reaction. The leukocytosis was present at the diagnosis of carcinoma...
  20. Morales A, Hashimoto L, Mokhtee D. Alcoholic hepatitis with leukemoid reaction after surgery. J Gastrointest Surg. 2006;10:83-5 pubmed
    ..2/mm(3) on postoperative day 14. However, he died on postoperative day 16. We conclude that the patient had AH-associated LR in the postoperative period, but died despite successful treatment of the LR with steroids. ..
  21. Pazhaniyandi S, Lenin R, Sivathanu S. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with a leukemoid reaction in an infant with scrub typhus. J Infect Public Health. 2015;8:626-9 pubmed publisher
    ..There was laboratory evidence of anemia, thrombocytopenia and a leukemoid reaction. Infection induced hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with a leukemoid reaction was suspected because of ..
  22. Aldape M, Tao A, Heeney D, McIndoo E, French J, Xu D. Experimental identification and computational characterization of a novel extracellular metalloproteinase produced by Clostridium sordellii. RSC Adv. 2017;7:13928-13938 pubmed publisher
    ..Severe capillary leakage, toxic shock syndrome, and an extreme leukemoid reaction (LR), are hallmark features of C. sordellii infections and contribute to its high mortality rate...
  23. Anoop P, Atra A. Prominent megakaryocytic dysplasia after regression of transient abnormal myelopoiesis associated with GATA-1 mutation. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2012;34:640 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe isolated dysmegakaryopoiesis despite complete resolution of TAM in an 18-month-old girl, who developed AMKL 6 months later...
  24. Nakamura T, Ezaki S, Takasaki J, Itabashi K, Ogawa Y. Leukemoid reaction and chronic lung disease in infants with very low birth weight. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2002;11:396-9 pubmed
    To analyze the relationship between the leukemoid reaction and chronic lung disease in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants...
  25. El Osta H, Salyers W, Palko W, Hagan M, El Haddad B, Schulz T. Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with leukemoid reaction. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:4356-8 pubmed publisher
  26. Nara T, Hayakawa A, Ikeuchi A, Katoh N, Kishimoto S. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-producing cutaneous angiosarcoma with leukaemoid reaction arising on a burn scar. Br J Dermatol. 2003;149:1273-5 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of G-CSF-producing cutaneous angiosarcoma. ..
  27. Dogan S, Beyazit Y, Altintas N, Aksu S, Oz S, Iskit A, et al. Systemic toxocariasis presenting with leukemoid reaction and hypereosinophilia. Am J Hematol. 2005;79:171 pubmed
  28. Kanegae M, Ximenes V, Falcão R, Colturato V, de Mattos E, Brunetti I, et al. Chemiluminescent determination of leukocyte alkaline phosphatase: an advantageous alternative to the cytochemical assay. J Clin Lab Anal. 2007;21:91-6 pubmed
    ..61 and 8.49 (10(-5) mV.s/cell), with a median of 2.04 (10(-5) mV.s/cell). These results were statistically different from those of CML patients (range=0.07-1.75, median=0.79) and LR patients (range= 3.84-47.24, median=9.58; P<0.05). ..
  29. Waheed U, Williams P, Brett S, Baldock G, Soni N. White cell count and intensive care unit outcome. Anaesthesia. 2003;58:180-2 pubmed
    ..5% vs. 18.9% and 23.9%, respectively). A leucopenic response, as well as an exaggerated leucemoid response, is associated with an increased mortality. ..
  30. Aldape M, Bayer C, Bryant A, Stevens D. A novel murine model of Clostridium sordellii myonecrosis: Insights into the pathogenesis of disease. Anaerobe. 2016;38:103-110 pubmed publisher
    ..Death is rapid and mortality ranges from 70 to 100%. Clinical features include an extreme leukemoid reaction, the absence of fever, and only minimal pain or erythema at the infected site...
