mediastinal emphysema

Summary

Summary: Presence of air in the mediastinal tissues due to leakage of air from the tracheobronchial tree, usually as a result of trauma.

Top Publications

  1. Caceres M, Ali S, Braud R, Weiman D, Garrett H. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: a comparative study and review of the literature. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;86:962-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was undertaken to provide a thorough clinical and radiologic analysis of this patient population...
  2. Le Goff B, Cherin P, Cantagrel A, Gayraud M, Hachulla E, Laborde F, et al. Pneumomediastinum in interstitial lung disease associated with dermatomyositis and polymyositis. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;61:108-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a rare complication of dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM). The aim of this study was to characterize this complication and determine its prognostic factors...
  3. Forshaw M, Khan A, Strauss D, Botha A, Mason R. Vomiting-induced pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema does not always indicate Boerhaave's syndrome: report of six cases. Surg Today. 2007;37:888-92 pubmed
    ..We review the literature with particular emphasis on differentiating spontaneous pneumomediastinum from spontaneous esophageal perforation...
  4. Macia I, Moya J, Ramos R, Morera R, Escobar I, Saumench J, et al. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: 41 cases. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2007;31:1110-4 pubmed
    ..Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is characterized by the presence of interstitial air in the mediastinum without any apparent precipitating factor. The purpose of this study is to review and discuss our experience with this condition...
  5. Maeda Y, Hirasawa D, Fujita N, Suzuki T, Obana T, Sugawara T, et al. Mediastinal emphysema after esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection: its prevalence and clinical significance. Dig Endosc. 2011;23:221-6 pubmed publisher
    To assess the prevalence and clinical significance of mediastinal emphysema (ME) after esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD).
  6. Maeda Y, Hirasawa D, Fujita N, Obana T, Sugawara T, Ohira T, et al. A pilot study to assess mediastinal emphysema after esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection with carbon dioxide insufflation. Endoscopy. 2012;44:565-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Mediastinal emphysema sometimes develops following esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) without perforation because the esophagus has no serosa...
  7. Shine N, Lacy P, Conlon B, McShane D. Spontaneous retropharyngeal and cervical emphysema: a rare singer's injury. Ear Nose Throat J. 2005;84:726-7 pubmed
    ..We describe a case that was unusual in its etiology: the result of singing. Although this condition is usually benign, hospital admission for close observation and supportive therapy is prudent...
  8. Sekiya K, Hojyo T, Yamada H, Toyama K, Ryo H, Kimura K, et al. Pneumoperitoneum recurring concomitantly with asthmatic exacerbation. Intern Med. 2008;47:47-9 pubmed
    ..Subsequently, a computed tomography scan of his chest confirmed mediastinal emphysema and intra-abdominal air beneath his diaphragm...
  9. Pauw R, van der Werf T, van Dullemen H, Dullaart R. Mediastinal emphysema complicating diabetic ketoacidosis: plea for conservative diagnostic approach. Neth J Med. 2007;65:368-71 pubmed
    ..Spontaneous pneumomediastinum has been infrequently reported as a complication of diabetic ketoacidosis. Evidence-based guidelines are currently not available to help in choosing the best diagnostic approach...

More Information

Publications95

  1. O Dwyer D, Low T, Neoftyou E, Mohammad A, McElvaney N. Two case reports of pneumomediastinum. Ir J Med Sci. 2007;176:239-41 pubmed
    ..One case had a history of inhalational drug abuse, which may have contributed to the event, while the other had no obvious precipitating factors...
  2. Mondello B, Pavia R, Ruggeri P, Barone M, Barresi P, Monaco M. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: experience in 18 adult patients. Lung. 2007;185:9-14 pubmed
    ..SPM is an uncommon pathology with a usually benign course. The authors discuss SPM. A diagnostic algorithmic approach is necessary to rule out severe secondary entities and consequences that need urgent treatment...
  3. Mather A, Stoykewych A, Curran J. Cervicofacial and mediastinal emphysema complicating a dental procedure. J Can Dent Assoc. 2006;72:565-8 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we present a case in which subcutaneous emphysema developed in a middle-aged woman following routine restorative treatment. We review the features of the condition and its treatment and discuss means of prevention...
