facial asymmetry


Summary: Congenital or acquired asymmetry of the face.

Top Publications

  1. Trpkova B, Prasad N, Lam E, Raboud D, Glover K, Major P. Assessment of facial asymmetries from posteroanterior cephalograms: validity of reference lines. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2003;123:512-20 pubmed
    ..The position of anterior nasal spine will be altered in facial asymmetry involving the maxilla.
  2. Cheong Y, Lo L. Facial asymmetry: etiology, evaluation, and management. Chang Gung Med J. 2011;34:341-51 pubmed
    b>Facial asymmetry is common in humans. Significant facial asymmetry causes both functional as well as esthetic problems. When patients complain of facial asymmetry, the underlying cause should be investigated...
  3. Ghang M, Kim H, You J, Kim B, Choi J, Kim S, et al. Three-dimensional mandibular change after sagittal split ramus osteotomy with a semirigid sliding plate system for fixation of a mandibular setback surgery. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2013;115:157-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The sliding plate was designed to adjust the spatial relationship between the proximal and distal segments during the postoperative period. This plate was used for mandibular setback surgery to minimize forward early relapse...
  4. Lee M, Chung D, Lee J, Cha K. Assessing soft-tissue characteristics of facial asymmetry with photographs. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010;138:23-31 pubmed publisher
    Precise diagnosis and treatment of facial asymmetry are important in orthodontics...
  5. Villanueva Alcojol L, Monje F, Gonzalez Garcia R. Hyperplasia of the mandibular condyle: clinical, histopathologic, and treatment considerations in a series of 36 patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;69:447-55 pubmed publisher
  6. Primozic J, Richmond S, Kau C, Zhurov A, Ovsenik M. Three-dimensional evaluation of early crossbite correction: a longitudinal study. Eur J Orthod. 2013;35:7-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The CB children had statistically significantly greater facial asymmetry in the lower part of the face (P < 0.05) and a significantly smaller palatal volume (P < 0...
  7. Su P, Liu Y, Yu J, Chen J, Chen S, Lai Y. Facial asymmetry and clinical manifestations in patients with novel insertion of the TCOF1 gene. Clin Genet. 2012;82:460-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the existence of two regulators of growth of the mandibular condyles...
  8. Walters M, Claes P, Kakulas E, Clement J. Robust and regional 3D facial asymmetry assessment in hemimandibular hyperplasia and hemimandibular elongation anomalies. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;42:36-42 pubmed publisher
    Hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH) and hemimandibular elongation (HE) anomalies present with facial asymmetry and deranged occlusion...
  9. Verhoeven T, Coppen C, Barkhuysen R, Bronkhorst E, Merkx M, Berge S, et al. Three dimensional evaluation of facial asymmetry after mandibular reconstruction: validation of a new method using stereophotogrammetry. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;42:19-25 pubmed publisher
    The scientific literature is sparse on reports that evaluate facial asymmetry after mandibular reconstructive surgery objectively...

More Information


  1. Yañez Vico R, Iglesias Linares A, Torres Lagares D, Gutierrez Perez J, Solano Reina E. Three-dimensional evaluation of craniofacial asymmetry: an analysis using computed tomography. Clin Oral Investig. 2011;15:729-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with dysmorphic syndromes or incorrect jaw positions frequently show facial asymmetry. The objective of this cross-sectional survey is to evaluate facial asymmetry by means of three-dimensional ..
  2. Primozic J, Perinetti G, Zhurov A, Richmond S, Ovsenik M. Assessment of facial asymmetry in growing subjects with a three-dimensional laser scanning system. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2012;15:237-44 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate facial asymmetry in growing subjects with no malocclusion on three-dimensional laser facial scans.
  3. Primozic J, Perinetti G, Richmond S, Ovsenik M. Three-dimensional evaluation of facial asymmetry in association with unilateral functional crossbite in the primary, early, and late mixed dentition phases. Angle Orthod. 2013;83:253-8 pubmed publisher
    To assess the degree of facial asymmetry associated with subjects with unilateral functional crossbite (CB) in the primary, early/intermediate, and late mixed dentition phases in comparison with a group of subjects without CB.
