leukoaraiosis

Summary

Summary: Non-specific white matter changes in the BRAIN, often seen after age 65. Changes include loss of AXONS; MYELIN pallor, GLIOSIS, loss of ependymal cells, and enlarged perivascular spaces. Leukoaraiosis is a risk factor for DEMENTIA and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS.

Top Publications

  1. Gouw A, van der Flier W, Fazekas F, van Straaten E, Pantoni L, Poggesi A, et al. Progression of white matter hyperintensities and incidence of new lacunes over a 3-year period: the Leukoaraiosis and Disability study. Stroke. 2008;39:1414-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the natural course of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and lacunes, the main MRI representatives of small vessel disease, over time and evaluated possible predictors for their development...
  2. Patankar T, Widjaja E, Chant H, McCollum C, Baldwin R, Jeffries S, et al. Relationship of deep white matter hyperintensities and cerebral blood flow in severe carotid artery stenosis. Eur J Neurol. 2006;13:10-6 pubmed
    b>Leukoaraiosis (LA) has been associated with abnormalities of both large and small blood vessels...
  3. Topakian R, Barrick T, Howe F, Markus H. Blood-brain barrier permeability is increased in normal-appearing white matter in patients with lacunar stroke and leucoaraiosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010;81:192-7 pubmed publisher
  4. Viana Baptista M, Bugalho P, Jordão C, Ferreira N, Ferreira A, Forjaz Secca M, et al. Cognitive function correlates with frontal white matter apparent diffusion coefficients in patients with leukoaraiosis. J Neurol. 2008;255:360-6 pubmed publisher
  5. Koga H, Takashima Y, Murakawa R, Uchino A, Yuzuriha T, Yao H. Cognitive consequences of multiple lacunes and leukoaraiosis as vascular cognitive impairment in community-dwelling elderly individuals. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2009;18:32-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Silent ischemic lesions in apparently healthy elderly individuals seem to form a distinctive group of people with vascular cognitive impairment without dementia. This group should be the primary target of prevention of vascular dementia...
  6. Szolnoki Z. Chemical events behind leukoaraiosis: medicinal chemistry offers new insight into a specific microcirculation disturbance in the brain (a chemical approach to a frequent cerebral phenotype). Curr Med Chem. 2007;14:1027-36 pubmed
    b>Leukoaraiosis (LA), one of the most frequent causes of cognitive disturbances, is presumed to involve vascular demyelinization and cerebral small-vessel diseases...
  7. Szolnoki Z. Pathomechanism of leukoaraiosis: a molecular bridge between the genetic, biochemical, and clinical processes (a mitochondrial hypothesis). Neuromolecular Med. 2007;9:21-33 pubmed
    ..In neuroimaging terms, it is referred to as leukoaraiosis (LA)...
  8. Szolnoki Z, Melegh B. Gene-gene and gene-environment interplay represent specific susceptibility for different types of ischaemic stroke and leukoaraiosis. Curr Med Chem. 2006;13:1627-34 pubmed
    ..gene-environment interactions concerning the above genetic factors in the evolution of ischaemic stroke and leukoaraiosis. A knowledge of the specific genetic patterns which are associated with a significant risk of ischaemic stroke ..
  9. Grueter B, Schulz U. Age-related cerebral white matter disease (leukoaraiosis): a review. Postgrad Med J. 2012;88:79-87 pubmed publisher
    ..a lot of data are now available on the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical consequences and prognosis of leukoaraiosis, some of this information is conflicting...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Ay H, Arsava E, Rosand J, Furie K, Singhal A, Schaefer P, et al. Severity of leukoaraiosis and susceptibility to infarct growth in acute stroke. Stroke. 2008;39:1409-13 pubmed publisher
    b>Leukoaraiosis (LA) is associated with structural and functional vascular changes that may compromise tissue perfusion at the microvascular level...