  31. Potasman I, Grupper M. Leukemoid reaction: spectrum and prognosis of 173 adult patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:e177-81 pubmed publisher
    The prognosis of patients with leukemoid reaction (LR) depends mainly on their underlying illness. Our aim was to investigate the etiologies and prognosis of a mixed group of patients with LR. We identified 173 patients who had ?30...
  32. Azim T, Sarker M, Hamadani J, Khanum N, Halder R, Salam M, et al. Alterations in lymphocyte phenotype and function in children with shigellosis who develop complications. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1996;3:191-6 pubmed
    ..cell phenotype and function in children with Shigella dysenteriae 1 infection with complications (leukemoid reaction and/or hemolytic-uremic syndrome) and whether there are any alterations prior to the development of ..
  33. Arguelles Grande C, Leon F, Matilla J, Dominguez J, Montero J. Steroidal management and serum cytokine profile of a case of alcoholic hepatitis with leukemoid reaction. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2002;37:1111-3 pubmed
    ..This pathogenic mechanism might also underlie other cases of LRs and other complications of AH, thus providing a rationale for the benefits of corticotherapy in these rare but severe conditions. ..
  34. Kutluk T, Emir S, Karnak I, Gağlar M, Buyukpamukcu M. Mesenteric inflammatory pseudotumor: unusual presentation with leukemoid reaction and massive calcified mass. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2002;24:158-9 pubmed
    ..describe a child with an unusual presentation of mesenteric inflammatory pseudotumor in association with leukemoid reaction. An 11-year-old-boy admitted with short stature was found to have an abdominal mass localized in the right ..
  35. Underwood M, Wartell A, Borghese R. Hyperleukocytosis in a premature infant with intrauterine herpes simplex encephalitis. J Perinatol. 2012;32:469-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Leukemoid reactions are not uncommon in this population, but the association of herpes encephalitis and a leukemoid reaction or hyperleukocytosis has not been reported previously.
  36. Chuang S, Lin C, Lin Y. Undifferentiated ovarian carcinoma associated with leukemoid reaction. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei). 2001;64:592-6 pubmed
    Exceptionally excess leukocytosis or leukemoid reaction may develop in association with carcinomas of the lung and stomach...
  37. Saida S, Watanabe K, Sato Otsubo A, Terui K, Yoshida K, Okuno Y, et al. Clonal selection in xenografted TAM recapitulates the evolutionary process of myeloid leukemia in Down syndrome. Blood. 2013;121:4377-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our xenograft model of TAM may provide unique insight into the evolutionary process of leukemia...
  38. Diaz Brito V, Gomes M, Figueiredo Dias P, Mota Miranda A. [Leukemoid reaction and fever after polyvalent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccination]. Acta Med Port. 2007;20:233-7 pubmed
    ..polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine and who developed a serious local and systemic reaction, including leukemoid reaction and respiratory insufficiency. In this respect they make some comments regarding the value of this vaccine.
  39. Au W, Ma S, Kwong Y. Disseminated hepatosplenic mycobacterial infection masking myeloproliferative diseases as leukemoid reaction: a diagnostic pitfall. Leuk Lymphoma. 2001;42:805-8 pubmed
    ..We present three cases of MPD presenting as leukemoid reaction due to disseminated hepatosplenic mycobacterial sepsis...
  40. Shtalrid M, Shvidel L, Vorst E. Polyclonal reactive peripheral blood plasmacytosis mimicking plasma cell leukemia in a patient with Staphylococcal sepsis. Leuk Lymphoma. 2003;44:379-80 pubmed
    ..A 41-year-old man presented with rhabdomyolysis and sepsis while the peripheral blood smear showed a pseudo-leukemic picture of plasma cells. After starting supportive therapy, the morphologic finding disappeared within 24 h...