  4. You K, Lee K, Lee S, Baik H. Three-dimensional computed tomography analysis of mandibular morphology in patients with facial asymmetry and mandibular prognathism. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010;138:540.e1-8; discussion 540-1 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dimensional changes in each skeletal unit in the mandibles of patients with facial asymmetry and mandibular prognathism.
  5. Saridin C, Raijmakers P, Tuinzing D, Becking A. Bone scintigraphy as a diagnostic method in unilateral hyperactivity of the mandibular condyles: a review and meta-analysis of the literature. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;40:11-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Bone scans are best performed using SPECT, conducting a quantitative analysis by calculating the percentile differences between the left and right condylar regions...
  6. Bagazgoitia L, García Peñas J, Duat Rodríguez A, Hernandez Martin A, Torrelo A. Facial capillary malformation and Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome. Pediatr Neurol. 2010;43:202-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Capillary malformations are a novel finding for children with Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome...
  7. Gawlikowska A, Szczurowski J, Czerwinski F, Miklaszewska D, Adamiec E, Dzieciołowska E. The fluctuating asymmetry of medieval and modern human skulls. Homo. 2007;58:159-72 pubmed
    ..In medieval skulls these relations are inverted. The higher value of FA in modern skulls is an evidence of a higher level of developmental stress in the modern population as well as of its lesser abilities to resist stress...
  8. Ahn S, Lee S, Nahm D. Relationship between temporomandibular joint internal derangement and facial asymmetry in women. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2005;128:583-91 pubmed
    Internal derangement (ID) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) can cause facial asymmetry. The purposes of this study were to analyze the relationship between facial asymmetry and TMJ ID by using posteroanterior cephalometric variables, ..
  9. Jung Y, Kim M, Baek S. Hard and soft tissue changes after correction of mandibular prognathism and facial asymmetry by mandibular setback surgery: three-dimensional analysis using computerized tomography. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;107:763-771.e8 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the 3-dimensional (3D) changes in the hard and soft tissues of skeletal class III malocclusion (CIII) patients with or without facial asymmetry by mandibular setback surgery (MSS).
  10. Tuncer B, Atac M, Yuksel S. A case report comparing 3-D evaluation in the diagnosis and treatment planning of hemimandibular hyperplasia with conventional radiography. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2009;37:312-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this report was to present the diagnosis and treatment planning of a hemimandibular hyperplasia case by using conventional radiographs and 3-D cephalometric analysis...
  11. Ferrario V, Sforza C, Ciusa V, Dellavia C, Tartaglia G. The effect of sex and age on facial asymmetry in healthy subjects: a cross-sectional study from adolescence to mid-adulthood. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2001;59:382-8 pubmed
    The study assessed the effects of sex and age on 3-dimensional (3D) soft-tissue facial asymmetry.
  12. Stellwagen L, Hubbard E, Chambers C, Jones K. Torticollis, facial asymmetry and plagiocephaly in normal newborns. Arch Dis Child. 2008;93:827-31 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the incidence and characteristics of torticollis, plagiocephaly and facial asymmetry in normal newborn infants.
  13. Lee K, Hwang H, Curry S, Boyd R, Norris K, Baumrind S. Effect of cephalometer misalignment on calculations of facial asymmetry. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2007;132:15-27 pubmed
    In this study, we evaluated errors introduced into the interpretation of facial asymmetry on posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms due to malpositioning of the x-ray emitter focal spot...
  14. Kwon T, Park H, Ryoo H, Lee S. A comparison of craniofacial morphology in patients with and without facial asymmetry--a three-dimensional analysis with computed tomography. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;35:43-8 pubmed
    ..to evaluate the morphological characteristics of the cranial base and maxillomandibular structures of facial asymmetry in adult patients, so as to determine whether mandibular asymmetry is a result of primary mandibular ..
  15. Ko E, Hung K, Huang C, Chen P. Correction of facial asymmetry with multiplanar mandible distraction: a one-year follow-up study. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2004;41:5-12 pubmed
  16. Arslan H, Gündüz S, Subasi M, Kesemenli C, Necmioglu S, Subaşý M. Frontal cephalometric analysis in the evaluation of facial asymmetry in torticollis, and outcomes of bipolar release in patients over 6 years of age. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2002;122:489-93 pubmed
    ..study was to investigate the mid-term results of bipolar release in congenital muscular torticollis patients over 6 years of age, and the efficacy of frontal cephalometric analysis in the determination and follow-up of facial asymmetry.