  2. Jokinen H, Frederiksen K, Garde E, Skimminge A, Siebner H, Waldemar G, et al. Callosal tissue loss parallels subtle decline in psychomotor speed. a longitudinal quantitative MRI study. The LADIS Study. Neuropsychologia. 2012;50:1650-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The adverse effect of CC tissue loss on psychomotor function may be driven by altered interhemispheric information transfer between homologous cortical areas...
  3. Poggesi A, Pracucci G, Chabriat H, Erkinjuntti T, Fazekas F, Verdelho A, et al. Urinary complaints in nondisabled elderly people with age-related white matter changes: the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008;56:1638-43 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate, in a cohort of nondisabled elderly people, the association between urinary complaints and severity of age-related white matter changes (ARWMC)...
  4. Putaala J, Haapaniemi E, Kurkinen M, Salonen O, Kaste M, Tatlisumak T. Silent brain infarcts, leukoaraiosis, and long-term prognosis in young ischemic stroke patients. Neurology. 2011;76:1742-9 pubmed publisher
    To investigate prognostic relevance of silent brain infarcts (SBIs) and leukoaraiosis (LA) in young patients with ischemic stroke.
  5. Basile A, Pantoni L, Pracucci G, Asplund K, Chabriat H, Erkinjuntti T, et al. Age, hypertension, and lacunar stroke are the major determinants of the severity of age-related white matter changes. The LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability in the Elderly) Study. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2006;21:315-22 pubmed
    ..We sought whether such a trend existed in the association of vascular risk factors or comorbidities with the severity of ARWMC aiming particularly at further elucidating the relative roles of hypertension and stroke in this regard...
  6. Bokura H, Yamaguchi S, Iijima K, Nagai A, Oguro H. Metabolic syndrome is associated with silent ischemic brain lesions. Stroke. 2008;39:1607-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the association of MetS with the prevalence of silent brain infarction, periventricular hyperintensity, and subcortical white matter lesions in healthy adults...
  7. Jimenez I, Agulla J, Pouso M, Sabucedo M, Rodríguez Yáñez M, Sobrino T, et al. [Cognitive impairment associated to leukoaraiosis: its pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and treatment]. Rev Neurol. 2008;47:536-44 pubmed
    b>Leukoaraiosis is a radiological term which refers to white matter disturbances observed as a hypodensity in computed tomography and hyperintensity in T2-weighted magnetic resonance image...
  8. Turner S, Fornage M, Jack C, Mosley T, Knopman D, Kardia S, et al. Genomic susceptibility Loci for brain atrophy, ventricular volume, and leukoaraiosis in hypertensive sibships. Arch Neurol. 2009;66:847-57 pubmed publisher
    ..resonance imaging (MRI) measures of brain atrophy, ventricular, and subcortical white matter hyperintensity (leukoaraiosis) in 689 non-Hispanic white (673 sibling pairs; median age, 61 years) and 544 non-Hispanic black participants (..
  9. Inzitari D, Pracucci G, Poggesi A, Carlucci G, Barkhof F, Chabriat H, et al. Changes in white matter as determinant of global functional decline in older independent outpatients: three year follow-up of LADIS (leukoaraiosis and disability) study cohort. BMJ. 2009;339:b2477 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the impairment in daily living activities in older people with age related changes in white matter according to the severity of these changes...
  10. Ropele S, Seewann A, Gouw A, van der Flier W, Schmidt R, Pantoni L, et al. Quantitation of brain tissue changes associated with white matter hyperintensities by diffusion-weighted and magnetization transfer imaging: the LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability in the Elderly) study. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2009;29:268-74 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) for the improved detection and quantification of cerebral tissue changes associated with ageing and white matter hyperintensities (WMH)...
  11. Uh J, Yezhuvath U, Cheng Y, Lu H. In vivo vascular hallmarks of diffuse leukoaraiosis. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2010;32:184-90 pubmed publisher
    To characterize multiple patterns of vascular changes in leukoaraiosis using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques.
