urinary calculi

Summary

Summary: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.

Top Publications

  1. Cheong H, Kang J, Lee J, Ha I, Kim S, Komoda F, et al. Mutational analysis of idiopathic renal hypouricemia in Korea. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005;20:886-90 pubmed
    ..This is the first study of SLC22A12 mutations in a country other than Japan. W258X was found to be the predominant SLC22A12 mutation in Korean renal hypouricemia patients, as has been reported in Japan. ..
  2. Naseri M, Varasteh A, Alamdaran S. Metabolic factors associated with urinary calculi in children. Iran J Kidney Dis. 2010;4:32-8 pubmed
    We aimed to identify metabolic and anatomical abnormalities present in children with urinary calculi.
  3. Stiburkova B, Ichida K, Sebesta I. Novel homozygous insertion in SLC2A9 gene caused renal hypouricemia. Mol Genet Metab. 2011;102:430-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to previously reported heterozygous patients with renal hypouricemia type 2, we did not find even slight hypouricemia and found no decrease in the FE-UA of the heterozygous parents of the reported siblings...
  4. Shima Y, Nozu K, Nozu Y, Togawa H, Kaito H, Matsuo M, et al. Recurrent EIARF and PRES with severe renal hypouricemia by compound heterozygous SLC2A9 mutation. Pediatrics. 2011;127:e1621-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our case shows that GLUT9, unlike URAT1, may play a specific role in exercise-induced PRES...
  5. Kuriki S, Okada R, Suzuki K, Ito Y, Morita E, Naito M, et al. SLC22A12 W258X frequency according to serum uric acid level among Japanese health checkup examinees. Nagoya J Med Sci. 2011;73:41-8 pubmed
    ..The observed SUA level changes in individuals with 258WX suggested that lifestyle factors could influence the levels of those with 258WX...
  6. Iba A, Kohjimoto Y, Mori T, Kuramoto T, Nishizawa S, Fujii R, et al. Insulin resistance increases the risk of urinary stone formation in a rat model of metabolic syndrome. BJU Int. 2010;106:1550-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the association between metabolic syndrome and urinary stone disease, and whether insulin resistance associated with adiposity affects the risk of urinary stone formation, using a rat model of metabolic syndrome...
  7. Chung S, Chen Y, Lin H. Increased risk of diabetes in patients with urinary calculi: a 5-year followup study. J Urol. 2011;186:1888-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In this population based study we examine the relationship between a history of urinary calculi and the risk of diabetes mellitus in Taiwan.
  8. Alaya A, Nouri A, Najjar M. Urinary stone composition in pediatric patients: a retrospective study of 205 cases. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011;49:243-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Stone composition has changed substantially over the past decades in developed countries. We studied urinary stone composition in Tunisian children...
  9. Williams J, McAteer J, Evan A, Lingeman J. Micro-computed tomography for analysis of urinary calculi. Urol Res. 2010;38:477-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, micro CT has become a powerful tool to help investigate events in stone formation that distinguish different kinds of stone disease...

More Information

Publications76

  1. Kawamura Y, Matsuo H, Chiba T, Nagamori S, Nakayama A, Inoue H, et al. Pathogenic GLUT9 mutations causing renal hypouricemia type 2 (RHUC2). Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2011;30:1105-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings also enable us to propose a physiological model of the renal urate reabsorption via GLUT9 and URAT1 and can lead to a promising therapeutic target for gout and related cardiovascular diseases...
  2. Chung S, Liu S, Keller J, Lin H. Urinary calculi and an increased risk of stroke: a population-based follow-up study. BJU Int. 2012;110:E1053-9 pubmed publisher
    ..on the subject? and What does the study add? Although early studies failed to detect an association between urinary calculi (UC) and subsequent cardiovascular risk, there is growing evidence among more recent research supporting this ..
  3. Mangold S, Thomas C, Fenchel M, Vuust M, Krauss B, Ketelsen D, et al. Virtual nonenhanced dual-energy CT urography with tin-filter technology: determinants of detection of urinary calculi in the renal collecting system. Radiology. 2012;264:119-25 pubmed publisher
    To retrospectively determine which features of urinary calculi are associated with their detection after virtual elimination of contrast medium at dual-energy computed tomographic (CT) urography by using a novel tin filter.