  41. Sai P, Kalavar M, Raval M, Sipot C, Steier W. A case of chronic neutrophilic leukemia with novel chromosomal abnormalities. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2004;2:543-5; discussion 545 pubmed
  42. Olipitz W, Strunk D, Beham Schmid C, Sill H. Neutrophilic leukemoid reaction as the presenting feature of de novo and therapy-related acute leukemias. Acta Haematol. 2004;111:233-4 pubmed
  43. Toki T, Kanezaki R, Kobayashi E, Kaneko H, Suzuki M, Wang R, et al. Naturally occurring oncogenic GATA1 mutants with internal deletions in transient abnormal myelopoiesis in Down syndrome. Blood. 2013;121:3181-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the internally deleted regions play important roles in megakaryocyte proliferation and that perturbation of this mechanism is involved in the pathogenesis of TAM...
  44. Liu H, Chen S, Wang L, Yeh T, Chai I, Liang D. In vitro cell growth stimulated by recombinant human cytokines can help to diagnose transient leukemia in neonates. J Formos Med Assoc. 2007;106:365-71 pubmed
  45. Lin H, Chai C, Su Y, Wu W, Huang C. Leukemoid reaction resulting from granulocyte colony-stimulating factor producing urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2007;23:89-92 pubmed
    b>Leukemoid reaction is defined as a reactive leukocytosis in response to infection, inflammation, or therapeutic agents such as growth factors and malignancy...
  46. Drury N, Ali A, Mussa S, Webb S, Rege K, Wallwork J. Acute leukaemoid reaction following cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2007;2:3 pubmed
    ..We present a case of undiagnosed chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia who developed rapidly fatal multi-organ dysfunction following cardiac surgery due to an acute leukaemoid reaction...
  47. Usnarska Zubkiewicz L, Nowicka J, Zamirowska A, Kuliczkowski K, Kübler A. [Leukemoid reaction with uncommonly high leucocytosis in the course of serious infection]. Wiad Lek. 2006;59:573-6 pubmed
    We present a case of 51-year old female patient with gastrointestinal perforation and septic shock leading to leukemoid reaction with WBC 155 x 109/l...
  48. George T. Malignant or benign leukocytosis. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2012;2012:475-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Myeloid leukemoid reactions commonly result from infections and show activated neutrophil changes on morphology; these should prompt evaluation for infection. Other causes of reactive myeloid leukocytoses are also discussed herein...
  49. Li M, Lee N, Yang Y, Yen H, Chang H, Chien Y, et al. Long-term outcome for Down syndrome patients with hematopoietic disorders. J Formos Med Assoc. 2016;115:94-9 pubmed publisher
    ..3% vs. 75%; p = 0.119). Outcome in DS-AML patients is optimal if appropriate treatment is provided. With modification of the treatment strategy in 2008, OS increased in Taiwan. ..
  50. Pascual Samaniego M, Torrecilla García Ripoll J, Calleja Escudero J, Egea Camacho J, Rivera Ferro J, Fernandez Del Busto E. [Hypercalcemia, leukemoid reaction, and thrombocytosis as paraneoplastic presentation of transitional cell carcinoma of the kidney]. Actas Urol Esp. 2001;25:400-3 pubmed
    ..The appearance of this metabolic disorder and other paraneoplastic signs like leukemoid reaction or thrombocytosis is a potential marker for malignant behaviour and poor prognosis in advanced tumours...
  51. Granger J, Kontoyiannis D. Etiology and outcome of extreme leukocytosis in 758 nonhematologic cancer patients: a retrospective, single-institution study. Cancer. 2009;115:3919-23 pubmed publisher
    ..To the authors' knowledge, the literature regarding extreme leukocytosis in solid tumor patients is sparse, consisting of a few case reports and small case series...
