Summary: An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).

Top Publications

  1. Cavalcanti S, Cavani S, Ciandrini A, Avanzolini G. Mathematical modeling of arterial pressure response to hemodialysis-induced hypovolemia. Comput Biol Med. 2006;36:128-44 pubmed
    A computer model of pressure response to hemodialysis-induced hypovolemia is reported...
  2. Bunnag S, Pattanasombatsakul K. N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide for the differential diagnosis of hypovolemia vs. euvolemia in hyponatremic patients. J Med Assoc Thai. 2012;95 Suppl 3:S69-74 pubmed
    ..The accuracy of volume status assessment is a major problem for the treatment planning especially to discriminate mild hypovolemic from euvolemic patients...
  3. Atchison D, Harding P, Beierwaltes W. Vitamin D increases plasma renin activity independently of plasma Ca2+ via hypovolemia and ?-adrenergic activity. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013;305:F1109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..would increase plasma renin activity (PRA) independently of plasma Ca(2+) via hypercalciuria-mediated polyuria, hypovolemia, and subsequent increased ?-adrenergic sympathetic activity...
  4. Kinsky M, Vaid S, Vane L, Prough D, Kramer G. Effect of esmolol on fluid therapy in normovolemia and hypovolemia. Shock. 2008;30:55-63 pubmed publisher
    ..antagonist esmolol influences volume expansion and fluid balance during normovolemia (series 1) and hypovolemia (series 2). Sheep were instrumented, and the spleen was removed...
  5. Pizov R, Eden A, Bystritski D, Kalina E, Tamir A, Gelman S. Arterial and plethysmographic waveform analysis in anesthetized patients with hypovolemia. Anesthesiology. 2010;113:83-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of arterial and plethysmographic waveform variables in patients with mild hypovolemia.
  6. Shamir M, Kaplan L, Marans R, Willner D, Klein Y. Urine flow is a novel hemodynamic monitoring tool for the detection of hypovolemia. Anesth Analg. 2011;112:593-6 pubmed publisher
    Noticeable changes in vital signs indicating hypovolemia occur only after 15% of the blood volume is lost. More sensitive variables (e.g...
  7. Alian A, Galante N, Stachenfeld N, Silverman D, Shelley K. Impact of central hypovolemia on photoplethysmographic waveform parameters in healthy volunteers part 2: frequency domain analysis. J Clin Monit Comput. 2011;25:387-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) has been used as an experimental tool to simulate loss of central blood volume in humans. The aim of our research is to understanding PPG waveform changes during progressive hypovolemia.
  8. Zengin S, Al B, Genc S, Yildirim C, Ercan S, Dogan M, et al. Role of inferior vena cava and right ventricular diameter in assessment of volume status: a comparative study: ultrasound and hypovolemia. Am J Emerg Med. 2013;31:763-7 pubmed publisher
    Ultrasonography has been suggested as a useful noninvasive tool for the detection and follow-up for hypovolemia. Two possible sonographic markers as a surrogate for hypovolemia are the diameters of the inferior vena cava (dIVC) and the ..
  9. Hoff R, van Dijk G, Algra A, Kalkman C, Rinkel G. Fluid balance and blood volume measurement after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2008;8:391-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In a prospective observational study we assessed the effectiveness of fluid administration based on regular evaluation of the fluid balance in maintaining normovolemia...

More Information


  1. Ali S, Bracht H, Krejci V, Beck M, Stalder M, Hiltebrand L, et al. The immediate and sustained effects of volume challenge on regional blood flows in pigs. Anesth Analg. 2008;106:595-600, table of contents pubmed publisher
    ..b>Hypovolemia and blood flow redistribution may compromise the perfusion of the intraabdominal organs...
  2. Bartels S, Bezemer R, Milstein D, Radder M, Lima A, Cherpanath T, et al. The microcirculatory response to compensated hypovolemia in a lower body negative pressure model. Microvasc Res. 2011;82:374-80 pubmed publisher
    The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that controlled, adequately compensated, central hypovolemia in subjects with intact autoregulation would be associated with decreased peripheral microcirculatory diffusion ..
  3. Ryan K, Cooke W, Rickards C, Lurie K, Convertino V. Breathing through an inspiratory threshold device improves stroke volume during central hypovolemia in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;104:1402-9 pubmed publisher
    ..also be associated with a protection of SV and a subsequent increase in the tolerance to progressive central hypovolemia. Eight volunteers (5 men, 3 women) were instrumented to record ECG and beat-by-beat arterial pressure and SV (..