  4. Stiburkova B, Taylor J, Marinaki A, Sebesta I. Acute kidney injury in two children caused by renal hypouricaemia type 2. Pediatr Nephrol. 2012;27:1411-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Type 1 is caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the SLC22A12 gene (OMIM #220150), while type 2 is caused by defects in the SLC2A9 gene (OMIM #612076)...
  5. He J, Deng S, Ouyang J. Morphology, particle size distribution, aggregation, and crystal phase of nanocrystallites in the urine of healthy persons and lithogenic patients. IEEE Trans Nanobioscience. 2010;9:156-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The formed nuclei then grow or/and aggregate to a pathological size. Thus, the nanocrystallites in urine may be related to the formation of urinary stones...
  6. Chang Y, Tong X, Wang X, Zhao Y. [Follow-up study on children with urinary calculi associated with exposure to melamine-contaminated formula]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2010;12:278-9 pubmed
    To understand the prognosis of the children with urinary calculi associated with exposure to melamine-contaminated formula.
  7. Gao J, Shen Y, Sun N, Jia L, Pan Y, Sun Q. Therapeutic effects of potassium sodium hydrogen citrate on melamine-induced urinary calculi in China. Chin Med J (Engl). 2010;123:1112-6 pubmed
    In 2008, a sharp increase of the number of children diagnosed with urinary calculi was observed in China, 9433 children were diagnosed as having melamine-induced urinary calculi at outpatient clinic in Beijing Children's Hospital...
  8. Dinour D, Gray N, Ganon L, Knox A, Shalev H, Sela B, et al. Two novel homozygous SLC2A9 mutations cause renal hypouricemia type 2. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27:1035-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently shown that loss-of-function homozygous mutations of another UA transporter, GLUT9, cause a severe type of hereditary renal hypouricemia with similar complications (RHUC2)...
  9. Blaschko S, Miller J, Chi T, Flechner L, Fakra S, Kahn A, et al. Microcomposition of human urinary calculi using advanced imaging techniques. J Urol. 2013;189:726-34 pubmed publisher
    ..radiation based microfocused x-ray fluorescence, x-ray absorption and x-ray diffraction advanced imaging techniques to identify and map the elemental composition, including trace elements, of urinary calculi on a ?m (0.0001 cm) scale.
  10. Jing Z, GuoZeng W, Ning J, JiaWei Y, Yan G, Fang Y. Analysis of urinary calculi composition by infrared spectroscopy: a prospective study of 625 patients in eastern China. Urol Res. 2010;38:111-5 pubmed publisher
    ..039). In eastern China, the most commonly found pure stone was calcium oxalate, while the most frequent mixed stone was calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate mixture. Stone location, gender, and age may influence stone component...
  11. Gràcia García S, Millán Rodríguez F, Rousaud Baron F, Montañés Bermúdez R, Angerri Feu O, Sanchez Martin F, et al. [Why and how we must analyse urinary calculi]. Actas Urol Esp. 2011;35:354-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This review presents the analysis of the lithiasis using the morphoconstitutional analysis technique based on the combination of the stereoscopic microscopy (SM) with infrared study (IRS)...
  12. Onishi A, Muto S, Homma S, Inaba T, Shuto R, Kusano E, et al. Pseudoaldosteronism with increased serum cortisol associated with pneumonia, hypouricemia, hypocalcemia, and hypophosphatemia. Clin Nephrol. 2010;74:403-8 pubmed
    ..In this patient, the increased circulating cortisol associated with the stress of inflammation caused by pneumonia triggered the development of pseudoaldosteronism...
  13. Sun X, Shen L, Cong X, Zhu H, He L, Lu J. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of 5,248 urinary stones from Chinese patients presenting with the first stone episode. Urol Res. 2011;39:339-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the percentage of calcium oxalate stones decreased with increase in the percentage of carbapatite stones over the period...
  14. Xu C, Song R, Yang J, Jiang B, Wang X, Wu W, et al. Klotho gene polymorphism of rs3752472 is associated with the risk of urinary calculi in the population of Han nationality in Eastern China. Gene. 2013;526:494-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we aimed at investigating a possible relationship between klotho gene polymorphisms and the risk of calcium oxalate urolithiasis in the population of Han nationality in Eastern China...
  15. Gui B, Huang Z, Xu X, Li M, He J, Ouyang J. Measurement of urine crystallites and its influencing factors by nanoparticle size analyzer. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2010;10:5232-41 pubmed
    ..The results were consistent with those obtained by transmission electron microscope (TEM)...