  12. Saba L, Sanfilippo R, Pascalis L, Montisci R, Mallarini G. Carotid artery abnormalities and leukoaraiosis in elderly patients: evaluation with MDCT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009;192:W63-70 pubmed publisher
    Several studies have shown that leukoaraiosis is a clinically relevant condition. Patients with leukoaraiosis have a negative prognosis in terms of death, stroke, and myocardial infarction...
  13. Lee S, Kim J, Lee K, An J, Kim W, Kim Y, et al. The severity of leukoaraiosis correlates with the clinical phenotype of Parkinson's disease. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2009;49:255-9 pubmed publisher
    The impact of leukoaraiosis on Parkinson's disease (PD) has not been completely explained. We evaluated 141 patients with PD to assess the role of leukoaraiosis and determined its influence on the clinical phenotype of PD...
  14. Smith E. Leukoaraiosis and stroke. Stroke. 2010;41:S139-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Leukoaraiosis is a common finding in stroke patients and has been strongly associated with risk of incident stroke and dementia. Leukoaraiosis may also be an independent predictor of stroke outcomes...
  15. Fernandez Cadenas I, Mendioroz M, Domingues Montanari S, del Rio Espinola A, Delgado P, Ruiz A, et al. Leukoaraiosis is associated with genes regulating blood-brain barrier homeostasis in ischaemic stroke patients. Eur J Neurol. 2011;18:826-35 pubmed publisher
    The biologic agents causing leukoaraiosis are unknown. Our aim was to study the genetic basis of leukoaraiosis.
  16. Otsuka Y, Yamauchi H, Sawamoto N, Iseki K, Tomimoto H, Fukuyama H. Diffuse tract damage in the hemispheric deep white matter may correlate with global cognitive impairment and callosal atrophy in patients with extensive leukoaraiosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012;33:726-32 pubmed publisher
    Patients with extensive leukoaraiosis are at high risk for vascular dementia. However, these patients exhibit variable severity of global cognitive impairment correlating with callosal atrophy...
  17. Chutinet A, Biffi A, Kanakis A, Fitzpatrick K, Furie K, Rost N. Severity of leukoaraiosis in large vessel atherosclerotic disease. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012;33:1591-5 pubmed publisher
    The severity of white matter hyperintensity, or leukoaraiosis, is a marker of cerebrovascular disease...
  18. Schulz U, Gruter B, Briley D, Rothwell P. Leukoaraiosis and increased cerebral susceptibility to ischemia: lack of confounding by carotid disease. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2:e000261 pubmed publisher
    b>Leukoaraiosis is associated with an increased risk of stroke, but the underlying mechanism remains uncertain, as do the associations with other risk factors, such as carotid disease...
  19. Pettersen J, Sathiyamoorthy G, Gao F, Szilagyi G, Nadkarni N, St George Hyslop P, et al. Microbleed topography, leukoaraiosis, and cognition in probable Alzheimer disease from the Sunnybrook dementia study. Arch Neurol. 2008;65:790-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Microbleeds are hemosiderin deposits around small vessels and are well visualized with T2*-weighted gradient-recalled echo (GRE) imaging...
  20. Pantoni L, Poggesi A, Basile A, Pracucci G, Barkhof F, Chabriat H, et al. Leukoaraiosis predicts hidden global functioning impairment in nondisabled older people: the LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability in the Elderly) Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54:1095-101 pubmed
    To determine whether leukoaraiosis severity is independently associated with differences in global functioning in nondisabled elderly patients.
  21. Censori B, Partziguian T, Manara O, Poloni M. Plasma homocysteine and severe white matter disease. Neurol Sci. 2007;28:259-63 pubmed
    ..of this study was to assess if high total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) levels are a risk factor for severe leukoaraiosis (LA). This case-control study was done in a primary care neurology ward and included 178 consecutive patients...
  22. Ryberg C, Rostrup E, Sjöstrand K, Paulson O, Barkhof F, Scheltens P, et al. White matter changes contribute to corpus callosum atrophy in the elderly: the LADIS study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2008;29:1498-504 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the potential correlation between regional age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) and atrophy of CC in elderly subjects...
