neglected diseases


Summary: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).

Top Publications

  1. Hotez P. New antipoverty drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics: a research agenda for the US President's Global Health Initiative (GHI). PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1133 pubmed publisher
  2. Spear R. Commentary by Spear, R. on "Integration of water, sanitation, and hygiene for the prevention and control of neglected tropical diseases: a rationale for inter-sectoral collaboration:" can the control of NTDs profit from a good WASH?. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2473 pubmed publisher
  3. Tibayrenc M, Ayala F. Relevant units of analysis for applied and basic research dealing with neglected transmissible diseases: The predominant clonal evolution model of pathogenic microorganisms. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005293 pubmed publisher
    ..For extensive developments about the evolutionary background of the model, see our previous papers [1-9]. Citations of these former articles lead to the many references quoted in them, which cannot be listed again here. ..
  4. Bartelt L, Lima A, Kosek M, Peñataro Yori P, Lee G, Guerrant R. "Barriers" to child development and human potential: the case for including the "neglected enteric protozoa" (NEP) and other enteropathy-associated pathogens in the NTDs. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2125 pubmed publisher
  5. Karl S, Jones M, Gutierrez L, Moore B, Kattenberg E, Lacerda M. Challenges for Diagnosis of Malaria and Neglected Tropical Diseases in Elimination Settings. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:270756 pubmed publisher
  6. Branco C, Sampaio R, Bracco M, Morhy S, Vieira M, Guilherme L, et al. Rheumatic Fever: a neglected and underdiagnosed disease. New perspective on diagnosis and prevention. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2016;107:482-484 pubmed publisher
  7. Daher E, Soares D, Filho S, Meneses G, Freitas T, Leite T, et al. Hyponatremia and risk factors for death in human visceral leishmaniasis: new insights from a cross-sectional study in Brazil. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:168 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher prevalence of dehydration, oliguria, pulmonary symptoms and liver involvement was found in non-survivors VL patients. Hypoalbuminemia and hyponatremia were frequent and significantly associated with mortality. ..
  8. Braga F, Mendoza de Gives P, Paz Silva A, Soares F, De Araújo J. Zoonotic neglected tropical diseases: new approaches to combat old enemies. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:914248 pubmed publisher
  9. Gizaw Y, Megersa M, Fayera T. Dourine: a neglected disease of equids. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2017;49:887-897 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper looks in to the challenges in identification of T. equiperdum and diagnosis techniques with the aim to update our current knowledge of the disease. ..

