leukocytosis

Summary

Summary: A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.

Top Publications

  1. Ohsawa I, Nagamachi S, Suzuki H, Honda D, Sato N, Ohi H, et al. Leukocytosis and high hematocrit levels during abdominal attacks of hereditary angioedema. BMC Gastroenterol. 2013;13:123 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore the cause of misdiagnosis, we compared the laboratory findings of HAE patients under normal conditions with those during abdominal attacks...
  2. Njølstad T, Engerud H, Werner H, Salvesen H, Trovik J. Preoperative anemia, leukocytosis and thrombocytosis identify aggressive endometrial carcinomas. Gynecol Oncol. 2013;131:410-5 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study is to investigate preoperative hematological parameters for anemia, leukocytosis and thrombocytosis in relation to established prognostic factors and survival in endometrial cancer.
  3. Efthimiou E, Al Sabah S, Sampalis J, Christou N. Fibrin sealant associated with increased body temperature and leukocytosis after laparoscopic gastric bypass. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2010;6:46-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied FS use and its effect on the clinical inflammatory response after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass...
  4. Tomita M, Shimizu T, Hara M, Ayabe T, Onitsuka T. Preoperative leukocytosis, anemia and thrombocytosis are associated with poor survival in non-small cell lung cancer. Anticancer Res. 2009;29:2687-90 pubmed
    Previous studies have reported any prognostic impact of preoperative leukocytosis, anemia and thrombocytosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The significance of the combined use of these 3 abnormal blood cell counts was investigated...
  5. Beckman J, Belcher J, Vineyard J, Chen C, Nguyen J, Nwaneri M, et al. Inhaled carbon monoxide reduces leukocytosis in a murine model of sickle cell disease. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;297:H1243-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that inhaled CO may be a beneficial anti-inflammatory therapy for sickle cell disease...
  6. Paul D, Zook K, Mackley A, Locke R. Reduced mortality and increased BPD with histological chorioamnionitis and leukocytosis in very-low-birth-weight infants. J Perinatol. 2010;30:58-62 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the association between leukocytosis, mortality and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBW) born to mothers with histological chorioamnionitis.
  7. Asadollahi K, Beeching N, Gill G. Leukocytosis as a predictor for non-infective mortality and morbidity. QJM. 2010;103:285-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Leukocytosis (raised concentration of white cells in the blood) is commonly associated with infection or inflammation, but can occur in a wide variety of other conditions...
  8. Passamonti F, Rumi E, Pietra D, Elena C, Boveri E, Arcaini L, et al. A prospective study of 338 patients with polycythemia vera: the impact of JAK2 (V617F) allele burden and leukocytosis on fibrotic or leukemic disease transformation and vascular complications. Leukemia. 2010;24:1574-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Leukocytosis did not affect thrombosis, MF, leukemia or survival...
  9. Czaplicki A, Borger J, Politi J, Chambers B, Taylor B. Evaluation of postoperative fever and leukocytosis in patients after total hip and knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2011;26:1387-9 pubmed publisher
    Fever and leukocytosis are common after joint arthroplasty, often resulting in additional studies. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of fever and leukocytosis after joint arthroplasty and the use of tests...

More Information

Publications66

  1. Murphy A, Akhtari M, Tolani S, Pagler T, Bijl N, Kuo C, et al. ApoE regulates hematopoietic stem cell proliferation, monocytosis, and monocyte accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:4138-49 pubmed publisher
    b>Leukocytosis is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk in humans and develops in hypercholesterolemic atherosclerotic animal models...
  2. Worley M, Nitschmann C, Shoni M, Vitonis A, Rauh Hain J, Feltmate C. The significance of preoperative leukocytosis in endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2012;125:561-5 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the impact of preoperative leukocytosis among patients with endometrial carcinoma.
  3. Zhang S, Condac E, Qiu H, Jiang J, Gutierrez Sanchez G, Bergmann C, et al. Heparin-induced leukocytosis requires 6-O-sulfation and is caused by blockade of selectin- and CXCL12 protein-mediated leukocyte trafficking in mice. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:5542-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Leukocytosis refers to an increase in leukocyte count above the normal range in the blood and is a common laboratory finding in patients. In many cases, the mechanisms underlying leukocytosis are not known...
