hemorrhagic shock

Summary

Summary: Acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss resulting in HYPOVOLEMIA.

Top Publications

  1. Rocha Filho J, Nani R, D Albuquerque L, Malbouisson L, Carmona M, Rocha e Silva M, et al. Potassium in hemorrhagic shock: a potential marker of tissue hypoxia. J Trauma. 2010;68:1335-41 pubmed publisher
    This study was designed to evaluate serum potassium level variation in a porcine model of hemorrhagic shock (HS).
  2. Vincenzi R, Cepeda L, Pirani W, Sannomyia P, Rocha e Silva M, Cruz R. Small volume resuscitation with 3% hypertonic saline solution decrease inflammatory response and attenuates end organ damage after controlled hemorrhagic shock. Am J Surg. 2009;198:407-14 pubmed publisher
    ..HS) for the treatment of traumatic brain injury; however, few studies have analyzed the effects of 3% hemorrhagic shock during hemorrhagic shock...
  3. Takasu A, Minagawa Y, Ando S, Yamamoto Y, Sakamoto T. Improved survival time with combined early blood transfusion and fluid administration in uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in rats. J Trauma. 2010;68:312-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To test whether early blood administration combined with crystalloid solution infusion may prolong survival in a clinically relevant model of ongoing uncontrolled life-threatening hemorrhage...
  4. Makley A, Goodman M, Friend L, Deters J, Johannigman J, Dorlac W, et al. Resuscitation with fresh whole blood ameliorates the inflammatory response after hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma. 2010;68:305-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Hemorrhagic shock is the leading cause of potentially preventable death after traumatic injury...
  5. Yan J, Qian Z, Sheng L, Zhao B, Yang L, Ji H, et al. Effect of crocetin on blood pressure restoration and synthesis of inflammatory mediators in heart after hemorrhagic shock in anesthetized rats. Shock. 2010;33:83-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was to determine whether crocetin has beneficial effects on cardiac injury caused by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats...
  6. Sato H, Kasai K, Tanaka T, Kita T, Tanaka N. Role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta on lung dysfunction following hemorrhagic shock in rats. Med Sci Monit. 2008;14:BR79-87 pubmed
    b>Hemorrhagic shock occasionally causes a fatal outcome following an outbreak of lung dysfunction, but the precise mechanism has not been clearly elucidated...
  7. Lee C, Lee R, Subeq Y, Lee C, Peng T, Hsu B. Propofol protects against hemorrhagic shock-induced organ damage in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biol Res Nurs. 2009;11:152-62 pubmed publisher
    Patients with hypertension have higher mortality rates from hemorrhagic shock (HS) than normotensive patients...
  8. Yao L, Kuai J, Liu X, Yu D, Yang Y, Tao L, et al. Pretreatment with fentanyl and propofol attenuates myocardial injury in rabbits with acute hemorrhagic shock. J Surg Res. 2009;155:25-31 pubmed publisher
    ..But it is still not certain whether they can protect the myocardium in hemorrhagic shock. This study was designed to examine the myocardial protective effects of propofol and fentanyl in acute ..
  9. Park K, Lee K, Kim H, Hwang S. The anti-inflammatory effects of ulinastatin in trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock. J Korean Med Sci. 2010;25:128-34 pubmed publisher
    ..alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), and its effects on the prognosis of patients with traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Nineteen patients who visited the emergency department for traumatic hemorrhagic shock were enrolled...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Legrand M, Mik E, Balestra G, Lutter R, Pirracchio R, Payen D, et al. Fluid resuscitation does not improve renal oxygenation during hemorrhagic shock in rats. Anesthesiology. 2010;112:119-27 pubmed publisher
    The resuscitation strategy for hemorrhagic shock remains controversial, with the kidney being especially prone to hypoxia.
  2. Butt M, Sailhamer E, Li Y, Liu B, Shuja F, Velmahos G, et al. Pharmacologic resuscitation: cell protective mechanisms of histone deacetylase inhibition in lethal hemorrhagic shock. J Surg Res. 2009;156:290-6 pubmed publisher
    ..that valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI), can improve animal survival after hemorrhagic shock, and protect neurons from hypoxia-induced apoptosis...