More Information


  1. . Neglected tropical diseases: becoming less neglected. Lancet. 2014;383:1269 pubmed publisher
  2. Brunetti E, Garcia H, Junghanss T. Cystic echinococcosis: chronic, complex, and still neglected. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1146 pubmed publisher
  3. Lallemant M, CHANG S, Cohen R, Pecoul B. Pediatric HIV--a neglected disease?. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:581-3 pubmed publisher
  4. Bonell A, Lubell Y, Newton P, Crump J, Paris D. Estimating the burden of scrub typhus: A systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005838 pubmed publisher
    ..Unfortunately, the quality and quantity of the available data on scrub typhus epidemiology is currently too limited for any economical, mathematical modeling or mapping approaches. ..
  5. Previti S, Ettari R, Cosconati S, Amendola G, Chouchene K, Wagner A, et al. Development of Novel Peptide-Based Michael Acceptors Targeting Rhodesain and Falcipain-2 for the Treatment of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). J Med Chem. 2017;60:6911-6923 pubmed publisher
    ..97 ?M), thus being considered as a novel lead compound for the discovery of novel effective antitrypanosomal agents. ..
  6. MacLennan C, Levine M. Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease in Africa: current status. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2013;11:443-6 pubmed publisher
  7. Hotez P. Unleashing "civilian power": a new American diplomacy through neglected tropical disease control, elimination, research, and development. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1134 pubmed publisher
  8. Marks M, Mitjà O, Fitzpatrick C, Asiedu K, Solomon A, Mabey D, et al. Mathematical Modeling of Programmatic Requirements for Yaws Eradication. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23:22-28 pubmed publisher
    ..At high estimates of R0 with 12 monthly rounds of treatment, no combination of variables achieved eradication. Models should be used to guide the scale-up of yaws eradication. ..
  9. Fitzpatrick C, Sankara D, Agua J, Jonnalagedda L, Rumi F, Weiss A, et al. The cost-effectiveness of an eradication programme in the end game: Evidence from guinea worm disease. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005922 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyze the cost-effectiveness of the GWEP in the end game, when the number of cases is lower and the cost per case is higher than at any other time. Ours is the first economic evaluation of the GWEP since a World Bank study in 1997...
  10. Davey G, Bockarie M, Wanji S, Addiss D, Fuller C, Fox L, et al. Launch of the international podoconiosis initiative. Lancet. 2012;379:1004 pubmed publisher
  11. Paris D, Shelite T, Day N, Walker D. Unresolved problems related to scrub typhus: a seriously neglected life-threatening disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013;89:301-7 pubmed publisher
  12. Solano P, Torr S, Lehane M. Is vector control needed to eliminate gambiense human African trypanosomiasis?. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2013;3:33 pubmed publisher
  13. Kihembo C, Masiira B, Lali W, Matwale G, Matovu J, Kaharuza F, et al. Risk Factors for Podoconiosis: Kamwenge District, Western Uganda, September 2015. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;96:1490-1496 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this reported elephantiasis is podoconiosis associated with prolonged foot exposure to volcanic soil. We recommended foot hygiene and universal use of protective shoes. ..
  14. Solomon N, Zeyhle E, Carter J, Wachira J, Mengiste A, Romig T, et al. Cystic Echinococcosis in Turkana, Kenya: The Role of Cross-Sectional Screening Surveys in Assessing the Prevalence of Human Infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:587-595 pubmed publisher
    ..6% in the 1980s to 1.9-3.8% in 2010-2012 and the shift in age distribution of CE-infected individuals over time indicate that the prevalence of CE in Turkana has decreased since the control program began. ..
  15. da Silva V, Campos B, de Oliveira J, Decout J, do Carmo Alves de Lima M. Medicinal chemistry of antischistosomal drugs: Praziquantel and oxamniquine. Bioorg Med Chem. 2017;25:3259-3277 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the information about more than 200 PZQ new derivatives synthetized during almost 35years since its discovery, a deep structure-activity relationship (SAR) is also proposed in this study. ..
  16. Aksoy S, Büscher P, Lehane M, Solano P, Van den Abbeele J. Human African trypanosomiasis control: Achievements and challenges. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005454 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review the status of HAT disease at the current time and the toolbox available for its control. We also highlight future opportunities under development towards novel or improved interventions. ..
  17. Beck Peccoz P, Rodari G, Giavoli C, Lania A. Central hypothyroidism - a neglected thyroid disorder. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2017;13:588-598 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Review, we discuss current knowledge of the causes of central hypothyroidism, emphasizing possible pitfalls in the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. ..
  18. Dumonteil E, Herrera C, Martini L, Grijalva M, Guevara A, Costales J, et al. Chagas Disease Has Not Been Controlled in Ecuador. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0158145 pubmed publisher
  19. Yamey G, Batson A, Kilmarx P, Yotebieng M. Funding innovation in neglected diseases. BMJ. 2018;360:k1182 pubmed publisher
  20. Kesselheim A, Maggs L, Sarpatwari A. Experience With the Priority Review Voucher Program for Drug Development. JAMA. 2015;314:1687-8 pubmed publisher
  21. . WHO Alliance for the Global Elimination of Blinding Trachoma by the year 2020. Progress report on elimination of trachoma, 2013. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2014;89:421-8 pubmed
  22. . Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: progress report, 2013. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2014;89:409-18 pubmed
  23. Franco Paredes C, Santos Preciado J. Freedom, justice, and neglected tropical diseases. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1235 pubmed publisher
  24. Butler D. How to beat the next Ebola. Nature. 2015;524:22-5 pubmed publisher
  25. . Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2015;386:743-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results can guide future health initiatives through examination of epidemiological trends and a better understanding of variation across countries. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. ..
  26. Yerramilli A, Tay E, Stewardson A, Kelley P, Bishop E, Jenkin G, et al. The location of Australian Buruli ulcer lesions-Implications for unravelling disease transmission. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005800 pubmed publisher
    ..ulcerans transmission may be the same across the globe. Our findings also aid clinical diagnosis and provide quantitative background information for further research investigating disease transmission. ..
  27. Ware R. Is sickle cell anemia a neglected tropical disease?. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2120 pubmed publisher
  28. Queiroz Telles F, Fahal A, Falci D, Caceres D, Chiller T, Pasqualotto A. Neglected endemic mycoses. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017;17:e367-e377 pubmed publisher