  4. Yo C, Hsieh P, Lee S, Wu J, Chang S, Tasi K, et al. Comparison of the test characteristics of procalcitonin to C-reactive protein and leukocytosis for the detection of serious bacterial infections in children presenting with fever without source: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Emerg Med. 2012;60:591-600 pubmed publisher
    ..We determine the usefulness of the procalcitonin for early identification of young children at risk for severe bacterial infection among those presenting with fever without source...
  5. Libraty D, Makela S, Vlk J, Hurme M, Vaheri A, Ennis F, et al. The degree of leukocytosis and urine GATA-3 mRNA levels are risk factors for severe acute kidney injury in Puumala virus nephropathia epidemica. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35402 pubmed publisher
    ..We have identified novel acute illness risk factors for severe PUUV-induced AKI...
  6. Bauer M, Hensgens M, Miller M, Gerding D, Wilcox M, Dale A, et al. Renal failure and leukocytosis are predictors of a complicated course of Clostridium difficile infection if measured on day of diagnosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55 Suppl 2:S149-53 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the prognostic value of 3 markers of severe CDI suggested by recent guidelines (fever, leukocytosis, and renal failure), we used the database of 2 randomized controlled trials, which contained information for ..
  7. Sailhamer E, Carson K, Chang Y, Zacharias N, Spaniolas K, Tabbara M, et al. Fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis: patterns of care and predictors of mortality. Arch Surg. 2009;144:433-9; discussion 439-40 pubmed publisher
    ..There exist predictors of mortality and the need for colectomy among patients with fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis...
  8. Granger J, Kontoyiannis D. Etiology and outcome of extreme leukocytosis in 758 nonhematologic cancer patients: a retrospective, single-institution study. Cancer. 2009;115:3919-23 pubmed publisher
    To the authors' knowledge, the literature regarding extreme leukocytosis in solid tumor patients is sparse, consisting of a few case reports and small case series.
  9. Sun W, Peacock A, Becker J, Phillips Bute B, Laskowitz D, James M. Correlation of leukocytosis with early neurological deterioration following supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage. J Clin Neurosci. 2012;19:1096-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevated WBC count appears predictive of deterioration. These data demonstrate that heightened inflammatory state after ICH may be related to early deterioration after injury...
  10. Guiheneuf R, Vuillaume I, Mangalaboyi J, Launay D, Berthon C, Maury J, et al. Pneumatic transport is critical for leukaemic patients with major leukocytosis: what precautions to measure lactate dehydrogenase, potassium and aspartate aminotransferase?. Ann Clin Biochem. 2010;47:94-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, this interference almost completely disappeared when serum rather than plasma was used, or when leukocytosis came back to normal...
  11. Bolasco G, Calogero R, Carrara M, Banchaabouchi M, Bilbao D, Mazzoccoli G, et al. Cardioprotective mIGF-1/SIRT1 signaling induces hypertension, leukocytosis and fear response in mice. Aging (Albany NY). 2012;4:402-16 pubmed
    ..properties, cardiac-restricted mIGF-1 transgene induced systemic changes such as high blood pressure, leukocytosis and an enhanced fear response, in a SIRT1-dependent manner...
  12. Buxhofer Ausch V, Gisslinger H, Thiele J, Gisslinger B, Kvasnicka H, Müllauer L, et al. Leukocytosis as an important risk factor for arterial thrombosis in WHO-defined early/prefibrotic myelofibrosis: an international study of 264 patients. Am J Hematol. 2012;87:669-72 pubmed publisher
    ..027, HR 0.19). Moreover, a lower hemoglobin level was associated with an increased risk for venous thrombosis (P = 0.007, HR 0.59). Our data indicate that leukocytosis is a prominent risk factor for thrombosis in early/prefibrotic MF.
  13. Qiu M, Xu R, Ruan D, Li Z, Luo H, Teng K, et al. Incidence of anemia, leukocytosis, and thrombocytosis in patients with solid tumors in China. Tumour Biol. 2010;31:633-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The percentages of leukocytosis, anemia, and thrombocytosis in patients with solid tumors ranged from 4.0% to 25.6%, 3.3% to 29.2%, and 2...