  3. Tharakan B, Hunter F, Smythe W, Childs E. Alpha-lipoic acid attenuates hemorrhagic shock-induced apoptotic signaling and vascular hyperpermeability. Shock. 2008;30:571-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is associated with the disruption of endothelial cell barrier leading to vascular hyperpermeability...
  4. Lee C, Lee R, Subeq Y, Lee C, Chen T, Hsu B. Fluvastatin attenuates severe hemorrhagic shock-induced organ damage in rats. Resuscitation. 2009;80:372-8 pubmed publisher
    Multiple organ dysfunction resulting from hemorrhagic shock (HS) and subsequent resuscitation was mediated by several inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10)...
  5. Barlos D, Deitch E, Watkins A, Caputo F, Lu Q, Abungu B, et al. Trauma-hemorrhagic shock-induced pulmonary epithelial and endothelial cell injury utilizes different programmed cell death signaling pathways. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;296:L404-17 pubmed publisher
    Intestinal ischemia after trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) results in gut barrier dysfunction and the production/release of biologically active and tissue injurious factors in the mesenteric lymph, which, in turn, causes acute lung injury ..
  6. Kodikara S. Death due to hemorrhagic shock after delayed rupture of spleen: a rare phenomenon. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2009;30:382-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The pathophysiology of delayed rupture and importance of early detection are discussed. The case presented is the first known case of death due to delayed splenic rupture in Sri Lanka...
  7. Deitch E, Chu H, Xu D. Organ blood flow and the central hemodynamic response are better preserved in female, as opposed to the male rats, after trauma-hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma. 2008;65:566-72 pubmed publisher
    ..study was to test the hypotheses that the better resistance of proestrus female than male rats to trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T/HS)-induced gut and other organ injury, and it is associated with better preservation of central ..
  8. Katz L, Manning J, McCurdy S, Sproule C, McGwin G, Moon Massat P, et al. Nitroglycerin attenuates vasoconstriction of HBOC-201 during hemorrhagic shock resuscitation. Resuscitation. 2010;81:481-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine if co-administration of a weak NO donor, intravenous nitroglycerin (NTG), with HBOC-201 during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock could safely attenuate HBOC-201 vasoconstriction.
  9. Moriwaki Y, Kato M, Toyoda H, Kosuge T, Harunari N, Iwashita M, et al. [Experience of damage control as the primary surgery for thoraco-abdominal injury with hemorrhagic shock]. Kyobu Geka. 2010;63:112-5 pubmed
    We experienced a traumatic victim with thoracic and abdominal injury with hemorrhagic shock, who was successfully treated with damage control...
  10. Zhou R, Chen F, Li Q, Hu D, Liu L. Stimulation of the adenosine A3 receptor reverses vascular hyporeactivity after hemorrhagic shock in rats. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2010;31:413-20 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether adenosine A(3) receptors (A(3)AR) stimulation restore vascular reactivity after hemorrhagic shock through a ryanodine receptor (RyR)-mediated and large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channel-..
  11. Xu J, Yang G, Li T, Ming J, Liu L. Involvement of Cpi-17 and zipper-interacting protein kinase in the regulation of protein kinase C-alpha, protein kinase C-epsilon on vascular calcium sensitivity after hemorrhagic shock. Shock. 2010;33:49-55 pubmed publisher
    ..C (PKC) alpha and epsilon take part in the regulation of calcium sensitization and vascular reactivity after hemorrhagic shock. However, the regulatory mechanism is still unclear...
  12. Scribner D, Witowski N, Mulier K, Lusczek E, Wasiluk K, Beilman G. Liver metabolomic changes identify biochemical pathways in hemorrhagic shock. J Surg Res. 2010;164:e131-9 pubmed publisher
    Despite ongoing advances in treatment, thousands of patients still die annually from complications due to hemorrhagic shock, a condition causing dramatic physiologic and metabolic changes as cells switch to anaerobic metabolism in ..