  17. Haraguchi S, Takada K, Yasuda Y. Facial asymmetry in subjects with skeletal Class III deformity. Angle Orthod. 2002;72:28-35 pubmed
    We investigated the frequency, site, amount, and direction of facial asymmetry in human adults with mandibular prognathism and examined if these characteristics were associated postnatally with cardinal clinical signs that may indicate a ..
  18. Kaban L. Mandibular asymmetry and the fourth dimension. J Craniofac Surg. 2009;20 Suppl 1:622-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding these concepts is critical for the development of rational treatment protocols for adults with end-stage asymmetry and for children to minimize secondary deformity...
  19. Oh A, Wong J, Ohta E, Rogers G, Deutsch C, Mulliken J. Facial asymmetry in unilateral coronal synostosis: long-term results after fronto-orbital advancement. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121:545-62 pubmed publisher
  20. Hartmann J, Meyer Marcotty P, Benz M, Häusler G, Stellzig Eisenhauer A. Reliability of a Method for Computing Facial Symmetry Plane and Degree of Asymmetry Based on 3D-data. J Orofac Orthop. 2007;68:477-90 pubmed
  21. Baek S, Cho I, Chang Y, Kim M. Skeletodental factors affecting chin point deviation in female patients with class III malocclusion and facial asymmetry: a three-dimensional analysis using computed tomography. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;104:628-39 pubmed
    Three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) was used to investigate which skeletodental factors are related to chin point deviation of facial asymmetry in skeletal class III malocclusion (SCIII) patients.
  22. Nakamura T, Okamoto K, Maruyama T. Facial asymmetry in patients with cervicobrachial pain and headache. J Oral Rehabil. 2001;28:1009-14 pubmed
    ..b>Facial asymmetry was analysed using the frontal view photographs of faces...
  23. Maeda M, Katsumata A, Ariji Y, Muramatsu A, Yoshida K, Goto S, et al. 3D-CT evaluation of facial asymmetry in patients with maxillofacial deformities. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;102:382-90 pubmed
    The aims of this study were to characterize the symmetrical features of patients with facial deformities and to suggest a classification system for facial asymmetry based on 3-dimensional-computed tomography (3D-CT) evaluation.
  24. Al Kaissi A, Ben Chehida F, Gharbi H, Ben Ghachem M, Grill F, Varga F, et al. Persistent torticollis, facial asymmetry, grooved tongue, and dolicho-odontoid process in connection with atlas malformation complex in three family subjects. Eur Spine J. 2007;16 Suppl 3:265-70 pubmed
    ..We report two siblings and their mother, with congenital, persistent torticollis, plagiocephaly, facial asymmetry, grooved tongues, and asymptomatic "dolicho-odontoid process". All are of normal intelligence...
  25. Ferrario V, Sforza C, Dellavia C, Tartaglia G, Colombo A, Carù A. A quantitative three-dimensional assessment of soft tissue facial asymmetry of cleft lip and palate adult patients. J Craniofac Surg. 2003;14:739-46 pubmed
    ..b>Facial asymmetry was quantified by detecting a plane of symmetry and the centers of gravity (CG) of the right and left ..
  26. Vilkki S, Hukki J, Nietosvaara Y, Hurmerinta K, Suominen E. Microvascular temporomandibular joint and mandibular ramus reconstruction in hemifacial microsomia. J Craniofac Surg. 2002;13:809-15 pubmed
    ..The present technique appears to be a promising alternative in the treatment of children with Pruzansky type 3 hemifacial microsomia...
  27. Kim Y, Sato K, Mitani H, Shimizu Y, Kikuchi M. Asymmetry of the sphenoid bone and its suitability as a reference for analyzing craniofacial asymmetry. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2003;124:656-62 pubmed
    ..4. The external acoustic meatus was the most suitable reference for analysis of craniofacial asymmetry...
  28. Hood C, Bock M, Hosey M, Bowman A, Ayoub A. Facial asymmetry--3D assessment of infants with cleft lip & palate. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2003;13:404-10 pubmed
    To determine the degree of facial asymmetry in infants with unilateral cleft lip and/or palate, and quantify improvements following primary surgery, in three dimensions.