  23. Khan U, Porteous L, Hassan A, Markus H. Risk factor profile of cerebral small vessel disease and its subtypes. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78:702-6 pubmed
    ..localised atherosclerotic disease in larger perforating arteries causing larger lacunar infarcts without leukoaraiosis, and diffuse disease in smaller arterioles causing multiple smaller lacunar infarcts with leukoaraiosis...
  24. Madureira S, Verdelho A, Ferro J, Basile A, Chabriat H, Erkinjuntti T, et al. Development of a neuropsychological battery for the Leukoaraiosis and Disability in the Elderly Study (LADIS): experience and baseline data. Neuroepidemiology. 2006;27:101-16 pubmed
    ..The Leukoaraiosis and Disability in the Elderly study (LADIS) involves 11 European centers...
  25. Neumann Haefelin T, Hoelig S, Berkefeld J, Fiehler J, Gass A, Humpich M, et al. Leukoaraiosis is a risk factor for symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage after thrombolysis for acute stroke. Stroke. 2006;37:2463-6 pubmed
    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether leukoaraiosis (LA) is a risk factor for symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) in patients treated with thrombolysis for acute stroke.
  26. Park K, Yasuda N, Toyonaga S, Yamada S, Nakabayashi H, Nakasato M, et al. Significant association between leukoaraiosis and metabolic syndrome in healthy subjects. Neurology. 2007;69:974-8 pubmed
    To investigate the relationship between leukoaraiosis (LA), which has been considered as an intermediate substitute of ischemic brain damages, and metabolic syndrome (MetS), which attracts attention as a risk factor for cerebrovascular ..
  27. Schmidt R, Petrovic K, Ropele S, Enzinger C, Fazekas F. Progression of leukoaraiosis and cognition. Stroke. 2007;38:2619-25 pubmed
    b>Leukoaraiosis is used interchangeably with the term white matter lesions on MRI and seen to some degree in more than half of the routine scans in older persons...
  28. Fujita S, Kawaguchi T, Uehara T, Fukushima K. Progress of leukoaraiosis is inhibited by correction of platelet hyper-aggregability. Int Psychogeriatr. 2005;17:689-98 pubmed
    Platelet hyper-aggregability is an important risk factor for leukoaraiosis. In this study we investigated whether aggravation of leukoaraiosis can be controlled by means of long-term correction of platelet hyper-aggregability.
  29. Pantoni L. Leukoaraiosis: from an ancient term to an actual marker of poor prognosis. Stroke. 2008;39:1401-3 pubmed publisher
  30. Ross E, Hansel S, Orbelo D, Monnot M. Relationship of leukoaraiosis to cognitive decline and cognitive aging. Cogn Behav Neurol. 2005;18:89-97 pubmed
    b>Leukoaraiosis (LA) is a common finding on MRI scans of the elderly. However, its exact relationship to cognitive decline and dementia is in dispute...
  31. Khan U, Crossley C, Kalra L, Rudd A, Wolfe C, Collinson P, et al. Homocysteine and its relationship to stroke subtypes in a UK black population: the south London ethnicity and stroke study. Stroke. 2008;39:2943-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In white populations elevated homocysteine has been associated with SVD, especially confluent leukoaraiosis, and may be acting through endothelial dysfunction...
  32. Naka H, Nomura E, Takahashi T, Wakabayashi S, Kajikawa H, Kohriyama T, et al. Plasma total homocysteine levels are associated with advanced leukoaraiosis but not with asymptomatic microbleeds on T2*-weighted MRI in patients with stroke. Eur J Neurol. 2006;13:261-5 pubmed
    Both leukoaraiosis and asymptomatic microbleeds are associated with small-artery diseases...
  33. Lee S, Heo J, Yoon B. Effects of microbleeds on hemorrhage development in leukoaraiosis patients. Hypertens Res. 2005;28:895-9 pubmed
    ..of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) on the development of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in patients with leukoaraiosis (LA) have rarely been examined...