  13. Moore E, Moore F, Fabian T, Bernard A, Fulda G, Hoyt D, et al. Human polymerized hemoglobin for the treatment of hemorrhagic shock when blood is unavailable: the USA multicenter trial. J Am Coll Surg. 2009;208:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This multicenter phase III trial was the first US study to assess survival of patients resuscitated with a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier starting at the scene of injury...
  14. Deniz T, Agalar C, Agalar F, Comu F, Caglayan O, Alpay Y, et al. The effect of hypothermia on splanchnic flows and lung in a two-hit hemorrhagic shock model. J Surg Res. 2010;158:121-6 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the effect of hypothermia on bacterial translocation, splanchnic vascular flow, lung tissue weight, and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in a two-hit model of hemorrhagic shock.
  15. Mittal A, Middleditch M, Ruggiero K, Loveday B, Delahunt B, Jullig M, et al. Changes in the mesenteric lymph proteome induced by hemorrhagic shock. Shock. 2010;34:140-9 pubmed publisher
    ..mesenteric lymph are now thought to contribute significantly to the development of distant organ failure in hemorrhagic shock. Despite the likely relevance of the protein composition of mesenteric lymph conditioned by hemorrhagic ..
  16. Johnson R, Durante W, Craig T, Peyton K, Myers J, Stewart R, et al. Vascular arginase contributes to arteriolar endothelial dysfunction in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma. 2010;69:384-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Hemorrhagic shock causes hypoperfusion of peripheral tissues and promotes endothelial dysfunction, which may lead to further tissue injury...
  17. van den Berg H, Khan N, van der Zee M, Bonthuis F, Ijzermans J, Dik W, et al. Synthetic oligopeptides related to the [beta]-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin attenuate inflammation and liver damage after (trauma) hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. Shock. 2009;31:285-91 pubmed publisher
    Severe hemorrhagic shock (HS) followed by resuscitation induces a massive inflammatory response, which may culminate into systemic inflammatory response syndrome, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and, finally, death...
  18. Kobbe P, Schmidt J, Stoffels B, Chanthaphavong R, Bauer A, Pape H. IL-10 administration attenuates pulmonary neutrophil infiltration and alters pulmonary iNOS activation following hemorrhagic shock. Inflamm Res. 2009;58:170-4 pubmed publisher
    Several studies report immuno-modulatory effects of endogenous IL-10 after trauma. This study investigates the effect of IL-10 administration on systemic and pulmonary inflammation in hemorrhagic shock.
  19. Lee J, Kim S, Lee T, Chung S, No H, Kim D. Preliminary study on physiological changes of hemorrhagic shock in rats. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2008;2008:4891-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Hemorrhagic shock is a common cause of death in emergency rooms. The objective evaluation of hemorrhagic shock is very important for early diagnosis and treatment...
  20. Martini J, Cabrales P, K A, Acharya S, Intaglietta M, Tsai A. Survival time in severe hemorrhagic shock after perioperative hemodilution is longer with PEG-conjugated human serum albumin than with HES 130/0.4: a microvascular perspective. Crit Care. 2008;12:R54 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is any difference in survival time after severe hemorrhagic shock following extreme hemodilution using a conventional hydroxyethyl starch (HES)-based plasma expander or PEG-..
  21. Li Y, Liu B, Sailhamer E, Yuan Z, Shults C, Velmahos G, et al. Cell protective mechanism of valproic acid in lethal hemorrhagic shock. Surgery. 2008;144:217-24 pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrated that valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, can improve animal survival after hemorrhagic shock and protect neurons from hypoxia-induced apoptosis...
  22. Deree J, Loomis W, Wolf P, Coimbra R. Hepatic transcription factor activation and proinflammatory mediator production is attenuated by hypertonic saline and pentoxifylline resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma. 2008;64:1230-8; discussion 1238-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that the attenuation in hepatic injury observed with HSPTX is associated with the reduction of transcription factor activation and proinflammatory mediator production when compared with Ringer's lactate (RL)...