  29. Moro A, Correra P, Boniello R, Gasparini G, Pelo S. Three-dimensional analysis in facial asymmetry: comparison with model analysis and conventional two-dimensional analysis. J Craniofac Surg. 2009;20:417-22 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis with a model analysis to use it as diagnostic aid for the evaluation of occlusal plane tilting in facial asymmetry. Ten patients with facial asymmetry underwent CT three-dimensional examination, plaster cast analysis, and ..
  30. el Bahri Ben Mrad F, Mrabet H, Ben Sghaier R, Mrabet A. [Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome: a report of two cases]. J Neuroradiol. 2005;32:50-3 pubmed
    Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome is a condition characterized by seizures, facial asymmetry, contralateral hemiplegia or hemiparesis and mental retardation...
  31. Meyer Marcotty P, Alpers G, Gerdes A, Stellzig Eisenhauer A. Impact of facial asymmetry in visual perception: a 3-dimensional data analysis. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010;137:168.e1-8; discussion 168-9 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this controlled study was to analyze the degree and localization of 3-dimensional (3D) facial asymmetry in adult patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) compared with a control group and its impact on the visual perception of ..
  32. Sekiya T, Nakamura Y, Oikawa T, Ishii H, Hirashita A, Seto K. Elimination of transverse dental compensation is critical for treatment of patients with severe facial asymmetry. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010;137:552-62 pubmed publisher
    ..transverse dental compensation during preoperative orthodontic treatment for a patient with severe facial asymmetry. The patient, a 17-year-old Japanese woman, had severe facial asymmetry involving the maxilla and the ..
  33. Masuoka N, Momoi Y, Ariji Y, Nawa H, Muramatsu A, Goto S, et al. Can cephalometric indices and subjective evaluation be consistent for facial asymmetry?. Angle Orthod. 2005;75:651-5 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the subjective evaluation of facial asymmetry and seven cephalometric indices...
  34. Hajeer M, Ayoub A, Millett D. Three-dimensional assessment of facial soft-tissue asymmetry before and after orthognathic surgery. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;42:396-404 pubmed
    We developed a new three-dimensional (3D) method of analysis of facial asymmetry and applied it to 44 patients: 20 Class III cases treated by bimaxillary osteotomy; 12 Class III cases treated by maxillary advancement alone, and 12 Class ..
  35. Katsumata A, Fujishita M, Maeda M, Ariji Y, Ariji E, Langlais R. 3D-CT evaluation of facial asymmetry. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2005;99:212-20 pubmed
    ..The present authors have developed a 3D-CT imaging procedure for a 3-dimensional coordinate point evaluation system to assess and diagnose patients with facial asymmetry.
  36. Horlock N, Sanders R, Harrison D. The SOOF lift: its role in correcting midfacial and lower facial asymmetry in patients with partial facial palsy. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002;109:839-49; discussion 850-4 pubmed
    ..The authors hope that long-term follow-up will confirm the sustained effect of midfacial suspension in this selected patient group...
  37. Takano Yamamoto T, Kuroda S. Titanium screw anchorage for correction of canted occlusal plane in patients with facial asymmetry. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2007;132:237-42 pubmed
    b>Facial asymmetry is a major complaint of orthodontic patients. In those with severe facial asymmetry, combination treatment of LeFort I osteotomy and mandibular surgery was commonly used...
  38. Maas N, Thienpont B, Vermeesch J, Fryns J. Facial asymmetry, cardiovascular anomalies and adducted thumbs as unusual symptoms in Dubowitz syndrome: a microdeletion/duplication in 13q. Genet Couns. 2006;17:477-9 pubmed
  39. Ercan I, Ozdemir S, Etoz A, Sigirli D, Tubbs R, Loukas M, et al. Facial asymmetry in young healthy subjects evaluated by statistical shape analysis. J Anat. 2008;213:663-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we aimed to identify normal facial asymmetry between the right and the left sides of the face...
  40. Masuoka N, Muramatsu A, Ariji Y, Nawa H, Goto S, Ariji E. Discriminative thresholds of cephalometric indexes in the subjective evaluation of facial asymmetry. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2007;131:609-13 pubmed
    ..of cephalometric indexes by which orthodontists subjectively differentiate patients needing treatment for facial asymmetry from those who do not...
