diaphragmatic hernia

Summary

Summary: Protrusion of abdominal structures into the THORAX as a result of congenital or traumatic defects in the respiratory DIAPHRAGM.

Top Publications

  1. Montedonico S, Sugimoto K, Felle P, Bannigan J, Puri P. Prenatal treatment with retinoic acid promotes pulmonary alveologenesis in the nitrofen model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:500-7 pubmed publisher
    Severe pulmonary hypoplasia remains the main cause of the high mortality in newborn infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)...
  2. Hejmdal A, Dakhil A, Boel T. [Diaphragmatic hernia--admitted under the gallstone diagnosis]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2009;171:33-4 pubmed
    ..state of sepsis developed and she was transferred to a surgery facility where an incarcerated congenital diaphragmatic hernia was established. After surgery she was discharged with a temporary ostomy, but otherwise feeling well.
  3. Ng G, Derry C, Marston L, Choudhury M, Holmes K, Calvert S. Reduction in ventilator-induced lung injury improves outcome in congenital diaphragmatic hernia?. Pediatr Surg Int. 2008;24:145-50 pubmed
    ..this historical study was to compare the outcome for two treatment strategies, for neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)...
  4. Mah V, Zamakhshary M, Mah D, Cameron B, Bass J, Bohn D, et al. Absolute vs relative improvements in congenital diaphragmatic hernia survival: what happened to "hidden mortality". J Pediatr Surg. 2009;44:877-82 pubmed publisher
    ..this study is to determine if there has been a true, absolute, or apparent relative increase in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survival for the last 2 decades...
  5. Lucisano A, Pafundi D, Calabria R, Orsini V, Sacco R. [Congenital diaphragmatic hernia in an adult: case report of acute abdomen]. Chir Ital. 2008;60:583-6 pubmed
    Bochdalek diaphragmatic hernia usually begins during childhood, but may be an occasional finding even in adults. The treatment of choice is surgical repair to avoid herniated bowel complications...
  6. Klaritsch P, Mayer S, Sbragia L, Toelen J, Roubliova X, Lewi P, et al. Albumin as an adjunct to tracheal occlusion in fetal rats with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a placebo-controlled study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;202:198.e1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..prior to tracheal occlusion (TO) on lung proliferation in fetal rats with nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia. On embryonic day 19, nitrofen-exposed fetuses underwent TO, TO and 50 microL of either intratracheal ..
  7. van den Hout L, Sluiter I, Gischler S, de Klein A, Rottier R, IJsselstijn H, et al. Can we improve outcome of congenital diaphragmatic hernia?. Pediatr Surg Int. 2009;25:733-43 pubmed publisher
    This review gives an overview of the disease spectrum of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Etiological factors, prenatal predictors of survival, new treatment strategies and long-term morbidity are described...
  8. Clugston R, Zhang W, Alvarez S, de Lera A, Greer J. Understanding abnormal retinoid signaling as a causative mechanism in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;42:276-85 pubmed publisher
    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a frequently occurring source of severe neonatal respiratory distress. It has been hypothesized that abnormal retinoid signaling contributes to the etiology of this developmental anomaly...
  9. Deprest J, Gratacos E, Nicolaides K, Done E, Van Mieghem T, Gucciardo L, et al. Changing perspectives on the perinatal management of isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia in Europe. Clin Perinatol. 2009;36:329-47, ix pubmed publisher
    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) should be diagnosed in the prenatal period and prompt referral to a tertiary referral center for imaging, genetic testing, and multidisciplinary counseling...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Arena F, Romeo C, Baldari S, Arena S, Antonuccio P, Campenni A, et al. Gastrointestinal sequelae in survivors of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Pediatr Int. 2008;50:76-80 pubmed publisher
    Gastrointestinal sequelae have been sporadically reported in survivors of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)...
  2. van Loenhout R, Tibboel D, Post M, Keijzer R. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: comparison of animal models and relevance to the human situation. Neonatology. 2009;96:137-49 pubmed publisher
    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) occurs in 1 in 3,000 newborns...