  16. Knoll T, Schubert A, Fahlenkamp D, Leusmann D, Wendt Nordahl G, Schubert G. Urolithiasis through the ages: data on more than 200,000 urinary stone analyses. J Urol. 2011;185:1304-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, regional differences in stone occurrence and composition have been observed. We analyzed such trends based on a large series of urinary stone analyses...
  17. Jawalekar S, Surve V, Bhutey A. The composition and quantitative analysis of urinary calculi in patients with renal calculi. Nepal Med Coll J. 2010;12:145-8 pubmed
    ..At present there is no single analytical procedure that provides an exact quantitative analysis of urinary calculi. In this present procedure it is assumed that only calcium oxalate monohydrate, hydroxyapatite, or magnesium ..
  18. Wallace R, Wactawski Wende J, O Sullivan M, Larson J, Cochrane B, Gass M, et al. Urinary tract stone occurrence in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized clinical trial of calcium and vitamin D supplements. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94:270-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated whether this risk is modified by participant characteristics...
  19. Nie F, Li X, Shang P, Wang Y. Melamine-induced urinary calculi in infants--sonographic manifestations and outcomes 1 year after exposure. Pediatr Radiol. 2013;43:474-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In 2008, the melamine-tainted-milk incident started with reports of increased incidence of urolithiasis in infants in China. Affected children were screened for urolithiasis...
  20. Ricchiuti V, Hartke D, Yang L, Goldman H, Elder J, Resnick M, et al. Levels of urinary inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor trimer as a function of age and sex-hormone status in males and females not forming stones. BJU Int. 2002;90:513-7 pubmed
  21. Demirkesen O, Onal B, Tansu N, Altintaş R, Yalcin V, Oner A. Efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for isolated lower caliceal stones in children compared with stones in other renal locations. Urology. 2006;67:170-4; discussion 174-5 pubmed
    ..0 cm2 in all caliceal locations. For the management of caliceal stones greater than 2.0 cm2, prospective randomized trials comparing ESWL and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are necessary. ..
  22. Vlajkovic M, Slavkovic A, Radovanovic M, Sirić Z, Stefanovic V, Perovic S. Long-term functional outcome of kidneys in children with urolithiasis after ESWL treatment. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2002;12:118-23 pubmed
    ..This study has demonstrated ESWL to be an effective treatment option for urinary calculi management, which can be safely performed in a pediatric population without long-term effects on the growing ..
  23. Damiano R, Autorino R, De Sio M, Cantiello F, Quarto G, Perdonà S, et al. Does the size of ureteral stent impact urinary symptoms and quality of life? A prospective randomized study. Eur Urol. 2005;48:673-8 pubmed
    ..Ureteral stents are invariably associated with urinary symptoms and impaired QoL. We did not find any difference between stent with different size, whereas there was a tendency for stent with smaller diameter to dislodge more often. ..
  24. Usui Y, Matsuzaki S, Matsushita K, Shima M. Urolithiasis in geriatric patients. Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 2003;28:81-7 pubmed
    ..0035). However, the probability of stone recurrence estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves was as equivalent in the elderly patient group as in the younger group. Hypercalciuria may also play a part in stone recurrence of geriatric patients. ..
  25. Neuzillet Y, Lechevallier E, Ballanger P, Ferriere J, Saussine C, Dore B, et al. [Urinary stones in subjects over the age of sixty]. Prog Urol. 2004;14:479-84 pubmed
    ..Uric stones also appear to be more frequent. A multidisciplinary study based on a larger population is necessary to confirm these results. ..
  26. Laube N, Hergarten S, Hesse A. Comparison of laser-probe and photometric determination of the urinary crystallization risk of calcium oxalate. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2002;40:595-9 pubmed
    ..The assumed 98% criterion allows the determination of the Bonn-Risk-Index with adequate accuracy. ..
  27. Kato Y, Yamaguchi S, Kakizaki H, Yachiku S. Influence of estrus status on urinary chemical parameters related to urolithiasis. Urol Res. 2005;33:476-80 pubmed
    ..We propose that the estrus status of female patients should be considered when evaluating metabolic abnormalities. ..