  14. Connolly G, Khorana A, Kuderer N, Culakova E, Francis C, Lyman G. Leukocytosis, thrombosis and early mortality in cancer patients initiating chemotherapy. Thromb Res. 2010;126:113-8 pubmed
    b>Leukocytosis has been associated with thrombosis and mortality in cancer patients. We explored the association of leukocytosis with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and early mortality in cancer patients initiating chemotherapy.
  15. Palandri F, Polverelli N, Catani L, Ottaviani E, Baccarani M, Vianelli N. Impact of leukocytosis on thrombotic risk and survival in 532 patients with essential thrombocythemia: a retrospective study. Ann Hematol. 2011;90:933-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, also leukocytosis has been proposed in risk stratification of ET patients...
  16. Deirmengian G, Zmistowski B, Jacovides C, O Neil J, Parvizi J. Leukocytosis is common after total hip and knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011;469:3031-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In the early postoperative period, clinicians often find nonspecific indicators of infection. Although leukocytosis may be a sign of a developing infection in the early postoperative period, it may also be part of a normal ..
  17. Mabuchi S, Matsumoto Y, Isohashi F, Yoshioka Y, Ohashi H, Morii E, et al. Pretreatment leukocytosis is an indicator of poor prognosis in patients with cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2011;122:25-32 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of pretreatment leukocytosis in patients with cervical cancer in relation to well-established conventional risk factors.
  18. Pilger D, Heukelbach J, Diederichs A, Schlosser B, Pereira Leite Costa Araújo C, Keysers A, et al. Anemia, leukocytosis and eosinophilia in a resource-poor population with helmintho-ectoparasitic coinfection. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2011;5:260-9 pubmed
    ..Eosinophilia and anemia are very common hematological alterations in the tropics but population-based studies scrutinizing their value for diagnosing parasitic infections are rare...
  19. Holgersson G, Sandelin M, Hoye E, Bergström S, Henriksson R, Ekman S, et al. Swedish lung cancer radiation study group: the prognostic value of anaemia, thrombocytosis and leukocytosis at time of diagnosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Med Oncol. 2012;29:3176-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that standard haematological variables may be used as guidance for the clinician in the decision-making regarding treatment intensity and patient information...
  20. Ishii T, Sakamoto A, Matsuda S, Matsumoto Y, Harimaya K, Takahashi Y, et al. Leiomyosarcoma in the humerus with leukocytosis and elevation of serum G-CSF. Skeletal Radiol. 2012;41:719-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Leukocytosis associated with secretion of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been reported in various tumors, primarily poorly differentiated epithelial tumors, but is extremely rare in bone tumors...
  21. Claridge J, Golob J, Fadlalla A, Malangoni M, Blatnik J, Yowler C. Fever and leukocytosis in critically ill trauma patients: it is not the blood. Am Surg. 2009;75:405-10 pubmed
    The diagnosis of bacteremia in critically ill patients is classically based on fever and/or leukocytosis. The objectives of this study were to determine 1) if our intensive care unit obtains blood cultures based on fever and/or ..
  22. Furer V, Raveh D, Picard E, Goldberg S, Izbicki G. Absence of leukocytosis in bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia. Prim Care Respir J. 2011;20:276-81 pubmed publisher
    ..A normal WBC count may result in a limited investigation, often omitting chest radiography...
  23. Canzoneri B, Lewis D, Groome L, Wang Y. Increased neutrophil numbers account for leukocytosis in women with preeclampsia. Am J Perinatol. 2009;26:729-32 pubmed publisher
    ..No statistical differences for monocyte and lymphocyte counts were observed between normal and PE groups. Increased neutrophil numbers account for the leukocytosis in women with PE.
  24. Callacondo D, Callacondo Riva D, Ganoza Salas A, Anicama Lima W, Quispe Mauricio A, Longacre T. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach with paraneoplastic leukocytosis: a case report and review of literature. Hum Pathol. 2009;40:1494-8 pubmed publisher
    ..a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma arising in the gastric antrum of an 83-year-old man with persistent leukocytosis, which resolved on resection of the tumor...
  25. Yvan Charvet L, Pagler T, Gautier E, Avagyan S, Siry R, Han S, et al. ATP-binding cassette transporters and HDL suppress hematopoietic stem cell proliferation. Science. 2010;328:1689-93 pubmed publisher
    Elevated leukocyte cell numbers (leukocytosis), and monocytes in particular, promote atherosclerosis; however, how they become increased is poorly understood...
