rhamnose

Summary

Summary: A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.

Top Publications

  1. Giacalone M, Gentile A, Lovitt B, Berkley N, Gunderson C, Surber M. Toxic protein expression in Escherichia coli using a rhamnose-based tightly regulated and tunable promoter system. Biotechniques. 2006;40:355-64 pubmed
    ..In this report, we present three novel prokaryotic expression constructs that are tightly regulated by L-rhamnose and D-glucose...
  2. Wilms B, Hauck A, Reuss M, Syldatk C, Mattes R, Siemann M, et al. High-cell-density fermentation for production of L-N-carbamoylase using an expression system based on the Escherichia coli rhaBAD promoter. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2001;73:95-103 pubmed
    ..The expression system was improved by reducing of the amount of expensive L-rhamnose necessary for induction of the rhamnose promoter and by increasing the vector stability...
  3. Tateno H, Ogawa T, Muramoto K, Kamiya H, Saneyoshi M. Rhamnose-binding lectins from steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs recognize bacterial lipopolysaccharides and lipoteichoic acid. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002;66:604-12 pubmed
    ..The binding was inhibited by L-rhamnose. STLs bound to distinct serotypes of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), and showed much higher binding activities to ..
  4. Clifford J, Rapicavoli J, Roper M. A rhamnose-rich O-antigen mediates adhesion, virulence, and host colonization for the xylem-limited phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2013;26:676-85 pubmed publisher
    ..By targeting a key O-antigen biosynthetic gene, we demonstrate the contribution of the rhamnose-rich O-antigen to surface attachment, cell-cell aggregation, and biofilm maturation: critical steps for ..
  5. James D, Yother J. Genetic and biochemical characterizations of enzymes involved in Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 2 capsule synthesis demonstrate that Cps2T (WchF) catalyzes the committed step by addition of ?1-4 rhamnose, the second sugar residue in the repeat uni. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:6479-89 pubmed publisher
    ..which is polymerized to yield a branched surface structure containing glucose-glucuronic acid linked to a glucose-rhamnose-rhamnose-rhamnose backbone...
  6. Manzanares P, van den Broeck H, de Graaff L, Visser J. Purification and characterization of two different alpha-L-rhamnosidases, RhaA and RhaB, from Aspergillus aculeatus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:2230-4 pubmed
    ..Using polyclonal antibodies, the corresponding cDNA of both alpha-L-rhamnosidases, rhaA and rhaB, was cloned. On the basis of the amino acid sequences derived from the cDNA clones, both proteins are highly homologous (60% identity). ..
  7. Kim H, White Phillip J, Ogasawara Y, Shin N, Isiorho E, Liu H. Biosynthesis of spinosyn in Saccharopolyspora spinosa: synthesis of permethylated rhamnose and characterization of the functions of SpnH, SpnI, and SpnK. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:2901-3 pubmed publisher
    ..It is glycosylated by a tri-O-methylated rhamnose at C-9 and a forosamine at C-17...
  8. Koseki T, Mese Y, Nishibori N, Masaki K, Fujii T, Handa T, et al. Characterization of an alpha-L-rhamnosidase from Aspergillus kawachii and its gene. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;80:1007-13 pubmed publisher
    An alpha-L-rhamnosidase was purified by fractionating a culture filtrate of Aspergillus kawachii grown on L-rhamnose as the sole carbon source...
  9. Watanabe S, Saimura M, Makino K. Eukaryotic and bacterial gene clusters related to an alternative pathway of nonphosphorylated L-rhamnose metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:20372-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Several fungi, including Pichia stipitis and Debaryomyces hansenii, possess an alternative pathway of L-rhamnose metabolism, which is different from the known bacterial pathway...

More Information

Publications69

  1. Watanabe Y, Tateno H, Nakamura Tsuruta S, Kominami J, Hirabayashi J, Nakamura O, et al. The function of rhamnose-binding lectin in innate immunity by restricted binding to Gb3. Dev Comp Immunol. 2009;33:187-97 pubmed publisher
    L-rhamnose-binding lectins (RBLs) have been isolated from various kinds of fish and invertebrates and interact with various kinds of bacteria, suggesting RBLs are involved in various inflammatory reactions...