  34. Arsava E, Bayrlee A, Vangel M, Rost N, Rosand J, Furie K, et al. Severity of leukoaraiosis determines clinical phenotype after brain infarction. Neurology. 2011;77:55-61 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether the extent of leukoaraiosis, a composite marker of baseline brain integrity, differed between patients with TIA with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) evidence of infarction (transient symptoms with infarction [TSI]) ..
  35. Szolnoki Z. Common genetic variants of the mitochondrial trafficking system and mitochondrial uncoupling proteins affect the development of two slowly developing demyelinating disorders, leukoaraiosis and multiple sclerosis. Curr Med Chem. 2010;17:3583-90 pubmed
    ..In this context, this article discusses the roles of genetic variants of the kinesin motor proteins and UCPs in slowly developing diseases of the white matter of the brain as multiple sclerosis and leukoaraiosis.
  36. Webb A, Simoni M, Mazzucco S, Kuker W, Schulz U, Rothwell P. Increased cerebral arterial pulsatility in patients with leukoaraiosis: arterial stiffness enhances transmission of aortic pulsatility. Stroke. 2012;43:2631-6 pubmed
    ..In the absence of previous studies in patients with recent transient ischemic attack or stroke, we determined the associations between leukoaraiosis and aortic and middle cerebral artery stiffness and pulsatility.
  37. Arshad A, Altaf N, Goode S, Auer D, MacSweeney S. Leukoaraiosis predicts the need for intraoperative shunt placement during carotid endarterectomy. Perspect Vasc Surg Endovasc Ther. 2009;21:173-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This may reflect an association with impaired cerebral hemodynamics. Hence, the authors studied whether ipsilateral WMHLs predict shunt requirement on clamping as an indicator of hemodynamic compromise...
  38. Chung C, Hu H. Pathogenesis of leukoaraiosis: role of jugular venous reflux. Med Hypotheses. 2010;75:85-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Leukoaraiosis (LA) is a major cause of vascular dementia and disability in the elderly. Age and hypertension are the most two important risk factors. Despite its clinical significance, the etiology is so far unclear...
  39. Huang Y, Zhang W, Lin L, Feng J, Zhao X, Guo W, et al. Could changes in arterioles impede the perivascular drainage of interstitial fluid from the cerebral white matter in leukoaraiosis?. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2010;36:237-47 pubmed publisher
    b>Leukoaraiosis (LA) is the increase in fluid in cerebral white matter with hyperintensity on T2-weighted MR imaging that occurs in 25% of individuals over 65 years of age and in Alzheimer's disease...
  40. Inzitari D, Simoni M, Pracucci G, Poggesi A, Basile A, Chabriat H, et al. Risk of rapid global functional decline in elderly patients with severe cerebral age-related white matter changes: the LADIS study. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:81-8 pubmed
    ..The LADIS (LeukoAraiosis and DISability) Study primarily aims to assess ARWMCs as a determinant of global functional decline in the ..
  41. Brown W, Moody D, Thore C, Challa V, Anstrom J. Vascular dementia in leukoaraiosis may be a consequence of capillary loss not only in the lesions, but in normal-appearing white matter and cortex as well. J Neurol Sci. 2007;257:62-6 pubmed
    We investigated capillary density in 12 subjects with leukoaraiosis (LA), in 9 age-matched normal subjects, in 7 cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 4 after whole-brain irradiation for brain tumors...
  42. Della Nave R, Foresti S, Pratesi A, Ginestroni A, Inzitari M, Salvadori E, et al. Whole-brain histogram and voxel-based analyses of diffusion tensor imaging in patients with leukoaraiosis: correlation with motor and cognitive impairment. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007;28:1313-9 pubmed
    Cerebral white matter changes, termed leukoaraiosis (LA), appearing as areas of increased signal intensity in T2-weighted MR images, are common in elderly subjects, but the possible correlation of LA with cognitive or motor deficit has ..
  43. Mandell D, Han J, Poublanc J, Crawley A, Kassner A, Fisher J, et al. Selective reduction of blood flow to white matter during hypercapnia corresponds with leukoaraiosis. Stroke. 2008;39:1993-8 pubmed publisher
    Age-related white matter disease (leukoaraiosis) clusters in bands in the centrum semiovale, about the occipital and frontal horns of the lateral ventricles, in the corpus callosum, and internal capsule...