  26. Carobbio A, Finazzi G, Antonioli E, Guglielmelli P, Vannucchi A, Delaini F, et al. Thrombocytosis and leukocytosis interaction in vascular complications of essential thrombocythemia. Blood. 2008;112:3135-7 pubmed publisher
    ..role of thrombocytosis, alone or in combination with standard (age, previous cardiovascular events) and novel (leukocytosis, JAK2(V617F) mutational status) risk factors, in the cardiovascular events of essential thrombocythemia (ET), ..
  27. Erlinger T, Tarver Carr M, Powe N, Appel L, Coresh J, Eberhardt M, et al. Leukocytosis, hypoalbuminemia, and the risk for chronic kidney disease in US adults. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;42:256-63 pubmed
    ..In a nationally representative sample of US adults, elevated WBC count and hypoalbuminemia were associated with future risk for CKD. These results support the hypothesis that systemic inflammation is an independent risk factor for CKD. ..
  28. Chung F, Tsai J, Chang D, Shin S, Lee Y. Peripheral total and differential leukocyte count in diabetic nephropathy: the relationship of plasma leptin to leukocytosis. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:1710-7 pubmed
    ..Plasma leptin levels were also measured to investigate their role in peripheral leukocytosis. For this study, 1,480 subjects with type 2 diabetes who were enrolled in a disease management program were ..
  29. Albrich W, Rimland D. Clostridium difficile: association with thrombocytosis and leukocytosis. South Med J. 2007;100:149-51 pubmed
    Apart from leukocytosis, few laboratory markers suggestive of Clostridium difficile infections have been described. We retrospectively analyzed the association between thrombocytosis, leukocytosis and C...
  30. Kruk M, Przyłuski J, Kalinczuk L, Pregowski J, Kadziela J, Kaczmarska E, et al. Hemoglobin, leukocytosis and clinical outcomes of ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary angioplasty: ANIN Myocardial Infarction Registry. Circ J. 2009;73:323-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between admission Hb levels, leukocytosis and clinical outcomes of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary angioplasty...
  31. Ladhani S, Lowe B, Cole A, Kowuondo K, Newton C. Changes in white blood cells and platelets in children with falciparum malaria: relationship to disease outcome. Br J Haematol. 2002;119:839-47 pubmed
    ..Thus, leucocytosis was associated with both severity and mortality in children with falciparum malaria, irrespective of bacteraemia, whereas thrombocytopenia, although very common, was not associated with adverse outcome...
  32. Monteiro de Almeida S, Letendre S, Zimmerman J, Kolakowski S, Lazzaretto D, McCutchan J, et al. Relationship of CSF leukocytosis to compartmentalized changes in MCP-1/CCL2 in the CSF of HIV-infected patients undergoing interruption of antiretroviral therapy. J Neuroimmunol. 2006;179:180-5 pubmed
    ..Following large increases in CSF MCP-1, CSF leukocytosis (15-166 cells/microL) developed in 4 of 6 subjects...
  33. Belmares J, Gerding D, Parada J, Miskevics S, Weaver F, Johnson S. Outcome of metronidazole therapy for Clostridium difficile disease and correlation with a scoring system. J Infect. 2007;55:495-501 pubmed
    ..To determine the response rate of Clostridium difficile disease (CDD) to treatment with metronidazole and assess a scoring system to predict response to treatment with metronidazole when applied at the time of CDD diagnosis...
  34. Toyoda M, Chikamatsu K, Sakakura K, Fukuda Y, Takahashi K, Miyashita M, et al. A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck producing granulocyte-colony stimulating factor with marked leukocytosis. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2007;34:267-71 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe a SCCHN patient with tumor produced G-CSF and characterized by marked leukocytosis. In this 45-year-old man, severe leukocytosis developed in parallel with aggressive tumor growth...
  35. Ghanem E, Houssock C, Pulido L, Han S, Jaberi F, Parvizi J. Determining "true" leukocytosis in bloody joint aspiration. J Arthroplasty. 2008;23:182-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that our corrective formula can detect false-positive joint aspirations without jeopardizing the diagnosis of periprosthetic infection...