  4. Ameh V, Jenner R, Jilani N, Bradbury A. Spontaneous pneumopericardium, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema: unusual complications of asthma in a 2-year-old boy. Emerg Med J. 2006;23:466-7 pubmed
    ..He made a good recovery and was discharged after 7 days. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion of asthma in very young children presenting for the first time with such complications...
  5. Chalumeau M, Le Clainche L, Sayeg N, Sannier N, Michel J, Marianowski R, et al. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum in children. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2001;31:67-75 pubmed
    ..Predisposing factors should be identified and controlled to prevent recurrence. Cases of idiopathic SPM necessitate diagnostic pulmonary function tests after the acute episode, to establish whether the child has asthma...
  6. Jougon J, Ballester M, Delcambre F, Mac Bride T, Dromer C, Velly J. Assessment of spontaneous pneumomediastinum: experience with 12 patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003;75:1711-4 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study is to report a series of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in a population of young, tall, and thin patients with a history of thoracic hyper pressure, and to analyze the assessment required in such patients...
  7. Weissberg D, Weissberg D. Spontaneous mediastinal emphysema. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2004;26:885-8 pubmed
    Spontaneous mediastinal emphysema is uncommon. Its cause has not been determined precisely, but the entity is usually associated with suddenly raised alveolar pressure.
  8. Dulguerov P, Gysin C, Perneger T, Chevrolet J. Percutaneous or surgical tracheostomy: a meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 1999;27:1617-25 pubmed
    ..To compare percutaneous with surgical tracheostomy using a meta-analysis of studies published from 1960 to 1996...
  9. Wang Y, Wang J, Chow Y, Chiu A, Yang S. Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema as the manifestation of emphysematous pyelonephritis. Int J Urol. 2004;11:909-11 pubmed
    ..Pneumomediastinum as a presentation in retroperitoneal infection has not been reported previously, which prompts us to discuss its etiology and emphasize the importance of physical examination...
  10. Hazouard E, Koninck J, Attucci S, Fauchier Rolland F, Brunereau L, Diot P. Pneumorachis and pneumomediastinum caused by repeated Müller's maneuvers: complications of marijuana smoking. Ann Emerg Med. 2001;38:694-7 pubmed
    ..High-concentration oxygen therapy to achieve nitrogen washout was used...
  11. Koullias G, Korkolis D, Wang X, Hammond G. Current assessment and management of spontaneous pneumomediastinum: experience in 24 adult patients. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2004;25:852-5 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to review our experience in dealing with this entity and detail a reasonable course of assessment and management...
  12. Lee Y, Jin S, Jang S, Jang Y, Lee E, Kim Y, et al. A case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium in a young adult. Korean J Intern Med. 2001;16:205-9 pubmed
    ..The course of spontaneous pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium is usually benign and self-limited. A case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium and subcutaneous emphysema in a 20-year-old male is reported in this paper...
  13. Gesundheit B, Preminger A, Harito B, Babyn P, Maayan C, Mei Zahav M. Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema in an 18-month-old child. J Pediatr. 2002;141:116-20 pubmed
  14. Newcomb A, Clarke C. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: a benign curiosity or a significant problem?. Chest. 2005;128:3298-302 pubmed
    ..To identify the significance of spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) and to optimize its management...
  15. Karim A, Ahmed S, Rossoff L. Pneumomediastinum simulating a panic attack in a patient with anorexia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord. 2003;33:104-7 pubmed
    ..Pneumomediastinum is a rare complication of anorexia nervosa. Although the mechanism is unknown, severe malnutrition may affect lung mechanics by altering the connective tissue, predisposing to pneumomediastinum...
  16. López Peláez M, Roldan J, Mateo S. Cervical emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and pneumothorax following self-induced oral injury: report of four cases and review of the literature. Chest. 2001;120:306-9 pubmed
    ..They constitute an uncommon clinical entity that, to our knowledge, has not been reported in the literature. Its radiologic appearance, clinical presentation, and diagnosis are described...
  17. Wintermark M, Schnyder P. The Macklin effect: a frequent etiology for pneumomediastinum in severe blunt chest trauma. Chest. 2001;120:543-7 pubmed
    ..The clinical relevance of the Macklin effect was also evaluated...