  2. Cardona S, Mueller C, Valvano M. Identification of essential operons with a rhamnose-inducible promoter in Burkholderia cenocepacia. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:2547-55 pubmed
    ..Here, we present a method based on delivery of the tightly regulated rhamnose-inducible promoter P(rhaB) for identifying essential genes and operons in Burkholderia cenocepacia...
  3. Patel E, Paul L, Casanueva A, Patrick S, Abratt V. Overexpression of the rhamnose catabolism regulatory protein, RhaR: a novel mechanism for metronidazole resistance in Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009;64:267-73 pubmed publisher
    ..an intergenic region between the rhaO and rhaR genes of the gene cluster involved in the uptake and catabolism of rhamnose. Metronidazole resistance was observed during growth in defined medium containing either rhamnose or glucose...
  4. Jeske M, Altenbuchner J. The Escherichia coli rhamnose promoter rhaP(BAD) is in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 independent of Crp-cAMP activation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;85:1923-33 pubmed publisher
    We developed an expression vector system based on the broad host range plasmid pBBR1MCS2 with the Escherichia coli rhamnose-inducible expression system for applications in Pseudomonas. For validation and comparison to E...
  5. Cardona S, Valvano M. An expression vector containing a rhamnose-inducible promoter provides tightly regulated gene expression in Burkholderia cenocepacia. Plasmid. 2005;54:219-28 pubmed
    ..In this study, we report the construction of an expression vector which uses the rhamnose-regulated P(rhaB) promoter of Escherichia coli...
  6. Bozue J, Parthasarathy N, Phillips L, Cote C, Fellows P, Mendelson I, et al. Construction of a rhamnose mutation in Bacillus anthracis affects adherence to macrophages but not virulence in guinea pigs. Microb Pathog. 2005;38:1-12 pubmed
    Carbohydrate analyses of whole-spore extracts have confirmed the presence of rhamnose in the spore of the fully virulent Ames strain of Bacillus anthracis...
  7. Vogt J, Pencharz P, Wolever T. L-Rhamnose increases serum propionate in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:89-94 pubmed
    ..The unabsorbed sugar lactulose produces mainly acetate when fermented in vitro, whereas L-rhamnose yields propionate...
  8. Yoshida H, Yamada M, Ohyama Y, Takada G, Izumori K, Kamitori S. The structures of L-rhamnose isomerase from Pseudomonas stutzeri in complexes with L-rhamnose and D-allose provide insights into broad substrate specificity. J Mol Biol. 2007;365:1505-16 pubmed
    Pseudomonas stutzeri L-rhamnose isomerase (P. stutzeri L-RhI) can efficiently catalyze the isomerization between various aldoses and ketoses, showing a broad substrate specificity compared to L-RhI from Escherichia coli (E. coli L-RhI)...
  9. Patel E, Paul L, Patrick S, Abratt V. Rhamnose catabolism in Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is controlled by the positive transcriptional regulator RhaR. Res Microbiol. 2008;159:678-84 pubmed publisher
    ..It utilises a range of host and diet-related carbohydrates, including rhamnose. In this study, the rha gene cluster, required for rhamnose utilisation, was characterised by transcription ..
  10. Ozaki K, Shibata Y, Yamashita Y, Nakano Y, Tsuda H, Koga T. A novel mechanism for glucose side-chain formation in rhamnose-glucose polysaccharide synthesis. FEBS Lett. 2002;532:159-63 pubmed
    ..rgpH and rgpI) that encode proteins for the formation of the glucose side-chains of the Streptococcus mutans rhamnose-glucose polysaccharide (RGP), which consists of a rhamnan backbone with glucose side-chains...