  4. Turner J, Xiang F, Feng Q, Wagner G. The renal stanniocalcin-1 gene is differentially regulated by hypertonicity and hypovolemia in the rat. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;331:150-7 pubmed publisher
    ..and at the same time reduces ECF volume, the present study examined the individual effects of hypertonicity and hypovolemia on renal gene activity in rats...
  5. Formes K, Zhang P, Tierney N, Schaller F, Shi X. Chronic physical activity mitigates cerebral hypoperfusion during central hypovolemia in elderly humans. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;298:H1029-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Central hypovolemia during graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) was larger (P < 0...
  6. Ryan K, Rickards C, Ludwig D, Convertino V. Tracking central hypovolemia with ecg in humans: cautions for the use of heart period variability in patient monitoring. Shock. 2010;33:583-9 pubmed publisher
    ..87). To ascertain the utility of the HPV metrics to track individual responses to central hypovolemia, the difference scores for each HPV metric were correlated at each successive LBNP level, with percentage ..
  7. Hashimoto H, Otsubo H, Fujihara H, Suzuki H, Ohbuchi T, Yokoyama T, et al. Centrally administered ghrelin potently inhibits water intake induced by angiotensin II and hypovolemia in rats. J Physiol Sci. 2010;60:19-25 pubmed publisher
    ..induced by intraperitoneal injection of an isotonic polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution that causes isotonic hypovolemia. Water intake induced by the icv injection of AII or ip injection of PEG was significantly reduced after icv ..
  8. Soller B, Yang Y, Soyemi O, Ryan K, Rickards C, Walz J, et al. Noninvasively determined muscle oxygen saturation is an early indicator of central hypovolemia in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;104:475-81 pubmed
    ..Spectroscopic determination of SmO2 is noninvasive and continuous, providing an early indication of impending cardiovascular collapse resulting from progressive reduction in central blood volume...
  9. Hanson J, Hossain A, Charunwatthana P, Hassan M, Davis T, Lam S, et al. Hyponatremia in severe malaria: evidence for an appropriate anti-diuretic hormone response to hypovolemia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:141-5 pubmed
    ..It likely reflects continued oral hypotonic fluid intake in the setting of hypovolemia and requires no therapy beyond rehydration.
  10. Bartels S, Bezemer R, de Vries F, Milstein D, Lima A, Cherpanath T, et al. Multi-site and multi-depth near-infrared spectroscopy in a model of simulated (central) hypovolemia: lower body negative pressure. Intensive Care Med. 2011;37:671-7 pubmed publisher
    ..hypothesis that the sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in reflecting the degree of (compensated) hypovolemia would be affected by the application site and probing depth...
  11. van Genderen M, Bartels S, Lima A, Bezemer R, Ince C, Bakker J, et al. Peripheral perfusion index as an early predictor for central hypovolemia in awake healthy volunteers. Anesth Analg. 2013;116:351-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In healthy volunteers, we investigated the ability of the pulse oximeter-derived peripheral perfusion index (PPI) to detect progressive reductions in central blood volume...
  12. Soller B, Zou F, Ryan K, Rickards C, Ward K, Convertino V. Lightweight noninvasive trauma monitor for early indication of central hypovolemia and tissue acidosis: a review. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73:S106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous demonstration in a model of progressive, central hypovolemia induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP) showed that SmO? provided an early indication of impending ..
  13. Aman J, Groeneveld A, van Nieuw Amerongen G. Predictors of pulmonary edema formation during fluid loading in the critically ill with presumed hypovolemia*. Crit Care Med. 2012;40:793-9 pubmed publisher
    It is largely unknown why extravascular lung water may increase during fluid loading in the critically ill with presumed hypovolemia. In this study we evaluated the hemodynamic predictors of such an increase.
  14. Hahn G, Heiring C, Pryds O, Greisen G. Cerebral vascular effects of hypovolemia and dopamine infusions: a study in newborn piglets. Acta Paediatr. 2012;101:736-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to elucidate if hypovolemia alone impairs cerebral autoregulation (CA) and if dopamine affects cerebral vasculature.