  44. Szolnoki Z, Kondacs A, Mandi Y, Bodor A, Somogyvari F. A homozygous genetic variant of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 4 affects the occurrence of leukoaraiosis. Acta Neurol Scand. 2011;123:352-7 pubmed publisher
    ..protein 4 in the development of vascular demyelinization of the white matter of the brain, referred to as leukoaraiosis (LA)...
  45. Yokota C, Minematsu K, Tomii Y, Naganuma M, Ito A, Nagasawa H, et al. Low levels of plasma soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products are associated with severe leukoaraiosis in acute stroke patients. J Neurol Sci. 2009;287:41-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Severe leukoaraiosis on brain MR images, high NIHSS scores on admission, cigarette smoking, and normal estimated glomerular ..
  46. Pluta R, Januszewski S, Ułamek M. Ischemic blood-brain barrier and amyloid in white matter as etiological factors in leukoaraiosis. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2008;102:353-6 pubmed
    ..Periventricular white matter changes in ischemic and Alzheimer's disease brain, referred to as leukoaraiosis, are responsible for changes in memory, cognition and behavior...
  47. Arsava E, Rahman R, Rosand J, Lu J, Smith E, Rost N, et al. Severity of leukoaraiosis correlates with clinical outcome after ischemic stroke. Neurology. 2009;72:1403-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Leukoaraiosis (LA) is closely associated with aging, a major determinant of clinical outcome after ischemic stroke. In this study we sought to identify whether LA, independent of advancing age, affects outcome after acute ischemic stroke.
  48. Koton S, Schwammenthal Y, Merzeliak O, Philips T, Tsabari R, Orion D, et al. Cerebral leukoaraiosis in patients with stroke or TIA: clinical correlates and 1-year outcome. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16:218-25 pubmed publisher
    Cerebral leukoaraiosis is frequently observed in patients with acute stroke, but its clinical consequences on functional recovery remain incompletely defined...
  49. van Straaten E, Fazekas F, Rostrup E, Scheltens P, Schmidt R, Pantoni L, et al. Impact of white matter hyperintensities scoring method on correlations with clinical data: the LADIS study. Stroke. 2006;37:836-40 pubmed
    ..Associations may depend on the method used for measuring WMH. We investigated the ability of different WMH scoring methods to detect differences in WMH load between groups with and without symptoms...
  50. Podemski R, Pokryszko Dragan A, Zagrajek M, Słotwiński K, Bilińska M, Sasiadek M, et al. Mild cognitive impairment and event-related potentials in patients with cerebral atrophy and leukoaraiosis. Neurol Sci. 2008;29:411-6 pubmed publisher
    The influence of cerebral atrophy and leukoaraiosis (LA) on the degree and profile of cognitive impairment remains unclear.
  51. Calabrò R, Gervasi G, Baglieri A, Furnari A, Marino S, Bramanti P. Is high oral dose L-arginine intake effective in leukoaraiosis? Preliminary data, study protocol and expert's opinion. Curr Aging Sci. 2013;6:170-7 pubmed
    ..The pathogenesis of leukoaraiosis still has not been thoroughly acknowledged, even though chronic ischemia with consequent arteriolosclerosis ..
  52. Miki Y, Sakamoto S. [Age-related white matter lesions (leukoaraiosis): an update]. Brain Nerve. 2013;65:789-99 pubmed
    b>Leukoaraiosis (age-related white matter hyperintensities) is the most frequently seen lesion on brain magnetic resonance (MR) images...
  53. Lee A, Jeong S, Choi B, Sohn E, Chui H. Pulse pressure correlates with leukoaraiosis in Alzheimer disease. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2006;42:157-66 pubmed
    ..We found a significant relationship between PP and cerebral white matter changes (WMCs) in AD. PP changes correlate with leukoaraiosis in AD.