  52. Zanardo V, Vedovato S, Trevisanuto D, Chiarelli S. Leukemoid reaction and bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a primary inflammatory mechanism?. Pediatrics. 2005;116:1260-1; author reply 1261 pubmed
  53. Lin C, Chou M, Liu C, Tsai Y, Chuang C, Yu J. Leukemoid reaction in pseudomembranous colitis. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2007;99:305-6 pubmed
  54. Sekiguchi K, Maeda T, Suenobu S, Kunisaki N, Shimizu M, Kiyota K, et al. A transient myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm in a patient with cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome and a germline BRAF mutation. Am J Med Genet A. 2013;161A:2600-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of CFC syndrome with MDS/MPN. The coexistence of MDS/MPN may be related to this BRAF c.721 A>C mutation...
  55. Zanardo V, Magarotto M, Rosolen A. Neonatal leukemoid reaction and early development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in a very low-birth-weight infant. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2001;16:150-2 pubmed
    ..This article describes a 982-gram, 25 (+2 days) weeks' gestation male infant, who had a leukemoid reaction throughout the first week of life, followed by early development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
  56. Jing X, Sonoki T, Miyajima M, Sawada T, Terada N, Takemura S, et al. EphA4-deleted microenvironment regulates cancer development and leukemoid reaction of the isografted 4T1 murine breast cancer via reduction of an IGF1 signal. Cancer Med. 2016;5:1214-27 pubmed publisher
    ..and delayed tumor development reduced the production of G-CSF resulting in the decrease of splenomegaly and leukemoid reaction including MDSCs, which in turn inhibit the tumor progression...
  57. Marinella M, Burdette S, Bedimo R, Markert R. Leukemoid reactions complicating colitis due to Clostridium difficile. South Med J. 2004;97:959-63 pubmed
  58. Duran R, Ozbek U, Ciftdemir N, Acunas B, Sut N. The relationship between leukemoid reaction and perinatal morbidity, mortality, and chorioamnionitis in low birth weight infants. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14:e998-1001 pubmed publisher
    Neonatal leukemoid reaction (NLR) is relatively rare and considered as a white blood cell (WBC) count ?50×10(9)/l ...
  59. Burch J, Weston W, Rogers M, Morelli J. Cutaneous pustular leukemoid reactions in trisomy 21. Pediatr Dermatol. 2003;20:232-7 pubmed
    ..Recently, similar cases have been reported. Transient myeloproliferative disorders, or leukemoid reactions, should always be considered when newborns with Down syndrome or trisomy 21 mosaicism develop a pustular eruption...
  60. Egorov I, Kotina L. [Differential diagnosis of eosinophilia in combination with intoxication syndrome]. Klin Med (Mosk). 2004;82:70-2 pubmed
  61. Mukhopadhyay S, Mukhopadhyay S, Banki K, Mahajan S. Leukemoid reaction: a diagnostic clue in metastatic carcinoma mimicking classic Hodgkin lymphoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2004;128:1445-7 pubmed
    ..Both patients had an associated leukemoid reaction (using a threshold leukocyte count of 50 000/microL) and were eventually diagnosed with metastatic carcinoma...
  62. Bohm J, Kock S, Schaefer H, Fisch P. Evidence of clonality in chronic neutrophilic leukaemia. J Clin Pathol. 2003;56:292-5 pubmed
    ..The differentiation between CNL and LR is problematic because both conditions share similar morphological features; it is also important because patients with CNL generally have a poor prognosis...
  63. Cherif E, Kechaou I, Hassine L, Boukhris I, Azzabi S, Kaouech Z, et al. [A leukemoid leucocytosis]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2012;70:333-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Leukemoid reaction is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome. It can occur in association with carcinomas, in particular of the lung, gastric and renal. However, its association with sarcoma is infrequent...
  64. Rodríguez Alonso A, Romero Picos E, Suarez Pascual G, Bonelli Martín C, González Blanco A, Lorenzo Franco J, et al. [Priapism following paraneoplastic leukemoid reaction in a patient with bladder cancer]. Actas Urol Esp. 2004;28:539-43 pubmed
    ..b>Leukemoid reaction is an haematological disorder characterised by a leukocytosis of over 50000/microl, which develops ..