  15. Breukers R, de Wilde R, van den Berg P, Jansen J, Faes T, Twisk J, et al. Assessing fluid responses after coronary surgery: role of mathematical coupling of global end-diastolic volume to cardiac output measured by transpulmonary thermodilution. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2009;26:954-60 pubmed publisher
  16. De Backer D, Taccone F, Holsten R, Ibrahimi F, Vincent J. Influence of respiratory rate on stroke volume variation in mechanically ventilated patients. Anesthesiology. 2009;110:1092-7 pubmed publisher
  17. Dorhout Mees S, Hoff R, Rinkel G, Algra A, van den Bergh W. Brain natriuretic peptide concentrations after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: relationship with hypovolemia and hyponatremia. Neurocrit Care. 2011;14:176-81 pubmed publisher
    Hyponatremia and hypovolemia occur often after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and are associated with poor outcome...
  18. Jacob M, Chappell D, Conzen P, Wilkes M, Becker B, Rehm M. Small-volume resuscitation with hyperoncotic albumin: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Crit Care. 2008;12:R34 pubmed publisher
    Small-volume resuscitation can rapidly correct hypovolemia. Hyperoncotic albumin solutions, long in clinical use, are suitable for small-volume resuscitation; however, their clinical benefits remain uncertain.
  19. Chen L, McKenna T, Reisner A, Gribok A, Reifman J. Decision tool for the early diagnosis of trauma patient hypovolemia. J Biomed Inform. 2008;41:469-78 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The simple computational requirements of ensemble classifiers will permit them to function in small fieldable devices for continuous monitoring of trauma patients...
  20. Soller B, Ryan K, Rickards C, Cooke W, Yang Y, Soyemi O, et al. Oxygen saturation determined from deep muscle, not thenar tissue, is an early indicator of central hypovolemia in humans. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:176-82 pubmed
    ..measured tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) and calculated muscle oxygen tension (PmO2) to standard hemodynamic variables for early detection of imminent hemodynamic instability during progressive central hypovolemia in humans.
  21. Westphal G, Garrido A, de Almeida D, Rocha e Silva M, Poli de Figueiredo L. Pulse pressure respiratory variation as an early marker of cardiac output fall in experimental hemorrhagic shock. Artif Organs. 2007;31:284-9 pubmed
    ..Blood volume loss showed no correlation with cardiac filling pressures. DeltaPp is a useful, early marker of SV and CO for the assessment of cardiac preload changes in hemorrhagic shock, while cardiac filling pressures are not...
  22. Stephan F, Flahault A, Dieudonne N, Hollande J, Paillard F, Bonnet F. Clinical evaluation of circulating blood volume in critically ill patients--contribution of a clinical scoring system. Br J Anaesth. 2001;86:754-62 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that: (1) individually, no clinical sign presented a clinical useful predictive value; and (2) a clinical scoring system may be helpful for the evaluation of CBV in critically ill patients...
  23. Nakagawa A, Su C, Sato K, Shirane R. Evaluation of changes in circulating blood volume during acute and very acute stages of subarachnoid hemorrhage: implications for the management of hypovolemia. J Neurosurg. 2002;97:268-71 pubmed
    ..To determine appropriate management of patients with SAH, the authors measured cBV by using pulse spectrophotometry immediately after patient admission. They also evaluated whether the timing of surgery influenced changes in cBV...
  24. Hinder F, Stubbe H, Van Aken H, Baba H, Jahn U, Brodner G, et al. Early multiple organ failure after recurrent endotoxemia in the presence of vasoconstrictor-masked hypovolemia. Crit Care Med. 2003;31:903-9 pubmed
    ..ill patients who develop multiple organ failure during systemic inflammatory states are often predisposed to hypovolemia and vasoconstrictor therapy...
  25. Planche T, Onanga M, Schwenk A, Dzeing A, Borrmann S, Faucher J, et al. Assessment of volume depletion in children with malaria. PLoS Med. 2004;1:e18 pubmed
    ..To assist management of severely ill children, and to test the hypothesis that volume changes in fluid compartments reflect disease severity, we measured body compartment volumes in Gabonese children with malaria...
  26. Birkhahn R, Gaeta T, Terry D, Bove J, Tloczkowski J. Shock index in diagnosing early acute hypovolemia. Am J Emerg Med. 2005;23:323-6 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the hemodynamic response and calculated shock index (SI=heart rate [HR]/systolic blood pressure [SBP]) in early acute blood loss...
  27. Lenz K. Hepatorenal syndrome--is it central hypovolemia, a cardiac disease, or part of gradually developing multiorgan dysfunction?. Hepatology. 2005;42:263-5 pubmed
  28. Chung S, Lee J, Im J, Lee M. Short- and long-term outcomes of spontaneous CSF hypovolemia. Eur Neurol. 2005;54:63-7 pubmed
    We undertook a study to investigate the short- and long-term outcomes of spontaneous CSF hypovolemia. Fifty-three consecutive patients with spontaneous CSF hypovolemia were included...