  11. Tateno H, Shibata Y, Nagahama Y, Hirai T, Saneyoshi M, Ogawa T, et al. Tissue-specific expression of rhamnose-binding lectins in the steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002;66:1427-30 pubmed
    Tissue-specific expression of three L-rhamnose-binding lectins, named STL1, STL2, and STL3, in the steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was investigated. STL2 and STL3 mRNAs were restricted in the oocytes...
  12. Petit E, Latouf W, Coppi M, Warnick T, Currie D, Romashko I, et al. Involvement of a bacterial microcompartment in the metabolism of fucose and rhamnose by Clostridium phytofermentans. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54337 pubmed publisher
    ..The genome of C. phytofermentans contains three loci with genes encoding shell proteins of bacterial microcompartments (BMC), organelles composed entirely of proteins...
  13. Manzanares P, Orejas M, Ibanez E, Valles S, Ramon D. Purification and characterization of an alpha-L-rhamnosidase from Aspergillus nidulans. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2000;31:198-202 pubmed
    ..alpha-L-rhamnosidase activity was purified by fractionating a culture filtrate of Aspergillus nidulans grown on L-rhamnose as the sole carbon source...
  14. Wang J, Ji Q, Jiang L, Shen S, Fan Y, Zhang C. Overexpression of a cytosol-localized rhamnose biosynthesis protein encoded by Arabidopsis RHM1 gene increases rhamnose content in cell wall. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2009;47:86-93 pubmed publisher
    l-Rhamnose (Rha) is an important constituent of pectic polysaccharides, a major component of the cell walls of Arabidopsis, which is synthesized by three enzymes encoded by AtRHM1, AtRHM2/AtMUM4, and AtRHM3...
  15. Oka T, Nemoto T, Jigami Y. Functional analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana RHM2/MUM4, a multidomain protein involved in UDP-D-glucose to UDP-L-rhamnose conversion. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:5389-403 pubmed
    UDP-L-rhamnose is required for the biosynthesis of cell wall rhamnogalacturonan-I, rhamnogalacturonan-II, and natural compounds in plants...
  16. Richardson J, Oresnik I. L-Rhamnose transport is sugar kinase (RhaK) dependent in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:8437-46 pubmed
    Strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum which are unable to catabolize l-rhamnose, a methyl-pentose sugar, are compromised in the ability to compete for nodule occupancy versus wild-type strains...
  17. Diet A, Link B, Seifert G, Schellenberg B, Wagner U, Pauly M, et al. The Arabidopsis root hair cell wall formation mutant lrx1 is suppressed by mutations in the RHM1 gene encoding a UDP-L-rhamnose synthase. Plant Cell. 2006;18:1630-41 pubmed
    ..ROL1 is allelic to Rhamnose Biosynthesis1, which codes for a protein involved in the biosynthesis of rhamnose, a major monosaccharide ..
  18. Yamashita Y, Shibata Y, Nakano Y, Tsuda H, Kido N, Ohta M, et al. A novel gene required for rhamnose-glucose polysaccharide synthesis in Streptococcus mutans. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:6556-9 pubmed
    Gene rgpG is required for biosynthesis of rhamnose-glucose polysaccharide (RGP) in Streptococcus mutans...
  19. Koivistoinen O, Hilditch S, Voutilainen S, Boer H, Penttil M, Richard P. Identification in the yeast Pichia stipitis of the first L-rhamnose-1-dehydrogenase gene. FEBS J. 2008;275:2482-8 pubmed publisher
    There are two distinctly different pathways for the catabolism of l-rhamnose in microorganisms. One pathway with phosphorylated intermediates was described in bacteria; here the enzymes and the corresponding gene sequences are known...
  20. Boels I, Beerthuyzen M, Kosters M, Van Kaauwen M, Kleerebezem M, de Vos W. Identification and functional characterization of the Lactococcus lactis rfb operon, required for dTDP-rhamnose Biosynthesis. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:1239-48 pubmed
    dTDP-rhamnose is an important precursor of cell wall polysaccharides and rhamnose-containing exopolysaccharides (EPS) in Lactococcus lactis. We cloned the rfbACBD operon from L...