  18. Toubai T, Tanaka J, Kobayashi N, Honda T, Miura Y, Ogawa T, et al. Mediastinal emphysema and bilateral pneumothoraces with chronic GVHD in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2004;33:1159-63 pubmed
    ..We retrospectively analyzed the characteristics of five patients with mediastinal emphysema (ME) and bilateral pneumothoraces (BP) caused by chronic lung GVHD after allo-SCT...
  19. Bodenez C, Houliat T, Lacher Fougere S, Traissac L. [Spontaneous cervical emphysema: a case report]. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord). 2003;124:195-8 pubmed
    ..The radiological or surgical explorations which may be used in this aetiological diagnosis and treatment are given...
  20. Enaka M, Hagihara M, Sakai R, Oshima R, Ito S, Motohashi K, et al. [Air-leak syndrome in patients with non-infectious pulmonary complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation]. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2009;50:39-43 pubmed
    ..The others are currently alive and one of these surviving patients is receiving home oxygen treatment. Physicians should be aware of this rare complication following LONIPC, because treatment of ALS is difficult in some patients. ..
  21. Asahina A, Inaba H, Shintani T, Shiraishi K, Nakayama T, Nishiumi T, et al. [Six cases of spontaneous pneumomediastinum]. Kyobu Geka. 2009;62:1032-4 pubmed
    ..In addition, it is important to distinguish from Boerhaave syndrome, tracheal trauma and so on. ..
  22. Aydogdu M, Gursel G, Ozyilmaz E, Akyurek N, Memis L. A case of ulcerative colitis complicated with bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) and air leak syndrome. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2012;23:590-5 pubmed
  23. Wong C, Collin J, Hughes C, Thomas S. Surgical emphysema and pneumomediastinum after coronectomy. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015;53:763-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Surgical emphysema related to dental extractions is well- reported, but not after coronectomy. This case emphasises the importance of avoiding the use of air turbine drills during oral surgery. ..
  24. Sung H, Kim J, Cheung D, Cho S, Park S, Han J, et al. Successful endoscopic hemoclipping of an esophageal perforation. Dis Esophagus. 2007;20:449-52 pubmed
    ..These findings suggested mediastinal emphysema and mediastinitis due to the esophageal perforation after the removal of the fishbone...
  25. Pai V, Gangoli S, Tan C, Rankin S, Utley M, Cameron R, et al. How best to manage the space after pneumonectomy? Theory and experience but no evidence. Heart Lung Circ. 2007;16:103-6 pubmed
    ..This is illustrative of much of what we do in clinical surgical practice. Avoiding major risk is often more important than proving small differences in benefit. ..
  26. Menchén Trujillo B, Molina Martín de la Sierra J, Manzanares Campillo C, Martínez De Paz F, Villarejo Campos P, De la Plaza Llamas R, et al. [Pneumoperitoneum, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous cervical emphysema after colonoscopy]. Cir Esp. 2006;79:259-60 pubmed
  27. Alix T, Boutet C, Caquant L, Parrau G, Carlot B, Seguin P. [Pneumomediastinum, a rare complication secondary to a minor maxillary fracture]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2009;110:160-1 pubmed publisher
    ..Endoscopy under general anesthesia was not necessary for our patient thanks to CT scan with 3D reconstruction. There is no consensus for systematic antibioprophylaxis. ..
  28. Neal M, Sippey M, Gaines B, Hackam D. Presence of pneumomediastinum after blunt trauma in children: what does it really mean?. J Pediatr Surg. 2009;44:1322-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Strikingly, these patients received more than 46% of the procedures. Children with pneumomediastinum from blunt trauma often receive invasive and expensive testing with low yield, especially those with isolated thoracic trauma. ..
  29. Kozuki A, Shinozaki H, Tajima A, Kase K. Successful treatment for descending necrotizing mediastinitis with severe thoracic emphysema using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;58:584-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Surgical drainage is the most important therapy in the treatment of DNM, but there is no standard surgical approach. We believe that VATS is a less invasive, effective modality for draining the posterior mediastinum. ..
  30. Martínez Vallina P, Espinosa Jiménez D, Hernández Pérez L, Triviño Ramírez A. [Mediastinitis]. Arch Bronconeumol. 2011;47 Suppl 8:32-6 pubmed publisher
    ..5% of cases. The most accurate diagnostic imaging technique is computed tomography. Treatment is almost always surgical and survival depends on its early performance. The worst postsurgical prognostic factor is septic shock. ..