  36. Kaito K, Katayama T, Masuoka H, Nishiwaki K, Sano K, Sekiguchi N, et al. CD2+ acute promyelocytic leukemia is associated with leukocytosis, variant morphology and poorer prognosis. Clin Lab Haematol. 2005;27:307-11 pubmed
    ..to be a risk factor associated with death in addition to the morphological characteristics of variant-APL and leukocytosis. These results indicated that CD2 expression might have a significant impact on the prognosis of APL...
  37. Carobbio A, Finazzi G, Guerini V, Spinelli O, Delaini F, Marchioli R, et al. Leukocytosis is a risk factor for thrombosis in essential thrombocythemia: interaction with treatment, standard risk factors, and Jak2 mutation status. Blood. 2007;109:2310-3 pubmed
    ..3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-3.9, P = .001); (2) hydroxyurea (HU) lowered leukocytosis and reduced the strength of the association between leukocytosis and thrombosis ("time-dependent analysis,&..
  38. Dufva I, Karle H, Brondum Nielsen K, Andersen M, Madsen H, Johnsen H. Chronic myeloid leukaemia with BCR-ABL fusion genes located to both chromosomes 9, cyclic leukocytosis and nodal T-lymphoblastic transformation--durable complete remission following imatinib therapy. Leukemia. 2005;19:671-3 pubmed
  39. Coller B. Leukocytosis and ischemic vascular disease morbidity and mortality: is it time to intervene?. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25:658-70 pubmed
    The association between leukocytosis and increased morbidity and mortality of ischemic vascular disease has been observed for more than half a century, and recent studies in >350,000 patients confirm the robustness of the association ..
  40. Rutman M, Bachur R, Harper M. Radiographic pneumonia in young, highly febrile children with leukocytosis before and after universal conjugate pneumococcal vaccination. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2009;25:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..vaccine demonstrated a high rate of radiographic pneumonia among highly febrile young children with leukocytosis and no other identified source of infection...
  41. Peacock J, Bost K. Murine gammaherpesvirus-68-induced interleukin-10 increases viral burden, but limits virus-induced splenomegaly and leukocytosis. Immunology. 2001;104:109-17 pubmed
    ..for gammaHV-68-induced alterations in the protective host response, and the accompanying virus-induced leukocytosis, are not clear...
  42. Menon V, Lessard D, Yarzebski J, Furman M, Gore J, Goldberg R. Leukocytosis and adverse hospital outcomes after acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 2003;92:368-72 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the WBC count should be considered an important prognostic factor associated with adverse hospital outcomes in patients with AMI...
  43. Chang D, Cornwell E, Phillips J, Paradise J, Campbell K. Early leukocytosis in trauma patients: what difference does it make?. Curr Surg. 2003;60:632-5 pubmed
    ..To determine the association of the admission white blood cell count in trauma patients with demographics, severity and mechanism of injury, and need for therapeutic intervention...
  44. Izbicki G, Rudensky B, Na amad M, Hershko C, Huerta M, Hersch M. Transfusion-related leukocytosis in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 2004;32:439-42 pubmed
    We observed that many critically ill patients developed leukocytosis following blood transfusions. To validate this observation and to explore a possible mechanism, a prospective study was designed.
  45. Djaldetti M, Bergman M, Salman H, Cohen A, Fibach E, Bessler H. On the mechanism of post-splenectomy leukocytosis in mice. Eur J Clin Invest. 2003;33:811-7 pubmed
    ..Increased number of peripheral white blood cells (PWBCs) has been noted after removal of the spleen...
  46. Elsawa S, Bost K. Murine gamma-herpesvirus-68-induced IL-12 contributes to the control of latent viral burden, but also contributes to viral-mediated leukocytosis. J Immunol. 2004;172:516-24 pubmed
    ..gammaHV-68 infection of mice made genetically deficient in IL-12p40 expression (IL-12p40(-/-)) resulted in a leukocytosis and splenomegaly that was significantly less than that observed in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice...
  47. Toutouzas K, Velmahos G, Kaminski A, Chan L, Demetriades D. Leukocytosis after posttraumatic splenectomy: a physiologic event or sign of sepsis?. Arch Surg. 2002;137:924-8; discussion 928-9 pubmed
    ..Although elevations in white blood cell count (WBC) and platelet count (PC) after splenectomy for trauma constitute a physiologic event, certain WBC and PC patterns help differentiate patients with from those without sepsis...