  41. Manikandan N. Effect of facial neuromuscular re-education on facial symmetry in patients with Bell's palsy: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil. 2007;21:338-43 pubmed
    ..To determine the effect of facial neuromuscular re-education over conventional therapeutic measures in improving facial symmetry in patients with Bell's palsy...
  42. Nitzan D, Katsnelson A, Bermanis I, Brin I, Casap N. The clinical characteristics of condylar hyperplasia: experience with 61 patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66:312-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Much reported variation and discord exist regarding mandibular condylar hyperplasia (CH). This study evaluated some of the characteristics of this disorder in a series of 61 patients with active CH...
  43. Hartsfield J. Review of the etiologic heterogeneity of the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (Hemifacial Microsomia). Orthod Craniofac Res. 2007;10:121-8 pubmed
    ..The same genetic-environmental factors and or etiological mechanisms may then be investigated in apparently sporadic cases...
  44. Hwang H, Hwang C, Lee K, Kang B. Maxillofacial 3-dimensional image analysis for the diagnosis of facial asymmetry. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006;130:779-85 pubmed
    ..This article describes the use of 3D images in the diagnosis of facial asymmetry. A step-by-step procedure for 3D analysis developed by the authors is described by using the example of a 23-..
  45. Primozic J, Ovsenik M, Richmond S, Kau C, Zhurov A. Early crossbite correction: a three-dimensional evaluation. Eur J Orthod. 2009;31:352-6 pubmed publisher
    A crossbite (CB) occurs in approximately 4-23 per cent of young children and may lead to mandibular and facial asymmetry. Therefore, early intervention is often necessary to create conditions for normal occlusal and facial development...
  46. Vendramini S, Richieri Costa A, Guion Almeida M. Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum with radial defects: a new syndrome or an extension of the oculoauriculovertebral spectrum? Report of fourteen Brazilian cases and review of the literature. Eur J Hum Genet. 2007;15:411-21 pubmed
    ..We postulate that radial defects associated with OAVS might represent a subset within this spectrum...
  47. Unal O, Tombul T, Cirak B, Anlar O, Incesu L, Kayan M. Left hemisphere and male sex dominance of cerebral hemiatrophy (Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome). Clin Imaging. 2004;28:163-5 pubmed
    ..Left hemisphere involvement was seen in 18 patients (69.2%) and right hemisphere involvement was seen in eight patients (30.8%). We conclude that male gender and left side involvement are frequent in cerebral hemiatrophy disease...
  48. Haraguchi S, Iguchi Y, Takada K. Asymmetry of the face in orthodontic patients. Angle Orthod. 2008;78:421-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the laterality of the normal asymmetry of the human face, examining differences in laterality in relation to sex, growth stage, and skeletal classification...
  49. Yamashiro T, Okada T, Takada K. Case report: facial asymmetry and early condylar fracture. Angle Orthod. 1998;68:85-90 pubmed
    ..Following the completion of growth, the asymmetries were corrected by combined orthodontic-surgical treatment. The treatment planning procedures and the results are presented...
  50. Naini F, Donaldson A, McDonald F, Cobourne M. Assessing the influence of asymmeftry affecting the mandible and chin point on perceived attractiveness in the orthognathic patient, clinician, and layperson. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;70:192-206 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this investigation was to undertake an objective and quantitative evaluation of how severity of asymmetries affecting the mandible and chin point influence perceived attractiveness...
  51. Gc R, Muralidoss H, Ramaiah S. Conservative management of unilateral condylar hyperplasia. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;16:201-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to eliminate orthodontic treatment in mild to moderate cases of condylar hyperplasia in its early stages by condylectomy...
  52. Luo Q, Gan Y. Pingyangmycin with triamcinolone acetonide effective for treatment of lymphatic malformations in the oral and maxillofacial region. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2013;41:345-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of intralesion injection of pingyangmycin in combination with triamcinolone acetonide or pingyangmycin alone on lymphatic malformations in oral and maxillofacial regions...
  53. Miro A, Shalman A, Morales R, Giannuzzi N. Esthetic Smile Design: Limited Orthodontic Therapy to Position Teeth for Minimally Invasive Veneer Preparation. Dent Clin North Am. 2015;59:675-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Orthodontic therapy was paramount in positioning the teeth so that the future restorations would have ideal axial inclinations and be as minimally invasive as possible. ..