  21. Troost F, Saris W, Brummer R. Recombinant human lactoferrin ingestion attenuates indomethacin-induced enteropathy in vivo in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57:1579-85 pubmed
    ..In all, 15 healthy volunteers (age 23+/-1.4 y) were tested. A sucrose and a lactulose/rhamnose (L/R) permeability test was performed to assess gastroduodenal and small intestine permeability as indicator of ..
  22. Beck B, Farmer B, Straus D, Li C, Peatman E. Putative roles for a rhamnose binding lectin in Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2012;33:1008-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, in this regard, using RNA-seq expression profiling we found that a rhamnose-binding lectin (RBL) was dramatically upregulated in the gill of fish infected with F...
  23. Ramm M, Lobe M, Hamburger M. A simple method for preparation of D-rhamnose. Carbohydr Res. 2003;338:109-12 pubmed
    A rapid procedure for the preparation of D-rhamnose from bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been developed. It involves purification of LPS from Pseudomonas syringae pv...
  24. Zhang J, Kong F. Synthesis of an xylosylated rhamnose pentasaccharide, the repeating unit of the O-chain polysaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide of Xanthomonas campestris pv. begoniae GSPB 525. Carbohydr Res. 2002;337:391-6 pubmed
    A xylosylated rhamnose pentasaccharide, alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->3)-[beta-L-Xylp-(1-->2)-]-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->3)-[beta-L-Xylp-(1-->4)]-L-Rhap, the repeating unit of the O-chain polysaccharide (OPS) of the lipopolysaccharides of ..
  25. Kneidinger B, Graninger M, Adam G, Puchberger M, Kosma P, Zayni S, et al. Identification of two GDP-6-deoxy-D-lyxo-4-hexulose reductases synthesizing GDP-D-rhamnose in Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus L420-91T. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:5577-83 pubmed
    The glycan repeats of the surface layer glycoprotein of Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus L420-91T contain d-rhamnose and 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose, both of which are also constituents of lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative ..
  26. Singh B, Lee C, Sohng J. Precursor for biosynthesis of sugar moiety of doxorubicin depends on rhamnose biosynthetic pathway in Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;85:1565-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The gene was located within a putative rhamnose biosynthetic gene cluster at another locus in the genome...
  27. Parakkottil Chothi M, Duncan G, Armirotti A, Abergel C, Gurnon J, Van Etten J, et al. Identification of an L-rhamnose synthetic pathway in two nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses. J Virol. 2010;84:8829-38 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we identified and characterized three enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the sugar L-rhamnose: two UDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratases (UGDs) encoded by ATCV-1 and mimivirus and a bifunctional UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-..
  28. Jia W, Shang N, Guo Q. Molecular cloning of rhamnose-binding lectin gene and its promoter region from snakehead Channa argus. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2010;36:451-459 pubmed publisher
    Lectins are sugar-binding proteins that mediate pathogen recognition and cell-cell interactions. A rhamnose-binding lectin (RBL) gene and its promoter region have been cloned and characterized from snakehead Channa argus...
  29. Bah C, Fang E, Ng T, Mros S, McConnell M, Bekhit A. Purification and characterization of a rhamnose-binding chinook salmon roe lectin with antiproliferative activity toward tumor cells and nitric oxide-inducing activity toward murine macrophages. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:5720-8 pubmed publisher
    In this study, a rhamnose-binding lectin from the roe of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was purified and characterized, and its biological activities were examined in several model systems...
  30. Kim S, Paek K, Lee S. Characterization of NADP+-specific L-rhamnose dehydrogenase from the thermoacidophilic Archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum. Extremophiles. 2012;16:447-54 pubmed publisher
    Thermoplasma acidophilum utilizes L-rhamnose as a sole carbon source. To determine the metabolic pathway of L-rhamnose in Archaea, we identified and characterized L-rhamnose dehydrogenase (RhaD) in T. acidophilum...