  31. Bobocea A, Matache R, Codreşi M, Bolca C, Cordos I. [Sleeve resection of right main bronchus for posttraumatic bronchial stenosis]. Pneumologia. 2011;60:225-8 pubmed
    ..A chest radiograph showed bilateral pneumothorax, cephalic and mediastinal emphysema. Chest tubes were placed on each side, with full pulmonary expansion and remission of emphysema...
  32. Jun J, Song S. The development of pneumomediastinum after pulmonary function testing in a patient with systemic sclerosis. Rheumatol Int. 2007;27:1097-8 pubmed
  33. Esayag Y, Furer V, Izbicki G. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: is a chest X-ray enough? A single-center case series. Isr Med Assoc J. 2008;10:575-8 pubmed
    ..It is safe to discharge the patient within 24 hours provided that symptomatic improvement is achieved. ..
  34. Kim Y, Kim M, Kim S. Iatrogenic pneumomediastinum with extensive subcutaneous emphysema after endodontic treatment: report of 2 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;109:e114-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe its etiologies and guidelines for the prevention of this complication during nonsurgical endodontic treatment. ..
  35. Stolfi V, Micossi C, Sileri P, Venza M, Gaspari A. Retroperitoneal sepsis with mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema complicating stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR). Tech Coloproctol. 2009;13:69-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a case of severe retroperitoneal sepsis with mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema complicating STARR, treated by transperineal pelvic drainage and a loop sigmoid colostomy. ..
  36. Hanada T, Ishikuro A, Hasegawa Y, Shimamoto M, Kobayashi M, Kudo K. Two cases of spontaneous epidural emphysema during asthmatic attack. Respir Investig. 2012;50:62-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It is generally believed that a diagnosis of epidural emphysema can only be made on CT. In this report, MRI was used to make the diagnosis of subdural emphysema, and it demonstrated that the air was localized within the epidural fat. ..
  37. Ozdemir H, Kendirli T, Dincaslan H, Ciftci E, Ince E. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum in a child due to 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus. Turk J Pediatr. 2010;52:648-51 pubmed
    ..SPM could be associated with bronchial obstruction or necrotizing pneumonia, and the prognosis of patients with SPM associated with necrosis is worse than of patients with SPM associated with bronchial obstruction. ..
  38. Takada K, Matsumoto S, Hiramatsu T, Kojima E, Shizu M, Okachi S, et al. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: an algorithm for diagnosis and management. Ther Adv Respir Dis. 2009;3:301-7 pubmed publisher
    ..An overview of adult SPM is provided, reviewing 17 studies (414 patients), including our clinical experience, and finally an algorithm for diagnosis and management of SPM is proposed, based on the characteristics of SPM. ..
  39. Houari N, Labib S, Berdai M, Harandou M. [Postpartum pneumomediastinum associated with subcutaneous emphysema: a case report]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2012;31:728-30 pubmed publisher
    ..A diagnosis of subcutaneous emphysema was made and this was confirmed with the chest X-ray. Pneumomediastinum and hydropneumothorax were also detected. Uneventful recovery over three days followed conservative management...
  40. Mohammad A, Boon Low T, O Dwyer D, McElvaney G, Kearns G. Spontaneous pneumo-mediastinum in systemic sclerosis a case report. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007;46:1376-7 pubmed
  41. Tam W, Bertholini D. Tension pneumoperitoneum, pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema and cardiorespiratory collapse following gastroscopy. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2007;35:307-9 pubmed
  42. Huang H, Wong K, Lien R, Chiu C. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum due to gastroesophageal reflux disease in an adolescent boy. Respirology. 2008;13:744-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a case of pneumomediastinum in a 17-year-old boy with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and emphasize that the association of pneumomediastinum and symptoms of GERD warrants oesophageal pH monitoring. ..
  43. Kyle A, Veldtman G, Stanton M, Weeden D, Baral V. Barotrauma-associated posterior tension pneumomediastinum, a rare cause of cardiac tamponade in a ventilated neonate: a case report and review of the literature. Acta Paediatr. 2012;101:e142-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Posterior pneumomediastinum is rare, but can potentially cause fatal tamponade. Such cases must be managed in a tertiary centre where cardiology and surgical expertize are available. ..