  3. Zayed H, Chao R, Moshrefi A, LopezJimenez N, Delaney A, Chen J, et al. A maternally inherited chromosome 18q22.1 deletion in a male with late-presenting diaphragmatic hernia and microphthalmia-evaluation of DSEL as a candidate gene for the diaphragmatic defect. Am J Med Genet A. 2010;152A:916-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Using an Affymetrix GeneChip(R) Human Mapping 100K Set to study a patient with a late-presenting, right-sided diaphragmatic hernia and microphthalmia, we found a maternally inherited deletion that was 2.7 Mb in size at chromosome 18q22.1...
  4. Jani J, Nicolaides K, Benachi A, Moreno O, Favre R, Gratacos E, et al. Timing of lung size assessment in the prediction of survival in fetuses with diaphragmatic hernia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2008;31:37-40 pubmed
    To investigate whether the prediction of postnatal outcome of fetuses with isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia depends on the gestational age at assessment using the fetal observed to expected (O/E) lung area to head circumference ..
  5. Baynam G, Goldblatt J, Walpole I. Deletion of 8p23.1 with features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome and congenital diaphragmatic hernia and a review of deletions of 8p23.1 to 8pter? A further locus for Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2008;146A:1565-70 pubmed publisher
    ..syndrome (CdLS) is characterized by facial dysmorphism; hirsutism; internal organ anomalies, including diaphragmatic hernia, and limb defects...
  6. Gischler S, van der Cammen van Zijp M, Mazer P, Madern G, Bax N, de Jongste J, et al. A prospective comparative evaluation of persistent respiratory morbidity in esophageal atresia and congenital diaphragmatic hernia survivors. J Pediatr Surg. 2009;44:1683-90 pubmed publisher
    ..compare long-term respiratory morbidity in children after repair of esophageal atresia (EA) or congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)...
  7. Robinson P, Fitzgerald D. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2007;8:323-34; quiz 334-5 pubmed
    The incidence of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) may be as high as 1 in 2000...
  8. Frenckner B, Broomé M, Lindström M, Radell P. Platelet-derived growth factor inhibition--a new treatment of pulmonary hypertension in congenital diaphragmatic hernia?. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:1928-31 pubmed publisher
    ..vascular resistance causing pulmonary artery hypertension is a major problem in the treatment of congenital diaphragmatic hernia with a strong association to mortality...
  9. De Buys Roessingh A, Dinh Xuan A. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: current status and review of the literature. Eur J Pediatr. 2009;168:393-406 pubmed publisher
    Treatment of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) challenges obstetricians, pediatric surgeons, and neonatologists. Persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHT) associated with lung hypoplasia in CDH leads to a high mortality rate at birth...
  10. Sugimoto K, Takayasu H, Nakazawa N, Montedonico S, Puri P. Prenatal treatment with retinoic acid accelerates type 1 alveolar cell proliferation of the hypoplastic lung in the nitrofen model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:367-72 pubmed publisher
    ..with retinoic acid (RA) stimulates alveologenesis in hypoplastic lungs in the nitrofen model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)...
  11. Keller R, Tacy T, Hendricks Munoz K, Xu J, Moon Grady A, Neuhaus J, et al. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: endothelin-1, pulmonary hypertension, and disease severity. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;182:555-61 pubmed publisher
    ..It may be important in the pathobiology of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)...
  12. Waag K, Loff S, Zahn K, Ali M, Hien S, Kratz M, et al. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a modern day approach. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2008;17:244-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall survival in 244 consecutive patients was 86.5% for all patients born alive. All those who needed ECMO survived in 71%, underlining ECMO as a treatment of last choice. Follow-up for quality of life after CDH is described. ..
  13. Slavotinek A, Moshrefi A, Lopez Jiminez N, Chao R, Mendell A, Shaw G, et al. Sequence variants in the HLX gene at chromosome 1q41-1q42 in patients with diaphragmatic hernia. Clin Genet. 2009;75:429-39 pubmed publisher
    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common birth defect for which few causative genes have been identified...
  14. Wat M, Shchelochkov O, Holder A, Breman A, Dagli A, Bacino C, et al. Chromosome 8p23.1 deletions as a cause of complex congenital heart defects and diaphragmatic hernia. Am J Med Genet A. 2009;149A:1661-77 pubmed publisher
    ..is associated with a spectrum of anomalies that can include congenital heart malformations and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)...