  31. Xue J, Murrieta C, Rule D, Miller K. Exogenous or L-rhamnose-derived 1,2-propanediol is metabolized via a pduD-dependent pathway in Listeria innocua. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:7073-9 pubmed publisher
    1,2-Propanediol (1,2-PD) added exogenously to cultures or produced endogenously from l-rhamnose is metabolized to n-propanol and propionate in Listeria innocua Lin11...
  32. van Nieuwenhoven M, de Swart E, van Eijk H, Deutz N, Brouns F, Brummer R. Effects of pre- and post-absorptive factors on the lactulose/rhamnose gut permeability test. Clin Sci (Lond). 2000;98:349-53 pubmed
    It is assumed that the outcome of the lactulose/rhamnose gut permeability test is not influenced by pre- or post-absorptive factors. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of a pre-absorptive factor, i.e...
  33. Gasparini F, Franchi N, Spolaore B, Ballarin L. Novel rhamnose-binding lectins from the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. Dev Comp Immunol. 2008;32:1177-91 pubmed publisher
    ..BLAST search against UniProt database, five transcripts, each with complete coding sequence, homologous to known rhamnose-binding lectins (RBLs)...
  34. Anisimov A, Panfertsev E, Svetoch T, Dentovskaya S. Variability of the protein sequences of lcrV between epidemic and atypical rhamnose-positive strains of Yersinia pestis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;603:23-7 pubmed
    ..pestis strains belonging mostly to the group of atypical rhamnose-positive isolates (non-pestis subspecies or pestoides group) showed that the LcrV proteins analyzed could be ..
  35. Bours M, Troost F, Brummer R, Bast A, Dagnelie P. Local effect of adenosine 5'-triphosphate on indomethacin-induced permeability changes in the human small intestine. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;19:245-50 pubmed
    ..Mucosal permeability of the small intestine was assessed by the lactulose/rhamnose permeability test, that is, ingestion of a test drink containing 5 g lactulose and 0...
  36. Vogt J, Ishii Schrade K, Pencharz P, Jones P, Wolever T. L-rhamnose and lactulose decrease serum triacylglycerols and their rates of synthesis, but do not affect serum cholesterol concentrations in men. J Nutr. 2006;136:2160-6 pubmed
    ..Lactulose increases colonic acetate production, whereas L-rhamnose increases propionate...
  37. Babaoglu K, Page M, Jones V, McNeil M, Dong C, Naismith J, et al. Novel inhibitors of an emerging target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis; substituted thiazolidinones as inhibitors of dTDP-rhamnose synthesis. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003;13:3227-30 pubmed
    ..In an attempt to find new inhibitors of the enzymes in the essential rhamnose biosynthetic pathway, a virtual library of 2,3,5 trisubstituted-4-thiazolidinones was created...
  38. Wickstrum J, Santangelo T, Egan S. Cyclic AMP receptor protein and RhaR synergistically activate transcription from the L-rhamnose-responsive rhaSR promoter in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:6708-18 pubmed
    ..encodes two AraC family transcription activator proteins, RhaS and RhaR, which regulate expression of the l-rhamnose catabolic regulon in response to l-rhamnose availability...
  39. Richardson J, Hynes M, Oresnik I. A genetic locus necessary for rhamnose uptake and catabolism in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:8433-42 pubmed
    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii mutants unable to catabolize the methyl-pentose rhamnose are unable to compete effectively for nodule occupancy...
  40. Wang J, Knirel Y, Lan R, Senchenkova S, Luo X, Perepelov A, et al. Identification of an O-acyltransferase gene (oacB) that mediates 3- and 4-O-acetylation of rhamnose III in Shigella flexneri O antigens. J Bacteriol. 2014;196:1525-31 pubmed publisher
    ..flexneri. These findings enhance our knowledge of S. flexneri O-antigen modifications and shed light on the origin of new O-antigen variants. ..