  44. Suzuki M, Sato N, Matsuda J, Niwa N, Murai K, Yamamoto T, et al. A case of rapid diagnosis of Boerhaave syndrome by thoracic drainage. J Emerg Med. 2012;43:e419-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequent thoracic drainage is useful for confirming Boerhaave syndrome, and such a strategy might lead to a good prognosis for patients with this rare but critical disease. ..
  45. Dixit R, Meena M, Patil C. Pneumomediastinum, bilateral pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema complicating acute silicosis. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2015;28:635-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Diagnosis was established on clinical and radiological assessment and supported by occupational history of the patient. This case is unique one as all these 3 complications at the same time are very uncommon in acute silicosis. ..
  46. Kikuchi N, Ishii Y, Satoh H, Ohtsuka M, Hizawa N, Ohta Y. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum after air travel. Am J Emerg Med. 2008;26:116.e1-2 pubmed
  47. Leray V, Bourdin G, Flandreau G, Bayle F, Wallet F, Richard J, et al. A case of pneumomediastinum in a patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome on pressure support ventilation. Respir Care. 2010;55:770-3 pubmed
    ..The patient was put back onto volume-controlled mode, and 2 days later there were no air leaks. In pressure-support ventilation, V(T) must be closely monitored to ensure lung-protective mechanical ventilation. ..
  48. Parahuleva M, Schifferings P, Neuhof C, Tillmanns H, Erdogan A. Pneumopericardium and pneumomediastinum as a late complication of defibrillator implantation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009;57:491-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The pneumothorax and pneumopericardium were small and did not require chest tube placement. The patient was treated conservatively and his subsequent course was excellent. ..
  49. Blanco Ramos M, Cañizares Carretero M, García Fontán E, Rivo Vázquez J, Cáceres Alvarado N, de Castro Parga G. [Spontaneous pneumomediastinum mimicking Boerhaave's syndrome]. Cir Esp. 2006;80:331-3 pubmed
    ..We report the case of a 19-year-old man with no relevant history, who presented mediastinal emphysema after an episode of repeated vomiting in the context of alcohol abuse...
  50. Lawal T, Gluer S, Reismann M, Dördelmann M, Schirg E, Ure B. Spontaneous neonatal pneumomediastinum: the "spinnaker sail" sign. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2009;19:50-2 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the case of a male neonate, who had pneumomediastinum confirmed by the presence of a wind blown spinnaker sail sign and was managed conservatively. We also reviewed the literature. ..
  51. Barrett E. Management of a traumatic tracheal tear: a case report. AANA J. 2011;79:468-70 pubmed
    ..This case represents the need for proper preparation and communication between providers to manage all possible scenarios of a traumatic tracheal tear. ..
  52. Gouda H, Shashidhar -, Mestri C. Mediastinal emphysema due to an isolated facial trauma: a case report. Med Sci Law. 2008;48:178-80 pubmed
    A case of mediastinal emphysema due to an isolated facial trauma, which contributed to the death of an adult male, is reported in this article...
  53. Schmidt G, Bronkhorst M, Hartgrink H, Bouwman L. Subcutaneous cervical emphysema and pneumomediastinum due to a lower gastrointestinal tract perforation. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:3922-3 pubmed
    ..This case emphasizes that subcutaneous emphysema patients with negative thoracic findings should be scrutinized for signs of retroperitoneal hollow viscus perforation...
  54. Heppner H, Sieber C, Schmitt K. ["Usual" cannabis abuse producing an unusual incident]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2007;132:560-2 pubmed
    ..Except for regular abuse of cannabis there was no medical history of note. He had a sinus tachycardia (130 bpm), a slow pupillary reflex, bilateral hyposphagma and subcutaneous emphysema around the neck and shoulders...
  55. Hassel D. Thoracic trauma in horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2007;23:67-80 pubmed
    ..Emergency management of these various forms of thoracic trauma is discussed...
  56. Chan Y, Tsai Y, Fang S. Subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and pneumoperitoneum during colonoscopic balloon dilation: a case report. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2010;26:669-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Chest X-ray revealed diffuse subcutaneous emphysema and bilateral pneumothorax. We discuss the possible mechanism and management of this uncommon complication during therapeutic colonoscopy...