  29. Kasuya H, Onda H, Yoneyama T, Sasaki T, Hori T. Bedside monitoring of circulating blood volume after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2003;34:956-60 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate the circulating blood volume (CBV) after SAH with the use of indocyanine green pulse spectrophotometry...
  30. Junghans T, Neuss H, Strohauer M, Raue W, Haase O, Schink T, et al. Hypovolemia after traditional preoperative care in patients undergoing colonic surgery is underrepresented in conventional hemodynamic monitoring. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2006;21:693-7 pubmed
    b>Hypovolemia after bowel preparation as well as capnoperitoneum (CP) may compromise hemodynamic function during laparoscopic colonic surgery...
  31. Kimmerly D, Shoemaker J. Hypovolemia and MSNA discharge patterns: assessing and interpreting sympathetic responses. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;284:H1198-204 pubmed
    We previously demonstrated that diuretic-induced hypovolemia resulted in an enhanced baroreflex-mediated increase in integrated muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and vasomotor tone during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) (Am J ..
  32. Chung S, Lee J, Kim S, Kwun B, Lee M. Subdural hematoma in spontaneous CSF hypovolemia. Neurology. 2006;67:1088-9 pubmed
    Of 67 consecutive patients with spontaneous CSF hypovolemia (SCH), 11 (16.4%) had subdural hematoma (SDH). Patients with SDH were older (p = 0.005), more likely to be male (p = 0.035), and displayed longer time to diagnosis of SCH (p = 0...
  33. Slama M, Masson H, Teboul J, Arnout M, Susic D, Frohlich E, et al. Respiratory variations of aortic VTI: a new index of hypovolemia and fluid responsiveness. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002;283:H1729-33 pubmed
    ..This dynamic parameter predicted fluid responsiveness more reliably than static markers of cardiac preload...
  34. Horsey P. Albumin and hypovolaemia: is the Cochrane evidence to be trusted?. Lancet. 2002;359:70-2; discussion 72-3 pubmed
  35. McIlroy D, Kharasch E. Acute intravascular volume expansion with rapidly administered crystalloid or colloid in the setting of moderate hypovolemia. Anesth Analg. 2003;96:1572-7, table of contents pubmed
  36. Kimmerly D, Shoemaker J. Hypovolemia and neurovascular control during orthostatic stress. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002;282:H645-55 pubmed
    ..in blood pressure regulation during orthostatic stress that may be related to autonomic dysregulation and/or hypovolemia. We examined the hypothesis that hypovolemia, without the deconditioning effects of bed rest or spaceflight, ..
  37. Cavalcanti S, Ciandrini A, Severi S, Badiali F, Bini S, Gattiani A, et al. Model-based study of the effects of the hemodialysis technique on the compensatory response to hypovolemia. Kidney Int. 2004;65:1499-510 pubmed
    ..We have examined the hypothesis that the dialysis technique affects the hypotension risk by altering the cardiovascular compensatory response to hemodialysis-induced hypovolemia.
  38. West B, Scafetta N, Cooke W, Balocchi R. Influence of progressive central hypovolemia on Hölder exponent distributions of cardiac interbeat intervals. Ann Biomed Eng. 2004;32:1077-87 pubmed
    ..the dependency of the statistical properties of the R to R interval (RRI) time series on progressive central hypovolemia with lower body negative pressure...
  39. Fu Q, Witkowski S, Okazaki K, Levine B. Effects of gender and hypovolemia on sympathetic neural responses to orthostatic stress. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;289:R109-16 pubmed
    ..Acute hypovolemia was produced by diuretic (furosemide) administration approximately 2 h before testing...
  40. Pearse R, Dawson D, Fawcett J, Rhodes A, Grounds R, Bennett E. Early goal-directed therapy after major surgery reduces complications and duration of hospital stay. A randomised, controlled trial [ISRCTN38797445]. Crit Care. 2005;9:R687-93 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of post-operative GDT on the incidence of complications and duration of hospital stay in patients undergoing general surgery...
  41. Nielsen J, Nilsson M, Fredén F, Hultman J, Alström U, Kjaergaard J, et al. Central hemodynamics during lung recruitment maneuvers at hypovolemia, normovolemia and hypervolemia. A study by echocardiography and continuous pulmonary artery flow measurements in lung-injured pigs. Intensive Care Med. 2006;32:585-94 pubmed
    ..We therefore investigated the effect on central hemodynamics of lung recruitment maneuvers at hypovolemia, normovolemia and hypervolemia in experimental lung injury.