    ..Cutaneous implantation and systemic mycoses are neglected diseases that affect millions of individuals worldwide, especially in low-income countries where their management is ..
  29. Robertson A, Stefanakis R, Joseph D, Moree M. The impact of the US priority review voucher on private-sector investment in global health research and development. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1750 pubmed publisher
  30. Willyard C. Neglected diseases see few new drugs despite upped investment. Nat Med. 2013;19:2 pubmed publisher
  31. Globisch D, Eubanks L, Shirey R, Pfarr K, Wanji S, Debrah A, et al. Validation of onchocerciasis biomarker N-acetyltyramine-O-glucuronide (NATOG). Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017;27:3436-3440 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these extended studies, we suggest NATOG as a biomarker for tracking active onchocerciasis infections and provide a threshold concentration value of NATOG for future diagnostic tool development. ..
  32. Dichiara M, Marrazzo A, Prezzavento O, Collina S, Rescifina A, Amata E. Repurposing of Human Kinase Inhibitors in Neglected Protozoan Diseases. ChemMedChem. 2017;12:1235-1253 pubmed publisher
    ..This collection aims to provide insight into repurposed human kinase inhibitors and their importance in the development of new chemical entities with potential beneficial effects on the diseases caused by trypanosomatids. ..
  33. Rimoin A, Hotez P. NTDs in the heart of darkness: the Democratic Republic of Congo's unknown burden of neglected tropical diseases. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2118 pubmed publisher
  34. Piseddu T, Brundu D, Stegel G, Loi F, Rolesu S, Masu G, et al. The disease burden of human cystic echinococcosis based on HDRs from 2001 to 2014 in Italy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005771 pubmed publisher
    ..It demonstrates the need of implementing a CE control program aimed at preventing the considerable economic and social losses it causes in high incidence areas. ..
  35. Stich A, Ponte Sucre A, Holzgrabe U. Do we need new drugs against human African trypanosomiasis?. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13:733-4 pubmed publisher
  36. Deiner M, Worden L, Rittel A, Ackley S, Liu F, Blum L, et al. Short-term leprosy forecasting from an expert opinion survey. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182245 pubmed publisher
    ..Even for a disease whose epidemiology changes on a slow time scale, forecasting exercises such as we conducted are simple and practical. We believe they can be used on a routine basis in public health...
  37. Hotez P, Aksoy S. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases: Ten years of progress in neglected tropical disease control and elimination … More or less. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005355 pubmed publisher
  38. Nii Trebi N. Emerging and Neglected Infectious Diseases: Insights, Advances, and Challenges. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:5245021 pubmed publisher
  39. Amaral K, Silva T, Dias F, Malta K, Rosa F, Costa Neto S, et al. Histological assessment of granulomas in natural and experimental Schistosoma mansoni infections using whole slide imaging. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184696 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, WSI may be a suitable tool for detailed and precise histological analysis of granulomas and other pathological aspects for clinical and research studies of schistosomiasis. ..
  40. Hotez P. America's most distressed areas and their neglected infections: the United States Gulf Coast and the District of Columbia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e843 pubmed publisher
  41. Ndayishimiye O, Ortu G, Soares Magalhaes R, Clements A, Willems J, Whitton J, et al. Control of neglected tropical diseases in Burundi: partnerships, achievements, challenges, and lessons learned after four years of programme implementation. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8:e2684 pubmed publisher
  42. Walker D. Scrub Typhus - Scientific Neglect, Ever-Widening Impact. N Engl J Med. 2016;375:913-5 pubmed publisher
  43. Du R, Hotez P, Al Salem W, Acosta Serrano A. Old World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Refugee Crises in the Middle East and North Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016;10:e0004545 pubmed publisher
  44. Zijlstra E. Visceral leishmaniasis: a forgotten epidemic. Arch Dis Child. 2016;101:561-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Control efforts focus on case finding, availability of diagnostic tools, reservoir control and protection from sand flies (insecticides, bed nets). There is no human vaccine. ..
  45. Yeoh D, Anderson A, Cleland G, Bowen A. Are scabies and impetigo "normalised"? A cross-sectional comparative study of hospitalised children in northern Australia assessing clinical recognition and treatment of skin infections. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005726 pubmed publisher
    ..Improving the recognition and treatment of skin infections by clinicians is a priority to reduce the high burden of skin infection and subsequent sequelae in paediatric populations where scabies and impetigo are endemic. ..
  46. Thomas B, Kollie K, Koudou B, Mackenzie C. Commentary: restarting NTD programme activities after the Ebola outbreak in Liberia. Infect Dis Poverty. 2017;6:52 pubmed publisher
    ..There appears to be a strong desire by the communities to resume NTD programme activities, although it is clear that some important challenges remain, the most prominent being those resulting from the severe loss of trained staff. ..
  47. Monteiro L, Mota R, Martins Melo F, Alencar C, Heukelbach J. Social determinants of leprosy in a hyperendemic State in North Brazil. Rev Saude Publica. 2017;51:70 pubmed publisher
    ..Os programas de controle precisam focar as atividades em municípios de maior vulnerabilidade social com investimentos intersetoriais para a melhoria das condições de vida da população. ..
  48. Fitzpatrick C, Haines A, Bangert M, Farlow A, Hemingway J, Velayudhan R. An economic evaluation of vector control in the age of a dengue vaccine. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005785 pubmed publisher
    ..High-burden endemic countries should proceed to map populations to be covered by sustained vector control. ..
  49. Slagboom J, Kool J, Harrison R, Casewell N. Haemotoxic snake venoms: their functional activity, impact on snakebite victims and pharmaceutical promise. Br J Haematol. 2017;177:947-959 pubmed publisher
  50. Bisoffi Z, Buonfrate D, Montresor A, Requena Méndez A, Munoz J, Krolewiecki A, et al. Strongyloides stercoralis: a plea for action. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2214 pubmed publisher
  51. Hotez P. Ten global "hotspots" for the neglected tropical diseases. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8:e2496 pubmed publisher
  52. Lee B, Bartsch S. How to determine if a model is right for neglected tropical disease decision making. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005457 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, decision makers need to better understand if a particular model actually fits their needs. Here are a series of questions that a decision maker can ask when determining whether a model is right for him or her. ..
  53. Anderson R, Hollingsworth T, Truscott J, Brooker S. Optimisation of mass chemotherapy to control soil-transmitted helminth infection. Lancet. 2012;379:289-90 pubmed publisher