  57. Miles S, Robinson P, Miles J. Ehlers–Danlos syndrome and anorexia nervosa: a dangerous combination?. Pediatr Dermatol. 2007;24:E1-4 pubmed
  58. Lee H, Im S. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema complicating pneumonia in an unventilated term infant. Indian J Pediatr. 2010;77:1025-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient had no history of resuscitation, bag and mask ventilation, nasal continuous positive airway pressure or mechanical ventilation...
  59. Cooke A, Deshpande A, Shun A, O Loughlin E. Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema in a child with ulcerative colitis. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2010;26:129-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experience provides insight into this unusual complication, how it may present, and its clinical significance in young patients with ulcerative colitis. The literature on this complication is also discussed...
  60. Deblois J, Bergeron S, Leblanc M, Senechal M, Gregoire J, Arsenault M. Images in cardiovascular medicine. Directly to the heart. Circulation. 2006;114:e515-6 pubmed
  61. James M, Miguel M, Fancher T. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum. J Hosp Med. 2007;2:283-4 pubmed
  62. Zaia B, Wheeler S. Pneumomediastinum after inhalation of helium gas from party balloons. J Emerg Med. 2010;38:155-8 pubmed
    ..Spontaneous pneumomediastinum remains largely underdiagnosed clinically, especially in young, healthy patients...
  63. Magni G, Imperiale C, Rosa G, Favaro R. Nonfatal cerebral air embolism after dental surgery. Anesth Analg. 2008;106:249-51, table of contents pubmed publisher
    ..The likely mechanism was injection of air by the high-speed dental drill through the soft tissue adjacent to the roots of the lower molars. We were unable to find any previous report of systemic air embolism after oral surgery...
  64. Reichardt J, Casey G, Krywko D. Gastric rupture from cardiopulmonary resuscitation or seizure activity? A case report. J Emerg Med. 2010;39:309-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We present the case of a patient who sustained a gastric rupture, tension pneumoperitoneum, and a tension pneumomediastinum after retching, seizure, CPR, and advanced cardiac life support maneuvers...
  65. Jaeger N, Brosious J, Gustavson R, McFarlin C, Gearhart W, Zamboni W, et al. Pneumomediastinum following hyperbaric oxygen therapy for carbon monoxide poisoning: case report. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2013;40:521-3 pubmed
  66. Walles T, Friedel G, Stöltzing H, Thon K. [Case studies of iatrogenic tracheal injury during intraoperative ventral positioning. Symptoms, diagnostics, and differential therapy]. Chirurg. 2007;78:374-8 pubmed
    ..Clinical symptoms, diagnostic procedure, findings, and therapy are discussed...
  67. Maldjian P, Petscavage J. Intracardiac thrombus and pulmonary embolism with cavitation and pneumomediastinum in a patient with protein S deficiency. J Thorac Imaging. 2006;21:222-4 pubmed
    ..Cavitation within a lesion adjacent to the mediastinal pleura can result in pneumomediastinum...
  68. Teixeira Moreira Almeida M, Dias L, Fernandes S, Almeida J. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema in systemic sclerosis. Rheumatol Int. 2007;27:675-7 pubmed
    ..Pneumomediastinum is an extremely rare complication in patients with systemic sclerosis...
  69. Yokitis J, Repeta R. Acute chest pain in an adolescent. Am Fam Physician. 2006;74:473-4 pubmed
  70. Cirt N, de Lajarte Thirouard A, Olivie D, Pagenault M, Bretagne J. [Subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, pneumoperitoneum and retropneumoperitoneum following a colonoscopy with mucosectomy]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2006;30:779-82 pubmed
    ..We report a case of this complication revealed by subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, pneumoperitoneum and retro-pneumoperitoneum after colonic mucosectomy...
  71. Banki F, Estrera A, Harrison R, Miller C, Leake S, Mitchell K, et al. Pneumomediastinum: etiology and a guide to diagnosis and treatment. Am J Surg. 2013;206:1001-6; discussion 1006 pubmed publisher
    ..Pneumomediastinum may be associated with mediastinal organ injury. The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors of mediastinal organ injury in patients with pneumomediastinum to guide diagnosis and treatment...
  72. Uscategui Florez T, Martinez Devesa P, Gupta D. Mucosal tear in the oropharynx leading to pneumopericardium and pneumomediastinum: an unusual complication of blunt trauma to the face and neck. Surgeon. 2006;4:179-82 pubmed
    ..This is a very rare but potentially life-threatening complication of blunt trauma to the head and neck. It poses diagnostic difficulties and treatment dilemmas, which are discussed...