  65. He H, Zhang Z, Ge J, Zhou W. Leukemoid reaction associated with transitional cell carcinoma: a case report and literature review. Niger J Clin Pract. 2014;17:391-4 pubmed publisher
    The goal of this article was to investigate the diagnosis, treatment and mechanisms of the leukemoid reaction (LKR) 14 15 associated with transitional cell carcinoma. A 64-year-old male patient presented with anuria...
  66. Colella R, Hollensead S. Understanding and recognizing the Pelger-Huët anomaly. Am J Clin Pathol. 2012;137:358-66 pubmed publisher
  67. Azuma T, Sakai I, Matsumoto T, Ozawa A, Tanji N, Watanabe A, et al. Leukemoid reaction in association with bone marrow necrosis due to metastatic prostate cancer. Intern Med. 2005;44:1093-6 pubmed
    ..0 pg/ml respectively. It is probable that these humoral factors were partially responsible for the leukemoid reaction although other factors induced by the bone marrow necrosis with bone marrow metastasis of prostate cancer ..
  68. Shin H, Jeon J, Park J, Cha J, Joo K, Lee J, et al. A case of leukemoid reaction in a patient with sarcomatous hepatocellular carcinoma. Korean J Hepatol. 2011;17:226-8 pubmed publisher
    A leukemoid reaction is defined as reactive leukocytosis exceeding 50,000/mm(3), with a significant increase in early neutrophil precursors, and can be a paraneoplastic manifestation of various malignant tumors...
  69. Ndiaye O, Fall L, Sylla A, Gueye M, Moreira C, Sall M, et al. [Leukemoid reaction associated with uremic hemolytic syndrome. A retrospective study in Dakar]. Arch Pediatr. 2005;12:1404-5 pubmed
  70. Wirbelauer J, Thomas W, Siauw C, Wössner R, Speer C. [Leukemoid reaction in extremely immature preterm infants]. Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol. 2008;212:165-9 pubmed publisher
  71. Mañas García M, Marchán Carranza E, Galiana Gómez del Pulgar J, Ceres Alabau F. [Hepatocarcinoma with leukemoid reaction]. An Med Interna. 2004;21:197-8 pubmed
  72. Zeng Q, Wu Y, Zhan Y, Tang L, Zhou Y, Yin J, et al. Leukemoid reaction secondary to hypersensitivity syndrome to phenobarbital: a case report. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013;6:100-4 pubmed
    ..Hypersensitivity syndrome caused by phenobarbital presenting with a leukemoid reaction is a rare side effect, which is rarely ever reported and needs to be known...
  73. Dupré S, Redelman D, Hunter K. The mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1: characterization of the cellular landscape of primary tumours and metastatic tumour foci. Int J Exp Pathol. 2007;88:351-60 pubmed
    The murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 causes a leukemoid reaction with profound granulocytosis coincident with the production of tumour-derived growth factors...
  74. De Toledo F, Symes S. Leukemoid reaction due to Clostridium dificile infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: two case reports and a review of the literature. South Med J. 2004;97:388-92 pubmed
    ..To the best of our knowledge, these are the first described cases of leukemoid reaction associated with C difficile or other bacterial infection in AIDS patients...
  75. Wirges M, Stetson C, Oliver J. Pustular leukemoid reaction in a neonate with Down syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;54:S62-4 pubmed
  76. Zanardo V, Vedovato S, Trevisanuto D, Suppiej A, Cosmi E, Fais G, et al. Histological chorioamnionitis and neonatal leukemoid reaction in low-birth-weight infants. Hum Pathol. 2006;37:87-91 pubmed
    We investigated whether histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) is a risk factor predisposing to leukemoid reaction (LR) and whether LR is associated with the preterm parturition syndrome and the systemic fetal inflammation response syndrome...