  23. Thuijls G, de Haan J, Derikx J, Daissormont I, Hadfoune M, Heineman E, et al. Intestinal cytoskeleton degradation precedes tight junction loss following hemorrhagic shock. Shock. 2009;31:164-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Hemorrhagic shock (HS) leads to intestinal barrier loss, causing systemic inflammation, which in turn can ultimately lead to multiorgan dysfunction syndrome...
  24. Angele M, Schneider C, Chaudry I. Bench-to-bedside review: latest results in hemorrhagic shock. Crit Care. 2008;12:218 pubmed publisher
    b>Hemorrhagic shock is a leading cause of death in trauma patients worldwide...
  25. Chen C, Wang Y, Zhang Z, Wang C, Peng M. Toll-like receptor 4 regulates heme oxygenase-1 expression after hemorrhagic shock induced acute lung injury in mice: requirement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Shock. 2009;31:486-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice underwent hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HSR)...
  26. Zhang Y, Yao H, Huang F, Wu W, Gao Y, Chen Z, et al. Allicin, a major component of garlic, inhibits apoptosis in vital organs in rats with trauma/hemorrhagic shock. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:3226-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The regulation of cell apoptosis may have therapeutic potential for trauma/hemorrhagic shock, and previous studies have demonstrated that allicin exerts protective effects against tissue ischemia-..
  27. Ohashi H, Kawasaki N, Fujitani S, Kobayashi K, Ohashi M, Hosoyama A, et al. Utility of microdialysis to detect the lactate/pyruvate ratio in subcutaneous tissue for the reliable monitoring of hemorrhagic shock. J Smooth Muscle Res. 2009;45:269-78 pubmed
    ..Six rats died due to hemorrhagic shock by 350 min (Group D) while six rats had survived for the 350 min period after exsanguination (Group A)...
  28. Sloan E, Philbin N, Koenigsberg M, Gao W. The lack of consistent diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin infusion blood pressure effects in the US and EU traumatic hemorrhagic shock clinical trials. Shock. 2010;33:123-33 pubmed
    Hemoglobin solutions have demonstrated a pressor effect that could adversely affect hemorrhagic shock patient resuscitation through accelerated hemorrhage, diminished perfusion, or inadequate resuscitation...
  29. Fang Y, Li T, Fan X, Zhu Y, Liu L. Beneficial effects of activation of PKC on hemorrhagic shock in rats. J Trauma. 2010;68:865-73 pubmed publisher
    ..previous study showed that protein kinase C (PKC) took part in the regulation of vascular reactivity after hemorrhagic shock. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of activation of PKC on hemorrhagic ..
  30. Umeda K, Takahashi T, Inoue K, Shimizu H, Maeda S, Morimatsu H, et al. Prevention of hemorrhagic shock-induced intestinal tissue injury by glutamine via heme oxygenase-1 induction. Shock. 2009;31:40-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is an oxidative stress that causes intestinal tissue injury. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is induced by oxidative stress and is thought to play an important role in the protection of tissues from oxidative injury...
  31. George M, Mulier K, Beilman G. Hypothermia is associated with improved outcomes in a porcine model of hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma. 2010;68:662-8 pubmed publisher
    Hypothermia after trauma is, in current medical practice, both avoided and aggressively treated. However, the effects of environmental hypothermia during early resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock have been only poorly characterized.
  32. Flaherty D, Hoxha B, Sun J, Gurji H, Simecka J, Mallet R, et al. Pyruvate-fortified fluid resuscitation improves hemodynamic stability while suppressing systemic inflammation and myocardial oxidative stress after hemorrhagic shock. Mil Med. 2010;175:166-72 pubmed
    ..conventional lactate Ringer's (LR) more effectively stabilizes mean arterial pressure (MAP) and suppresses myocardial inflammation postresuscitation...