  15. Clugston R, Zhang W, Greer J. Early development of the primordial mammalian diaphragm and cellular mechanisms of nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2010;88:15-24 pubmed publisher
    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a frequently occurring cause of neonatal respiratory distress and is associated with high mortality and long-term morbidity...
  16. Mullassery D, Ba ath M, Jesudason E, Losty P. Value of liver herniation in prediction of outcome in fetal congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010;35:609-14 pubmed publisher
    ..ILH) is being used to estimate prognosis and hence guide antenatal interventions in fetal congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). However, the literature regarding its utility in this role is conflicting...
  17. Danielson P, Chandler N. Single-port laparoscopic repair of a Morgagni diaphragmatic hernia in a pediatric patient: advancement in single-port technology allows effective intracorporeal suturing. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45:E21-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Advancement in instrument and port technology makes such procedures feasible in pediatric patients. ..
  18. Matsushita M, Ishii K, Tamura M, Takahashi Y, Kamura T, Takakuwa K, et al. Perinatal magnetic resonance fetal lung volumetry and fetal lung-to-liver signal intensity ratio for predicting short outcome in isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia and cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2008;34:162-7 pubmed publisher
    ..4, range: 3.1-5.7. FLV/FBW in non-surviving neonates was significantly lower than that of the FLV/FBW for surviving fetuses (P<0.05). Low FLV/FBW may be useful in prenatally predicting mortality in fetuses with pulmonary hypoplasia. ..
  19. Hung Y, Chien Y, Yan S, Chen M. Adult Bochdalek hernia with bowel incarceration. J Chin Med Assoc. 2008;71:528-31 pubmed publisher
    ..She received transthoracic repair of diaphragmatic hernia, recovered, and was discharged 15 days later...
  20. Seetharamaiah R, Younger J, Bartlett R, Hirschl R. Factors associated with survival in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: a report from the Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Study Group. J Pediatr Surg. 2009;44:1315-21 pubmed publisher
    To identify factors associated with survival in patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)...
  21. Hosokawa S, Takahashi N, Kitajima H, Nakayama M, Kosaki K, Okamoto N. Brachmann-de Lange syndrome with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and NIPBL gene mutation. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2010;50:129-32 pubmed publisher
    We report herein a case of Brachmann-de Lange syndrome complicated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia in which a NIPBL gene mutation was identified...
  22. Ba ath M, Jesudason E, Losty P. How useful is the lung-to-head ratio in predicting outcome in the fetus with congenital diaphragmatic hernia? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007;30:897-906 pubmed
    ..surgery to improve lung growth comprises tracheal occlusion in selected 'high-risk' fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)...
  23. Stevens T, van Wijngaarden E, Ackerman K, Lally P, Lally K. Timing of delivery and survival rates for infants with prenatal diagnoses of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Pediatrics. 2009;123:494-502 pubmed publisher
    ..METHODS; A retrospective cohort study of term infants with prenatal diagnoses of congenital diaphragmatic hernia was performed with the Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Study Group Registry of patients with congenital ..
  24. Friedman S, Chen C, Chapman J, Jeruss S, Terrin N, Tighiouart H, et al. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of congenital diaphragmatic hernia survivors followed in a multidisciplinary clinic at ages 1 and 3. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:1035-43 pubmed publisher
    Infants who survive congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) repair may have ongoing medical and neurodevelopmental morbidity after hospital discharge...
  25. Büsing K, Kilian A, Schaible T, Endler C, Schaffelder R, Neff K. MR relative fetal lung volume in congenital diaphragmatic hernia: survival and need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Radiology. 2008;248:240-6 pubmed publisher
    ..neonatal survival and the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)...
  26. Peetsold M, Heij H, Kneepkens C, Nagelkerke A, Huisman J, Gemke R. The long-term follow-up of patients with a congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a broad spectrum of morbidity. Pediatr Surg Int. 2009;25:1-17 pubmed publisher
    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a life-threatening anomaly with a mortality rate of approximately 40-50%, depending on case selection...
  27. Jani J, Cannie M, Sonigo P, Robert Y, Moreno O, Benachi A, et al. Value of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging in the prediction of postnatal outcome in fetuses with diaphragmatic hernia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2008;32:793-9 pubmed publisher
    ..volume (TFLV) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the prediction of the postnatal survival in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)...