  28. Alon U, Zimmerman H, Alon M. Evaluation and treatment of pediatric idiopathic urolithiasis-revisited. Pediatr Nephrol. 2004;19:516-20 pubmed
    ..Children rarely comply with the recommendation of high fluid intake. ..
  29. Fleming D, van Riessen A, Chauvet M, Grover P, Hunter B, Van Bronswijk W, et al. Intracrystalline proteins and urolithiasis: a synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of calcium oxalate monohydrate. J Bone Miner Res. 2003;18:1282-91 pubmed
    ..We therefore propose that intracrystalline proteins may constitute a natural form of defense against renal stone formation. ..
  30. Penido M, Lima E, Marino V, Tupinambá A, França A, Souto M. Bone alterations in children with idiopathic hypercalciuria at the time of diagnosis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2003;18:133-9 pubmed
  31. Bartoletti R, Cai T, Mondaini N, Melone F, Travaglini F, Carini M, et al. Epidemiology and risk factors in urolithiasis. Urol Int. 2007;79 Suppl 1:3-7 pubmed
    ..The increased prevalence of small urinary calculi has brought about a change in clinical symptoms, with frequent episodes of renal-ureteral colic, persistent ..
  32. Zarse C, McAteer J, Tann M, Sommer A, Kim S, Paterson R, et al. Helical computed tomography accurately reports urinary stone composition using attenuation values: in vitro verification using high-resolution micro-computed tomography calibrated to fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. Urology. 2004;63:828-33 pubmed
    ..substantial in the urologic community in using radiologic imaging to determine accurately the composition of urinary calculi. Recent advances in CT make this a viable prospect, but the heterogeneity of most stones is a complicating ..
  33. Li X, Zeng G, Yuan J, Wu K, Shan C, Guo B, et al. [Treatment of upper urinary calculi with the PCNL technique (Experience of 20 years)]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2004;36:124-6 pubmed
    To sum up experience of 20 years for treating upper urinary calculi with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) at our institute and assess the safety, feasibility and superiority of the technique.
  34. Ng C, Thompson T, McLornan L, Tolley D. Single-center experience using three shockwave lithotripters with different generator designs in management of urinary calculi. J Endourol. 2006;20:1-8 pubmed
  35. Graser A, Johnson T, Bader M, Staehler M, Haseke N, Nikolaou K, et al. Dual energy CT characterization of urinary calculi: initial in vitro and clinical experience. Invest Radiol. 2008;43:112-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study is to assess the accuracy of dual energy CT (DECT) in the characterization of renal and ureteral stones...
  36. Nayir A. Determination of urinary calculi by binocular stereoscopic microscopy. Pediatr Nephrol. 2002;17:425-32 pubmed
    Because of the inadequacies of chemical methods for identifying urinary calculi, mineralogical methods have been developed, but these methods are sometimes time consuming and expensive...
  37. Saw N, Rao P, Kavanagh J. A nidus, crystalluria and aggregation: key ingredients for stone enlargement. Urol Res. 2008;36:11-5 pubmed
    ..This leads to the conclusion that aggregation of crystals from the surrounding suspension was the dominant mechanism for stone enlargement...
  38. Siener R, Schade N, Nicolay C, von Unruh G, Hesse A. The efficacy of dietary intervention on urinary risk factors for stone formation in recurrent calcium oxalate stone patients. J Urol. 2005;173:1601-5 pubmed
    ..The study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary intervention on urinary risk factors for recurrence in calcium oxalate stone formers...
  39. Minevich E, Defoor W, Reddy P, Nishinaka K, Wacksman J, Sheldon C, et al. Ureteroscopy is safe and effective in prepubertal children. J Urol. 2005;174:276-9; discussion 279 pubmed
    ..We present our experience performing ureteroscopy in prepubertal children...
  40. Unal D, Yeni E, Verit A, Karatas O. Prognostic factors effecting on recurrence of urinary stone disease: a multivariate analysis of everyday patient parameters. Int Urol Nephrol. 2005;37:447-52 pubmed
  41. Lancina Martín J, Novas Castro S, Rodríguez Rivera García J, Ruibal Moldes M, Blanco Diez A, Fernández Rosado E, et al. [Age of onset of urolithiasis: relation to clinical and metabolic risk factors]. Arch Esp Urol. 2004;57:119-25 pubmed
    ..To determine the age of onset of urolithiasis in patients with urinary calcium stones and to establish the relationship between age of onset and clinical profile and metabolic risk factors...