  41. Brenneman K, Willingham C, Kong W, Curtiss R, Roland K. Low-pH rescue of acid-sensitive Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Strains by a Rhamnose-regulated arginine decarboxylase system. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:3062-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The rhamnose-regulated promoter PrhaBAD was less sensitive to the presence of its cognate sugar than the arabinose-regulated ..
  42. Korndörfer I, Fessner W, Matthews B. The structure of rhamnose isomerase from Escherichia coli and its relation with xylose isomerase illustrates a change between inter and intra-subunit complementation during evolution. J Mol Biol. 2000;300:917-33 pubmed
    Using a new expression construct, rhamnose isomerase from Escherichia coli was purified and crystallized. The crystal structure was solved by multiple isomorphous replacement and refined to a crystallographic residual of 17.4 % at 1...
  43. Giraud M, Naismith J. The rhamnose pathway. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2000;10:687-96 pubmed
    L-Rhamnose is a deoxy sugar found widely in bacteria and plants. Evidence continues to emerge about its essential role in many pathogenic bacteria...
  44. Madduri K, Waldron C, Merlo D. Rhamnose biosynthesis pathway supplies precursors for primary and secondary metabolism in Saccharopolyspora spinosa. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:5632-8 pubmed
    b>Rhamnose is an essential component of the insect control agent spinosad...
  45. Watt G, Leoff C, Harper A, Bar Peled M. A bifunctional 3,5-epimerase/4-keto reductase for nucleotide-rhamnose synthesis in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2004;134:1337-46 pubmed
    l-Rhamnose is a component of plant cell wall pectic polysaccharides, diverse secondary metabolites, and some glycoproteins...
  46. Koivistoinen O, Arvas M, Headman J, Andberg M, Penttila M, Jeffries T, et al. Characterisation of the gene cluster for l-rhamnose catabolism in the yeast Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis. Gene. 2012;492:177-85 pubmed publisher
    In Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and related fungal species the genes for L-rhamnose catabolism RHA1, LRA2, LRA3 and LRA4 but not LADH are clustered...
  47. Nakajima M, Nishimoto M, Kitaoka M. Practical preparation of D-galactosyl-beta1-->4-L-rhamnose employing the combined action of phosphorylases. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74:1652-5 pubmed
    D-Galactosyl-beta1-->4-L-rhamnose (GalRha) was produced enzymatically from 1.1 M sucrose and 1...
  48. Golubov A, Neubauer H, Nölting C, Heesemann J, Rakin A. Structural organization of the pFra virulence-associated plasmid of rhamnose-positive Yersinia pestis. Infect Immun. 2004;72:5613-21 pubmed
    The 137,036-bp plasmid pG8786 from rhamnose-positive Yersinia pestis G8786 isolated from the high mountainous Caucasian plague focus in Georgia is an enlarged form of the pFra virulence-associated plasmid containing genes for synthesis of ..
  49. Yoshida Y, Ganguly S, Bush C, Cisar J. Molecular basis of L-rhamnose branch formation in streptococcal coaggregation receptor polysaccharides. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:4125-30 pubmed publisher
    The presence of L-rhamnose (Rha) branches in the coaggregation receptor polysaccharides (RPS) of Streptococcus gordonii 38 and Streptococcus oralis J22 was eliminated by replacement of wefB with ermAM in these strains...
  50. Nakajima M, Nishimoto M, Kitaoka M. Characterization of three beta-galactoside phosphorylases from Clostridium phytofermentans: discovery of d-galactosyl-beta1->4-l-rhamnose phosphorylase. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:19220-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, Cphy1920 protein phosphorolyzed neither GNB nor LNB. It showed the highest activity with l-rhamnose as the acceptor in the reverse reaction using alpha-d-galactose 1-phosphate as the donor...