  28. Chao P, Huang C, Liu C, Chung M, Chen C, Chen F, et al. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia in the neonatal period: review of 21 years' experience. Pediatr neonatol. 2010;51:97-102 pubmed publisher
    Despite advances in therapeutic modalities, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) still accounts for significant neonatal mortality...
  29. Keijzer R, Puri P. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2010;19:180-5 pubmed publisher
    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a congenital anomaly consisting of a posterolateral defect in the diaphragm also known as a Bochdalek hernia...
  30. Neff K, Kilian A, Schaible T, Schütz E, Büsing K. Prediction of mortality and need for neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: logistic regression analysis based on MRI fetal lung volume measurements. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;189:1307-11 pubmed
    ..mortality and the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy among fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)...
  31. Kim E, Kang J, Pyo C, Jeon E. A Morgagni diaphragmatic hernia found after removal of mediastinal tumor. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2008;14:175-7 pubmed
    ..We report a case of a female patient, whose mediastinal tumor had been removed 6 months prior to her being diagnosed with postoperative Morgagni hernia. There was a satisfactory result after the repair by an upper abdominal incision. ..
  32. Lally K, Engle W. Postdischarge follow-up of infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Pediatrics. 2008;121:627-32 pubmed publisher
    Infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia often require intensive treatment after birth, have prolonged hospitalizations, and have other congenital anomalies...
  33. Ozdogan T, Durakbasa C, Mutus M, Iscen M. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a 4-year experience in a single centre. Afr J Paediatr Surg. 2010;7:105-6 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to evaluate congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) patients in our department during a 4-year period...
  34. Babiuk R, Greer J. Diaphragm defects occur in a CDH hernia model independently of myogenesis and lung formation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2002;283:L1310-4 pubmed
    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a significant clinical problem in which a portion of the diaphragmatic musculature fails to form, resulting in a hole in the diaphragm...
  35. Migliazza L, Bellan C, Alberti D, Auriemma A, Burgio G, Locatelli G, et al. Retrospective study of 111 cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia treated with early high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and presurgical stabilization. J Pediatr Surg. 2007;42:1526-32 pubmed
    The prognosis of babies with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) remains unsatisfactory despite recent advances in medical and surgical treatment...
  36. Jeanty C, Nien J, Espinoza J, Kusanovic J, Goncalves L, Qureshi F, et al. Pleural and pericardial effusion: a potential ultrasonographic marker for the prenatal differential diagnosis between congenital diaphragmatic eventration and congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007;29:378-87 pubmed
    To determine whether or not the presence of pleural and/or pericardial effusion can be used prenatally as an ultrasonographic marker for the differential diagnosis between diaphragmatic eventration and diaphragmatic hernia.
  37. Nakazawa N, Takayasu H, Montedonico S, Puri P. Altered regulation of retinoic acid synthesis in nitrofen-induced hypoplastic lung. Pediatr Surg Int. 2007;23:391-6 pubmed
    ..studies have suggested that nitrofen may interfere with the retinoid pathway resulting in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and pulmonary hypoplasia. Recently, it was reported that nitrofen may act by inhibiting RALDH2...
  38. Gallot D, Boda C, Ughetto S, Perthus I, Robert Gnansia E, Francannet C, et al. Prenatal detection and outcome of congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a French registry-based study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007;29:276-83 pubmed
    To describe the true incidence, prenatal detection rate and fetal outcome of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) in a systematically registered population over an 18-year period and to determine any change in trends over time...
  39. Schaarschmidt K, Strauss J, Kolberg Schwerdt A, Lempe M, Schlesinger F, Jaeschke U. Thoracoscopic repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia by inflation-assisted bowel reduction, in a resuscitated neonate: a better access?. Pediatr Surg Int. 2005;21:806-8 pubmed
    Elective endoscopic diaphragmatic hernia repairs have been reported. But endoscopic surgery was regarded unsuitable for emergency repair of diaphragmatic hernia in ventilated newborn children in bad general condition...
  40. Moya F, Lally K. Evidence-based management of infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Semin Perinatol. 2005;29:112-7 pubmed
    The mortality rate associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) varies widely between centers and remains relatively high despite widespread use of new therapeutic modalities...
