respiratory acidosis


Summary: Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.

Top Publications

  1. Varughese M, Patole S, Shama A, Whitehall J. Permissive hypercapnia in neonates: the case of the good, the bad, and the ugly. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2002;33:56-64 pubmed
    ..The potential benefits and adverse effects of PHC are reviewed, and its relationship to current ventilatory strategies like synchronized mechanical ventilation and high-frequency ventilation in high-risk neonates is briefly discussed. ..
  2. Bucens D, Pain M. Influence of hematocrit, blood gas tensions, and pH on pressure-flow relations in the isolated canine lung. Circ Res. 1975;37:588-96 pubmed
    ..5%. Mean pulmonary arterial blood gas tensions were: PO2 = 121 mm Hg, PCO2 = 28 mm Hg, and pH = 7.46. Acute respiratory acidosis (PO2 = 30 mm Hg, PCO2 = 81 mm Hg, pH = 7...
  3. Swenson E. Therapeutic hypercapnic acidosis: pushing the envelope. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;169:8-9 pubmed
  4. Laffey J, O Croinin D, McLoughlin P, Kavanagh B. Permissive hypercapnia--role in protective lung ventilatory strategies. Intensive Care Med. 2004;30:347-56 pubmed
    ..Rapidly advancing basic scientific investigations should better delineate the advantages, disadvantages, and optimal use of hypercapnia in ARDS...
  5. Djerad A, Monier C, Houze P, Borron S, Lefauconnier J, Baud F. Effects of respiratory acidosis and alkalosis on the distribution of cyanide into the rat brain. Toxicol Sci. 2001;61:273-82 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to determine whether respiratory acidosis favors the cerebral distribution of cyanide, and conversely, if respiratory alkalosis limits its distribution...
  6. Kregenow D, Rubenfeld G, Hudson L, Swenson E. Hypercapnic acidosis and mortality in acute lung injury. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:1-7 pubmed
    ..We tested the hypothesis that hypercapnic acidosis is associated with reduced mortality rate in patients with acute lung injury independent of changes in mechanical ventilation...
  7. Tournadre J, Allaouchiche B, Malbert C, Chassard D. Metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis impair gastro-pyloric motility in anesthetized pigs. Anesth Analg. 2000;90:74-9 pubmed
    ..We investigated the effects of metabolic (MA) and respiratory acidosis (RA) on upper gut motility in tracheally ventilated pigs whose anesthesia was induced with halothane and ..
  8. Cham G, Tan W, Earnest A, Soh C. Clinical predictors of acute respiratory acidosis during exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur J Emerg Med. 2002;9:225-32 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to provide a clinical means of identifying patients with acute respiratory acidosis (ARA) in a setting where blood gas analysis is unavailable...
  9. Tuggey J, Plant P, Elliott M. Domiciliary non-invasive ventilation for recurrent acidotic exacerbations of COPD: an economic analysis. Thorax. 2003;58:867-71 pubmed
    ..We present economic data on the impact of domiciliary NIV on the need for admission to hospital and its attendant costs...