  42. Djelloul Z, Djelloul A, Bedjaoui A, Kaid Omar Z, Attar A, Daudon M, et al. [Urinary stones in Western Algeria: study of the composition of 1,354 urinary stones in relation to their anatomical site and the age and gender of the patients]. Prog Urol. 2006;16:328-35 pubmed
    ..Based on our recruitment of stones derived from the main teaching hospital urology departments of Western Algeria, we defined the stone profile in this region of North Africa and its changes in relation to previous data...
  43. Timio F, Kerry S, Anson K, Eastwood J, Cappuccio F. Calcium urolithiasis, blood pressure and salt intake. Blood Press. 2003;12:122-7 pubmed
    ..To determine whether stone-formers have higher BP than controls drawn from the general population and matched for age, sex and ethnic origin and to compare the relationship between sodium and calcium excretion in the two groups...
  44. Aldridge R, Aldridge R, Aldridge L. Anesthesia for pediatric lithotripsy. Paediatr Anaesth. 2006;16:236-41 pubmed
    ..As a high incidence of postoperative vomiting and discomfort was observed, the effect of increasing intraoperative analgesia and the use of antiemetic medication was examined...
  45. Kulaksizoglu S, Sofikerim M, Cevik C. In vitro effect of lemon and orange juices on calcium oxalate crystallization. Int Urol Nephrol. 2008;40:589-94 pubmed
    ..Dietary factors appear to affect the ability of urine to inhibit calcium oxalate crystallization. These factors encouraged us to study the effects of lemon and orange juices on calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro...
  46. Straub M, Strohmaier W, Berg W, Beck B, Hoppe B, Laube N, et al. Diagnosis and metaphylaxis of stone disease. Consensus concept of the National Working Committee on Stone Disease for the upcoming German Urolithiasis Guideline. World J Urol. 2005;23:309-23 pubmed
    ..About 25% of the stone formers require additional pharmacological intervention to normalize their individual biochemical risk, precisely compiled for each stone type as specific metaphylaxis...
  47. Kumar V, Pena de la Vega L, Farell G, Lieske J. Urinary macromolecular inhibition of crystal adhesion to renal epithelial cells is impaired in male stone formers. Kidney Int. 2005;68:1784-92 pubmed
    ..This study was performed to determine if urinary macromolecules from stone-forming (SF) individuals have reduced ability to inhibit crystal adhesion to renal cells...
  48. Daudon M, Doré J, Jungers P, Lacour B. Changes in stone composition according to age and gender of patients: a multivariate epidemiological approach. Urol Res. 2004;32:241-7 pubmed
    ..However, studies evaluating the influence of age and gender on the distribution of the various types of urinary calculi are scarce...
  49. Rizvi S, Naqvi S, Hussain Z, Hashmi A, Hussain M, Zafar M, et al. Management of pediatric urolithiasis in Pakistan: experience with 1,440 children. J Urol. 2003;169:634-7 pubmed
    ..We evaluated the efficacy and safety of different modalities for pediatric urolithiasis in a developing country in 2 eras, namely before and after the advent of minimally invasive surgery...
  50. Lande M, Varade W, Erkan E, Niederbracht Y, Schwartz G. Role of urinary supersaturation in the evaluation of children with urolithiasis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005;20:491-4 pubmed
    ..These results show that the benefit of adding supersaturation to the traditional evaluation was largely negated by consideration of urine volume...
  51. Tanaka M, Itoh K, Matsushita K, Matsushita K, Wakita N, Adachi M, et al. Two male siblings with hereditary renal hypouricemia and exercise-induced ARF. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;42:1287-92 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of the 2 male siblings of familial renal hypouricemia complicated with exercise-induced ARF, with definite demonstration of genetic abnormality in the responsible gene (URAT1)...
  52. Khan S, Kok D. Modulators of urinary stone formation. Front Biosci. 2004;9:1450-82 pubmed
    ..In addition, macrophages surround the CaOx crystals present in the renal interstitium. These observations indicate a close relationship between inflammation and nephrolithiasis...
  53. Basar M, Samli M, Erbil M, Ozergin O, Basar R, Atan A. Early effects of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy exposure on testicular sperm morphology. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2004;38:38-41 pubmed
    ..To investigate the effects of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) applied to the pelvic region on testicular histology and spermatogenesis...