  33. Kanagawa F, Takahashi T, Inoue K, Shimizu H, Omori E, Morimatsu H, et al. Protective effect of carbon monoxide inhalation on lung injury after hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation in rats. J Trauma. 2010;69:185-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HSR) induces pulmonary inflammation that leads to acute lung injury. Carbon monoxide (CO), a by-product of heme catalysis, was shown to have potent cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects...
  34. Pehböck D, Wenzel V, Voelckel W, Jonsson K, Herff H, Mittlböck M, et al. Effects of preoxygenation on desaturation time during hemorrhagic shock in pigs. Anesthesiology. 2010;113:593-9 pubmed publisher
    Patients in hemorrhagic shock often require emergent airway management. Clinical experience suggests that oxygen desaturation occurs rapidly in these patients; however, data are scant...
  35. Chen S, Zhu X, Wang Q, Li W, Cheng D, Lei C, et al. The early effect of Voluven, a novel hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.4), on cerebral oxygen supply and consumption in resuscitation of rabbit with acute hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma. 2009;66:676-82 pubmed publisher
    ..generation of HES product with low molecular weight, has been widely used for the treatment of traumatic and hemorrhagic shock in clinics...
  36. Deniz T, Agalar C, Ozdogan M, Edremitlioglu M, Eryilmaz M, Devay S, et al. Mild hypothermia improves survival during hemorrhagic shock without affecting bacterial translocation. J Invest Surg. 2009;22:22-8 pubmed publisher
    Accidental hypothermia in patients with hemorrhagic shock (HS) is associated with increased mortality. However, experimental mild and moderate hypothermia has beneficial effects...
  37. Douzinas E, Orfanos S, Livaditi O, Augustatou K, Villiotou V, Kavantzas N, et al. Hypoxemic resuscitation prevents pulmonary capillary endothelial dysfunction induced by normoxemic resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:869-75 pubmed publisher
    ..offers hemodynamic stabilization and attenuation of inflammatory response when applied in the resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. In this study, we sought to investigate the effect of hypoxemic resuscitation on pulmonary endothelium.
  38. Sperry J, Nathens A, Frankel H, Vanek S, Moore E, Maier R, et al. Characterization of the gender dimorphism after injury and hemorrhagic shock: are hormonal differences responsible?. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:1838-45 pubmed publisher
    ..old, >52 yrs of age) in a cohort of severely injured trauma patients for which significant variation in postinjury care is minimized...
  39. Piehl M, Manning J, McCurdy S, Rhue T, Kocis K, Cairns C, et al. Pulse contour cardiac output analysis in a piglet model of severe hemorrhagic shock. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:1189-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective was to determine whether TPTD CO and PCCO analysis correlate with PATD CO in a piglet model of severe hemorrhagic shock. Mixed venous oxygen saturation (SVO2) was also compared with PATD CO.
  40. Niu C, Zhao Z, Ye Y, Hou Y, Zhang Y. Mesenteric lymph duct ligation against renal injury in rats after hemorrhagic shock. Ren Fail. 2010;32:584-91 pubmed publisher
    The kidney is a common target in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). The aim of this study is to determine the role of intestinal lymphatic pathway on renal injury in hemorrhagic shock rats.
  41. Wan Z, Sun S, Ristagno G, Weil M, Tang W. The cerebral microcirculation is protected during experimental hemorrhagic shock. Crit Care Med. 2010;38:928-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore hypothesized that the cerebral microcirculation may be preserved in hemorrhagic shock in which systemic and buccal microcirculatory flow are reduced...
  42. Mathes A, Kubulus D, Waibel L, Weiler J, Heymann P, Wolf B, et al. Selective activation of melatonin receptors with ramelteon improves liver function and hepatic perfusion after hemorrhagic shock in rat. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:2863-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to investigate whether therapy with melatonin receptor agonist and hypnotic substance ramelteon may improve liver function, hepatic perfusion, and hepatic integrity after hemorrhagic shock in rat.
  43. Gunter O, Au B, Isbell J, Mowery N, Young P, Cotton B. Optimizing outcomes in damage control resuscitation: identifying blood product ratios associated with improved survival. J Trauma. 2008;65:527-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether suggested blood product ratios yield superior survival rates...