  48. Natale V, Brenner I, Moldoveanu A, Vasiliou P, Shek P, Shephard R. Effects of three different types of exercise on blood leukocyte count during and following exercise. Sao Paulo Med J. 2003;121:9-14 pubmed
    ..It has thus been suggested that heavy exercise might be used to cause graded and well-defined amounts of muscle trauma, thereby serving as an experimental model for inflammation and sepsis...
  49. Inokuchi K, Dan K, Takatori M, Takahuji H, Uchida N, Inami M, et al. Myeloproliferative disease in transgenic mice expressing P230 Bcr/Abl: longer disease latency, thrombocytosis, and mild leukocytosis. Blood. 2003;102:320-3 pubmed
    ..The phenotype of the MPD caused by P230Bcr/Abl was characterized by mild granulocytosis, a high platelet count, infiltration of megakaryocytes in some organs, and a longer disease latency compared with the MPD caused by P210Bcr/Abl...
  50. Fukasawa H, Furuya R, Kato A, Yonemura K, Fujigaki Y, Yamamoto T, et al. Pseudohyperkalemia occurring in a patient with chronic renal failure and polycythemia vera without severe leukocytosis or thrombocytosis. Clin Nephrol. 2002;58:451-4 pubmed
    ..of intracellular potassium from platelets, leukocytes, or erythrocytes, commonly in the setting of extreme leukocytosis (> 10 x 10(4)/microl) or thrombocytosis (> 60 x 10(4)/microl)...
  51. Bedoui S, Lechner S, Gebhardt T, Nave H, Beck Sickinger A, Straub R, et al. NPY modulates epinephrine-induced leukocytosis via Y-1 and Y-5 receptor activation in vivo: sympathetic co-transmission during leukocyte mobilization. J Neuroimmunol. 2002;132:25-33 pubmed
    ..application of NPY followed by EPI, dose-dependently facilitated, intensified and inhibited EPI-induced leukocytosis with subset-specificity for NK-cells, monocytes, and B-lymphocytes...
  52. Schnell G, Spudich S, Harrington P, Price R, Swanstrom R. Compartmentalized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 originates from long-lived cells in some subjects with HIV-1-associated dementia. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000395 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model in which infiltrating macrophages replace CD4(+) T cells as the primary source of productive viral replication in the CNS to maintain high viral loads in the CSF in a substantial subset of subjects with HAD...
  53. Moody J, Xu L, Helgason C, Jirik F. Anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and impaired progenitor function in Pten+/-SHIP-/- mice: a novel model of myelodysplasia. Blood. 2004;103:4503-10 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that the regulation of the levels and/or ratios of PI3K-derived phosphoinositol species by these 2 phosphatases is critical to normal hematopoiesis...
  54. Hiraki A, Ueoka H, Takata I, Gemba K, Bessho A, Segawa Y, et al. Hypercalcemia-leukocytosis syndrome associated with lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2004;43:301-7 pubmed
    Hypercalcemia and leukocytosis are two of the most common paraneoplastic syndromes associated with various malignancies...
  55. Carobbio A, Antonioli E, Guglielmelli P, Vannucchi A, Delaini F, Guerini V, et al. Leukocytosis and risk stratification assessment in essential thrombocythemia. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:2732-6 pubmed publisher
    Established risk factors for thrombosis in essential thrombocythemia (ET) include age and previous vascular events. We aimed to refine this risk stratification by adding baseline leukocytosis.
  56. Nunez J, Nunez E, Sanchis J, Bodi V, Llacer A. Prognostic value of leukocytosis in acute coronary syndromes: the cinderella of the inflammatory markers. Curr Med Chem. 2006;13:2113-8 pubmed
    ..Fundamentally, an acute MI triggers a systemic response to a necrotic insult characterized by leukocytosis and acute-phase protein synthesis...
  57. Landolfi R, Di Gennaro L, Barbui T, De Stefano V, Finazzi G, Marfisi R, et al. Leukocytosis as a major thrombotic risk factor in patients with polycythemia vera. Blood. 2007;109:2446-52 pubmed
    ..71; 95% CI, 1.10-2.65; P = .017), mainly deriving from an increased risk of myocardial infarction (HR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.25-6.46; P = .013). Thus, leukocyte count may help in defining the vascular risk of polycythemic subjects...