  54. Chandhoke P. When is medical prophylaxis cost-effective for recurrent calcium stones?. J Urol. 2002;168:937-40 pubmed
  55. Amaro C, Goldberg J, Amaro J, Padovani C. Metabolic assessment in patients with urinary lithiasis. Int Braz J Urol. 2005;31:29-33 pubmed
    ..The objective of this work was to diagnose and to determine the prevalence of metabolic disorders, to assess the quality of the water consumed and volume of diuresis as potential risk factors for this pathology...
  56. Kaneko K, Yamanobe T, Onoda M, Mawatari K, Nakagomi K, Fujimori S. Analysis of urinary calculi obtained from a patient with idiopathic hypouricemia using micro area x-ray diffractometry and LC-MS. Urol Res. 2005;33:415-21 pubmed
    ..chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) following SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), recurrent urinary calculi complicating a hypouricemic patient were analyzed...
  57. Wu H, Docimo S. Surgical management of children with urolithiasis. Urol Clin North Am. 2004;31:589-94, xi pubmed
    ..Specific adjustments for performing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and cystolithotomy in children are discussed...
  58. Lewandowski S, Rodgers A. Idiopathic calcium oxalate urolithiasis: risk factors and conservative treatment. Clin Chim Acta. 2004;345:17-34 pubmed
    ..8 and 1 g/kg body weight/day; essential fats should be included; vegetable and fruit (except oxalate-rich vegetables) intake should be increased. The use of calcium supplements has potential benefits but needs to be examined further...
  59. Kurahashi T, Miyake H, Shinozaki M, Oka N, Takenaka A, Hara I, et al. Health-related quality of life in patients undergoing lithotripsy for urinary stones. Int Urol Nephrol. 2008;40:39-43 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to analyze the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients undergoing lithotripsy for urinary stones...
  60. Siener R, Glatz S, Nicolay C, Hesse A. Prospective study on the efficacy of a selective treatment and risk factors for relapse in recurrent calcium oxalate stone patients. Eur Urol. 2003;44:467-74 pubmed
    ..The present study was performed to examine the efficacy of a selective treatment according to the guidelines for the prevention of recurrence in calcium oxalate stone patients and to assess risk factors for stone recurrence...
  61. Charalambous S, Printza N, Papathanasiou A, Rombis V, Goga C, Papachristou F. Shockwave lithotripsy and endourological management of urinary calculi in children: a single-center 10-year experience. J Endourol. 2008;22:2169-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to assess the impact of new technology and local practice in the treatment of pediatric urolithiasis during a 10-year period...
  62. Tiselius H. Epidemiology and medical management of stone disease. BJU Int. 2003;91:758-67 pubmed
    ..For idiopathic calcium stone formers the most convincing therapeutic effects have been reported with thiazide and alkaline citrate...
  63. Lahme S, Zimmermanns V, Hochmuth A, Liske P. Stones of the upper urinary tract. Update on minimal-invasive endourological treatment. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2008;80:13-7 pubmed
    ..In experienced hands modern endourological approaches are suitable as first-line treatment of upper urinary tract stones. Even in elderly patients and large stone burden the endourological techniques show acceptable results...
  64. Srirangam S, Hickerton B, Van Cleynenbreugel B. Management of urinary calculi in pregnancy: a review. J Endourol. 2008;22:867-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential hazards of intervention (either surgical or medical) and anesthesia need to be considered carefully...
  65. Sternberg K, Greenfield S, Williot P, Wan J. Pediatric stone disease: an evolving experience. J Urol. 2005;174:1711-4; discussion 1714 pubmed
    ..The presentation and management of pediatric stone disease have changed due to early identification and treatment of congenital urological conditions, as well as technological advances. Therefore, we reviewed our 12-year experience...
  66. Kavanagh J, Laube N. Why does the Bonn Risk Index discriminate between calcium oxalate stone formers and healthy controls?. J Urol. 2006;175:766-70 pubmed
    ..For instance, why should 2 samples sharing the same BRI but with different ionized calcium and oxalate values have the same likelihood of being obtained from a stone former?..
  67. Pelucchi C, Talamini R, Negri E, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C. Genital and urinary tract diseases and prostate cancer risk. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2006;15:254-7 pubmed
    ..The present study, based on satisfactorily reproducible information on medical history, did not found any association between genital and urinary tract diseases and prostate cancer risk...