  41. Colby C, Lally K, Hintz S, Lally P, Tibboel D, Moya F, et al. Surfactant replacement therapy on ECMO does not improve outcome in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 2004;39:1632-7 pubmed
    Respiratory failure in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) may in part be caused by a primary or secondary surfactant deficiency...
  42. Chen M, MacGowan A, Ward S, Bavik C, Greer J. The activation of the retinoic acid response element is inhibited in an animal model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Biol Neonate. 2003;83:157-61 pubmed
    ..biochemical mechanisms of nitrofen's actions in hopes of gaining insights into the etiology of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. In this study, we test the hypothesis that nitrofen is acting to perturb the retinoid signaling pathway by ..
  43. Kobayashi H, Yamataka A, Okazaki T, Lane G, Puri P, Miyano T. Increased levels of circulating adhesion molecules in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia complicated by persistent pulmonary hypertension. Pediatr Surg Int. 2004;20:19-23 pubmed
    ..this study was to determine circulating levels of adhesion molecules in serum from patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) to investigate the relationship between soluble ICAM-1, ELAM-1, and VCAM-1 liberated by activated ..
  44. Yang J. Left diaphragmatic eventration diagnosed as congenital diaphragmatic hernia by prenatal sonography. J Clin Ultrasound. 2003;31:214-7 pubmed
    ..Differentiating between congenital diaphragmatic eventration and congenital diaphragmatic hernia is very difficult but important because eventration has a better perinatal outcome than diaphragmatic ..
  45. De Luca D, Zecca E, Piastra M, Romagnoli C. Iloprost as 'rescue' therapy for pulmonary hypertension of the neonate. Paediatr Anaesth. 2007;17:394-5 pubmed
  46. Harting M, Lally K. Surgical management of neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2007;16:109-14 pubmed
    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is one of the most challenging and complex pediatric abnormalities to manage, both medically and surgically...
  47. Cogo P, Zimmermann L, Meneghini L, Mainini N, Bordignon L, Suma V, et al. Pulmonary surfactant disaturated-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) turnover and pool size in newborn infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Pediatr Res. 2003;54:653-8 pubmed
    ..Whether alterations of DSPC kinetics in CDH infants are caused by a primary surfactant deficiency or are secondary to oxygen therapy and ventilator support has still to be determined. ..
  48. Harrison M, Keller R, Hawgood S, Kitterman J, Sandberg P, Farmer D, et al. A randomized trial of fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion for severe fetal congenital diaphragmatic hernia. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:1916-24 pubmed
    ..that fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion to induce lung growth may improve the outcome of severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia. We performed a randomized, controlled trial comparing fetal tracheal occlusion with standard postnatal ..
  49. Biggio J, Descartes M, Carroll A, Holt R. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: is 15q26.1-26.2 a candidate locus?. Am J Med Genet A. 2004;126A:183-5 pubmed
    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a developmental abnormality due to failure of the normal formation of the diaphragm...
  50. Mey J, Babiuk R, Clugston R, Zhang W, Greer J. Retinal dehydrogenase-2 is inhibited by compounds that induce congenital diaphragmatic hernias in rodents. Am J Pathol. 2003;162:673-9 pubmed
    Currently, the etiology of the serious developmental anomaly congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is unknown. We have used an animal model of CDH to address this issue...
  51. Kamiyama M, Kawahara H, Okuyama H, Oue T, Kuroda S, Kubota A, et al. Gastroesophageal reflux after repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 2002;37:1681-4 pubmed
    Mechanisms of postoperative gastroesophageal reflux (GER) remain unclarified in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). The aim of this study was to examine clinical features of CDH contributing to GER...
  52. Doyle N, Lally K. The CDH Study Group and advances in the clinical care of the patient with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Semin Perinatol. 2004;28:174-84 pubmed
    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) occurs in 1 of every 2000 to 4000 births and accounts for 8% of all major congenital anomalies. Recurrence risk for a subsequent pregnancy is estimated at 2%...
  53. Nakazawa N, Montedonico S, Takayasu H, Paradisi F, Puri P. Disturbance of retinol transportation causes nitrofen-induced hypoplastic lung. J Pediatr Surg. 2007;42:345-9 pubmed
    ..studies suggest that retinoid signalling pathway may be disrupted in the nitrofen model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), but the exact mechanism is not clearly understood...