  73. Cheung H, Law S, Wong K, Kwok K, Wong J. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum in a scuba diver. Hong Kong Med J. 2006;12:152-3 pubmed
    ..We report on a 30-year-old man who developed pneumomediastinum after scuba diving. The patient presented with acute onset of throat pain, odynophagia, and hoarseness of voice. The literature is reviewed for this condition...
  74. Kumar K, Waseem M. An adolescent with chest pain. South Med J. 2006;99:1402-3 pubmed
  75. Evans S, Marinello M, Dodson K. Novel presentation of a fourth branchial cleft anomaly in a male infant. Am J Otolaryngol. 2010;31:120-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Fourth branchial cleft anomalies are rare congenital disorders of the neck. We describe a case involving a unique presentation of this entity as well as a review of the literature concerning its management...
  76. Barge Caballero E, Bouzas Mosquera A, Gulias Soidan D, Castro Beiras A. Hamman's syndrome: an atypical cause of chest pain. Eur Heart J. 2008;29:578 pubmed
  77. Dissanaike S, Shalhub S, Jurkovich G. The evaluation of pneumomediastinum in blunt trauma patients. J Trauma. 2008;65:1340-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the incidence of major injuries associated with pneumomediastinum, the accuracy of diagnostic modalities, and the results of observation versus aggressive evaluation...
  78. Hountis P, Toufektzian L, Moraitis S, Douzinas M. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum treatment. Minerva Chir. 2008;63:429-31 pubmed
    ..In this case series the authors discuss the main aspects of treatment of these patients, the value of antibiotics during the recovery period and the air distribution in the thoracic tissues...
  79. Colson J. Cervicofacial subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum after retinal detachment surgery: just another monitored anesthesia eye case. J Clin Anesth. 2011;23:410-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum were confirmed on postoperative chest radiographs and computed tomographic scans. Possible mechanisms and potential sequelae of this intraoperative event are discussed...
  80. Jones R, Kundrotas L. "HOOAH!" A case of pneumomediastinum in the military training environment; Hamman's sign 71 years later. Mil Med. 2011;176:352-5 pubmed
    ..The term "spontaneous" as applied to a pneumomediastinum diagnosis is examined and the auscultatory finding of "Hamman's sign" is reviewed...
  81. Drolet S, Gagne J, Langis P. Spontaneous pneumorrhachis associated with pneumomediastinum in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis: an exceptional manifestation of a benign disease. Can J Surg. 2007;50:225-6 pubmed
  82. Molena D, Burr N, Zucchiatti A, Lovria E, Gestring M, Cheng J, et al. The incidence and clinical significance of pneumomediastinum found on computed tomography scan in blunt trauma patients. Am Surg. 2009;75:1081-3 pubmed
    ..In this study, PM seen on CT was found to have little clinical significance other than as a marker for severe blunt trauma. No patients with airway or esophageal injuries were seen in any of the PM patients...
  83. Lee C, Wu C, Lin C. Etiologies of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in children of different ages. Pediatr neonatol. 2009;50:190-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM), while rare, is probably underestimated in children. Treatments for SPM target the underlying disease and trigger factors. This study aimed to analyze the etiology of SPM in different age groups...
  84. Caceres M, Braud R, Maekawa R, Weiman D, Garrett H. Secondary pneumomediastinum: a retrospective comparative analysis. Lung. 2009;187:341-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Secondary pneumomediastinum is a morbid condition with distinctive etiologies, radiologic findings, and outcomes. Barotrauma-induced pneumomediastinum is associated with a prolonged recovery and high mortality rate...
  85. Parmaksizoglu F, Koprulu A, Unal M. Massive subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastineum after finger subtotal amputation with barotrauma. J Emerg Med. 2011;41:e79-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The type and anatomic location of injury, amount of pressure, and time elapsed all play a role in determining the destination of the air advancing through tissues...
  86. Mizoguchi F, Nanki T, Miyasaka N. Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis following lupus enteritis and peritonitis. Intern Med. 2008;47:1267-71 pubmed
    ..Although PCI is a rare complication of SLE, the present case suggests that lupus enteritis could be a risk factor for PCI, and that high-dose PSL could cause additional insult to PCI...