  42. Hiltebrand L, Pestel G, Hager H, Ratnaraj J, Sigurdsson G, Kurz A. Perioperative fluid management: comparison of high, medium and low fluid volume on tissue oxygen pressure in the small bowel and colon. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2007;24:927-33 pubmed
    ..We tested the hypothesis that high intraoperative fluid volume administration increases intestinal wall tissue oxygen pressure during laparotomy...
  43. Convertino V, Cooke W, Holcomb J. Arterial pulse pressure and its association with reduced stroke volume during progressive central hypovolemia. J Trauma. 2006;61:629-34 pubmed
    ..nerve activity (MSNA) in human subjects during progressive lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to test the hypothesis that a reduction in PP tracks the reduction of SV and change in MSNA during graded central hypovolemia in humans.
  44. Finfer S, Bellomo R, Boyce N, French J, Myburgh J, Norton R. A comparison of albumin and saline for fluid resuscitation in the intensive care unit. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2247-56 pubmed
    ..We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial to compare the effect of fluid resuscitation with albumin or saline on mortality in a heterogeneous population of patients in the ICU...
  45. Kondo N, Arima H, Banno R, Kuwahara S, Sato I, Oiso Y. Osmoregulation of vasopressin release and gene transcription under acute and chronic hypovolemia in rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;286:E337-46 pubmed
    ..Acute hypovolemia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of polyethylene glycol (PEG), and chronic hypovolemia was induced by 3 ..
  46. Maitland K, Pamba A, Newton C, Levin M. Response to volume resuscitation in children with severe malaria. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2003;4:426-31 pubmed
    To examine whether hypovolemia is an important cause of the acidosis in children with severe malaria.
  47. Wakeling H, McFall M, Jenkins C, Woods W, Miles W, Barclay G, et al. Intraoperative oesophageal Doppler guided fluid management shortens postoperative hospital stay after major bowel surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2005;95:634-42 pubmed
    ..We assessed whether using intraoperative oesophageal Doppler guided fluid management to minimize hypovolaemia would reduce postoperative hospital stay and the time before return of gut function after colorectal surgery...
  48. Verheij J, van Lingen A, Beishuizen A, Christiaans H, de Jong J, Girbes A, et al. Cardiac response is greater for colloid than saline fluid loading after cardiac or vascular surgery. Intensive Care Med. 2006;32:1030-8 pubmed
    ..To study the effects on volume expansion and myocardial function of colloids or crystalloids in the treatment of hypovolaemic hypotension after cardiac and major vascular surgery...
  49. Maizel J, Airapetian N, Lorne E, Tribouilloy C, Massy Z, Slama M. Diagnosis of central hypovolemia by using passive leg raising. Intensive Care Med. 2007;33:1133-1138 pubmed publisher
    Suspected central hypovolemia is a frequent clinical situation in hospitalized patients, and no simple bedside diagnostic test in spontaneously breathing patients is available...
  50. Vincent J. Issues in contemporary fluid management. Crit Care. 2000;4 Suppl 2:S1-2 pubmed
    ..Experimental models can make an important contribution in gathering such evidence. Rigorous pharmacoeconomic studies are also needed to define the benefits and costs of differing fluid regimens...
  51. Cavalcanti S, Cavani S, Santoro A. Role of short-term regulatory mechanisms on pressure response to hemodialysis-induced hypovolemia. Kidney Int. 2002;61:228-38 pubmed
    ..We investigated the hypothesis that this variability is due to the inter-subject differences in the short-term reflex capacity to compensate for hypovolemia.
  52. Perhonen M, Zuckerman J, Levine B. Deterioration of left ventricular chamber performance after bed rest : "cardiovascular deconditioning" or hypovolemia?. Circulation. 2001;103:1851-7 pubmed
    Orthostatic intolerance after bed rest is characterized by hypovolemia and an excessive reduction in stroke volume (SV) in the upright position...
  53. Andrew P, Kaufman S. Splenic denervation worsens lipopolysaccharide-induced hypotension, hemoconcentration, and hypovolemia. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;280:R1564-72 pubmed
    ..would exaggerate LPS-induced intrasplenic fluid efflux and worsen the hypotension, hemoconcentration, and hypovolemia. A nonlethal dose of LPS (150 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1) for 18 h) was infused into conscious male rats bearing ..