  44. Li Y, Xiang M, Yuan Y, Xiao G, Zhang J, Jiang Y, et al. Hemorrhagic shock augments lung endothelial cell activation: role of temporal alterations of TLR4 and TLR2. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R1670-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Hemorrhagic shock (HS) due to major trauma predisposes the host to the development of acute lung inflammation and injury...
  45. Matheson P, Mays C, Hurt R, Zakaria E, Richardson J, Garrison R. Modulation of mesenteric lymph flow and composition by direct peritoneal resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. Arch Surg. 2009;144:625-34 pubmed publisher
    Traditional clinical resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock that focuses on restoring central hemodynamic function does not adequately perfuse the gut...
  46. Duvigneau J, Kozlov A, Zifko C, Postl A, Hartl R, Miller I, et al. Reperfusion does not induce oxidative stress but sustained endoplasmic reticulum stress in livers of rats subjected to traumatic-hemorrhagic shock. Shock. 2010;33:289-98 pubmed publisher
    Oxidative stress is believed to accompany reperfusion and to mediate dysfunction of the liver after traumatic-hemorrhagic shock (THS). Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been suggested as an additional factor...
  47. Phillips C, Vinecore K, Hagg D, Sawai R, Differding J, Watters J, et al. Resuscitation of haemorrhagic shock with normal saline vs. lactated Ringer's: effects on oxygenation, extravascular lung water and haemodynamics. Crit Care. 2009;13:R30 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments were designed to determine if differences exist because of crystalloid fluid type in the development of oedema, the impact on oxygenation and the haemodynamic response to fluid administration in early HSR...
  48. Mathis K, Sulzer J, Molina P. Systemic administration of a centrally acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor improves outcome from hemorrhagic shock during acute alcohol intoxication. Shock. 2010;34:162-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional studies are warranted to determine the effect of central acetylcholinesterase inhibition on tissue injury and survival after severe blood loss, as well as its effects on long-term metabolic and inflammatory responses...
  49. Peltz E, Moore E, Zurawel A, Jordan J, Damle S, Redzic J, et al. Proteome and system ontology of hemorrhagic shock: exploring early constitutive changes in postshock mesenteric lymph. Surgery. 2009;146:347-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that an unbiased inspection of the proteome of PSML will reveal previously unrecognized aberrations in systems biology provoked by hemorrhage-induced mesenteric IR injury in vivo...
  50. Liu Y, Yuan Y, Li Y, Zhang J, Xiao G, Vodovotz Y, et al. Interacting neuroendocrine and innate and acquired immune pathways regulate neutrophil mobilization from bone marrow following hemorrhagic shock. J Immunol. 2009;182:572-80 pubmed
    ..Resuscitated hemorrhagic shock following major trauma promotes the development of organ inflammation by priming PMN migration and ..
  51. Roesner J, Petzelbauer P, Koch A, Tran N, Iber T, Vagts D, et al. Bbeta15-42 (FX06) reduces pulmonary, myocardial, liver, and small intestine damage in a pig model of hemorrhagic shock and reperfusion. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:598-605 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Hemorrhagic shock (HS) followed by volume resuscitation represents a similar scenario, whereby a whole organism is vulnerable ..
  52. Lv T, Shen X, Shi Y, Song Y. TLR4 is essential in acute lung injury induced by unresuscitated hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma. 2009;66:124-31 pubmed publisher
    Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with hemorrhagic shock (HS) or resuscitation is associated with the expression of TLR4...
  53. Cai C, Gill R, Eum H, Cao Z, Loughran P, Darwiche S, et al. Complement factor 3 deficiency attenuates hemorrhagic shock-related hepatic injury and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;299:R1175-82 pubmed publisher
    Although complement activation is known to occur in the setting of severe hemorrhagic shock and tissue trauma (HS/T), the extent to which complement drives the initial inflammatory response and end-organ damage is uncertain...