  51. Watanabe Y, Shiina N, Shinozaki F, Yokoyama H, Kominami J, Nakamura Tsuruta S, et al. Isolation and characterization of l-rhamnose-binding lectin, which binds to microsporidian Glugea plecoglossi, from ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) eggs. Dev Comp Immunol. 2008;32:487-99 pubmed
    A rhamnose-binding lectin, named SFL, was isolated from the eggs of ayu (sweet fish, Plecoglossus altivelis) by affinity and ion-exchange chromatographies...
  52. Ravelojaona V, Robert A, Robert L. Expression of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-Gal) by human skin fibroblasts, effect of advanced glycation end-products and fucose or rhamnose-rich polysaccharides. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2009;48:151-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Fucose- and rhamnose-rich oligo- and polysaccharides (FROPs and RROPs, respectively) provided a significant protection against this ..
  53. Prabhu P, Doan T, Jeya M, Kang L, Lee J. Cloning and characterization of a rhamnose isomerase from Bacillus halodurans. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;89:635-44 pubmed publisher
    Whole-genome sequence analysis of Bacillus halodurans ATCC BAA-125 revealed an isomerase gene (rhaA) encoding an L-rhamnose isomerase (L-RhI). The identified L-RhI gene was cloned from B. halodurans and over-expressed in Escherichia coli...
  54. Franchi N, Schiavon F, Carletto M, Gasparini F, Bertoloni G, Tosatto S, et al. Immune roles of a rhamnose-binding lectin in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. Immunobiology. 2011;216:725-36 pubmed publisher
    The present paper describes the immune role played by a recently identified (Gasparini et al. 2008) member of the rhamnose-binding lectin (RBL) family from the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. B...
  55. Kantardjieff K, Kim C, Naranjo C, Waldo G, Lekin T, Segelke B, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis RmlC epimerase (Rv3465): a promising drug-target structure in the rhamnose pathway. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004;60:895-902 pubmed
    ..tuberculosis dTDP-L-rhamnose pathway which is essential for mycobacterial cell-wall synthesis...
  56. Klein G, Lindner B, Brade H, Raina S. Molecular basis of lipopolysaccharide heterogeneity in Escherichia coli: envelope stress-responsive regulators control the incorporation of glycoforms with a third 3-deoxy-?-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid and rhamnose. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:42787-807 pubmed publisher
    ..for the incorporation of the third 3-deoxy-?-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) linked to Kdo disaccharide and rhamnose, respectively. The incorporation of rhamnose requires prior sequential incorporation of the Kdo trisaccharide...
  57. Shirai T, Watanabe Y, Lee M, Ogawa T, Muramoto K. Structure of rhamnose-binding lectin CSL3: unique pseudo-tetrameric architecture of a pattern recognition protein. J Mol Biol. 2009;391:390-403 pubmed publisher
    The crystal structure of the L-rhamnose-binding lectin CSL3 was determined to 1.8 A resolution. This protein is a component of the germline-encoded pattern recognition proteins in innate immunity...
  58. Wegerer A, Sun T, Altenbuchner J. Optimization of an E. coli L-rhamnose-inducible expression vector: test of various genetic module combinations. BMC Biotechnol. 2008;8:2 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the generation of variations of the rhaPBAD expression vector and characterization hereof. The genetic modules showed a complex interplay, therefore two positive effects combined sometimes resulted in a disadvantage. ..
  59. Watanabe S, Piyanart S, Makino K. Metabolic fate of L-lactaldehyde derived from an alternative L-rhamnose pathway. FEBS J. 2008;275:5139-49 pubmed publisher
    Fungal Pichia stipitis and bacterial Azotobacter vinelandii possess an alternative pathway of L-rhamnose metabolism, which is different from the known bacterial pathway...
  60. Kolin A, Balasubramaniam V, Skredenske J, Wickstrum J, Egan S. Differences in the mechanism of the allosteric l-rhamnose responses of the AraC/XylS family transcription activators RhaS and RhaR. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:448-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the mechanism by which RhaS and RhaR respond to their effector, l-rhamnose. Unlike AraC, N-terminal truncations suggested that RhaS and RhaR do not use an N-terminal arm to inhibit ..