More Information


  1. Gattinoni L, Taccone P, Carlesso E. Respiratory acidosis: is the correction with bicarbonate worth?. Minerva Anestesiol. 2006;72:551-7 pubmed
    ..The effect is independent on (HCO3-) infusion and equivalent to adding (Na+ OH-) instead of (Na+ HCO3-)...
  2. Frick K, Bushinsky D. In vitro metabolic and respiratory acidosis selectively inhibit osteoblastic matrix gene expression. Am J Physiol. 1999;277:F750-5 pubmed
    ..either a reduction in bicarbonate concentration ([HCO(-)(3)], metabolic acidosis) or an increase in PCO(2) (respiratory acidosis)...
  3. Frick K, Bushinsky D. Effect of metabolic and respiratory acidosis on intracellular calcium in osteoblasts. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;299:F418-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, respiratory acidosis [decreased pH from increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2))] does not appreciably alter Ca ..
  4. Phillis J, Song D, O Regan M. Mechanisms involved in coronary artery dilatation during respiratory acidosis in the isolated perfused rat heart. Basic Res Cardiol. 2000;95:93-7 pubmed
    ..heart preparation, perfused at constant pressure, was used to evaluate the role of K(ATP) channels in respiratory acidosis-induced coronary hyperemia...
  5. Epstein S, Singh N. Respiratory acidosis. Respir Care. 2001;46:366-83 pubmed
    b>Respiratory acidosis, or primary hypercapnia, is the acid-base disorder that results from an increase in arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide...
  6. Perry S, Furimsky M, Bayaa M, Georgalis T, Shahsavarani A, Nickerson J, et al. Integrated responses of Na+/HCO3- cotransporters and V-type H+-ATPases in the fish gill and kidney during respiratory acidosis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1618:175-84 pubmed
    ..In trout, the levels of gill NBC1 mRNA were increased markedly during respiratory acidosis induced by exposure to hypercarbia; this response was accompanied by a transient increase in branchial V-..
  7. Antonelli M, Pennisi M, Pelosi P, Gregoretti C, Squadrone V, Rocco M, et al. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation using a helmet in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a feasibility study. Anesthesiology. 2004;100:16-24 pubmed
    ..Whether it is feasible to treat these patients with NPPV delivered by a helmet is not known...
  8. Takil A, Eti Z, Irmak P, Yilmaz Göğüş F. Early postoperative respiratory acidosis after large intravascular volume infusion of lactated ringer's solution during major spine surgery. Anesth Analg. 2002;95:294-8, table of contents pubmed
    ..Although intraoperative 20 mL. kg(-1). h(-1) LR infusion does not cause hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis as does NS infusion, it leads to postoperative respiratory acidosis and mild hyponatremia.
  9. Sinclair S, Kregenow D, Lamm W, Starr I, Chi E, Hlastala M. Hypercapnic acidosis is protective in an in vivo model of ventilator-induced lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;166:403-8 pubmed
    ..18 x 10(5) versus 2.84 x 10(5) +/- 0.28 x 10(5) nucleated cells/ml; p = 0.021), and injury score (7.0 +/- 3.3 versus 0.7 +/- 0.9; p < 0.0001). We conclude that hypercapnic acidosis is protective against VILI in this model...
  10. Brogan T, Robertson H, Lamm W, Souders J, Swenson E. Carbon dioxide added late in inspiration reduces ventilation-perfusion heterogeneity without causing respiratory acidosis. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004;96:1894-8 pubmed
    ..improves ventilation-perfusion (Va/Q) matching but with the consequence of mild arterial hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis. We hypothesized that adding CO2 only late in inspiration to limit its effects to the conducting airways ..
  11. Laffey J, Honan D, Hopkins N, Hyvelin J, Boylan J, McLoughlin P. Hypercapnic acidosis attenuates endotoxin-induced acute lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;169:46-56 pubmed
    ..The beneficial actions of hypercapnic acidosis were not mediated by inhibition of peroxynitrite-induced nitration within proteins...
  12. Martinu T, Menzies D, Dial S. Re-evaluation of acid-base prediction rules in patients with chronic respiratory acidosis. Can Respir J. 2003;10:311-5 pubmed
    The prediction rules for the evaluation of the acid-base status in patients with chronic respiratory acidosis, derived primarily from an experimental canine model, suggest that complete compensation should not occur...
  13. Broccard A, Hotchkiss J, Vannay C, Markert M, Sauty A, Feihl F, et al. Protective effects of hypercapnic acidosis on ventilator-induced lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;164:802-6 pubmed
    To investigate whether respiratory acidosis modulates ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), we perfused (constant flow) 21 isolated sets of normal rabbit lungs, ventilated them for 20 min (pressure controlled ventilation [PCV] = 15 cm H(..
  14. Plant P, Owen J, Elliott M. One year period prevalence study of respiratory acidosis in acute exacerbations of COPD: implications for the provision of non-invasive ventilation and oxygen administration. Thorax. 2000;55:550-4 pubmed
    ..intubation rates in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) admitted to hospital with respiratory acidosis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory acidosis in patients admitted with COPD, to ..
  15. Vargas F, Bui H, Boyer A, Salmi L, Gbikpi Benissan G, Guénard H, et al. Intrapulmonary percussive ventilation in acute exacerbations of COPD patients with mild respiratory acidosis: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN17802078]. Crit Care. 2005;9:R382-9 pubmed
    ..IPV), a technique designed to improve mucus clearance, could prove effective in avoiding further deterioration in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with mild respiratory acidosis.
  16. Watanabe Y, Dohi S, Iida H, Ishiyama T. The effects of bupivacaine and ropivacaine on baroreflex sensitivity with or without respiratory acidosis and alkalosis in rats. Anesth Analg. 1997;84:398-404 pubmed
    ..causes cardiac and central nervous system (CNS) depression that could be enhanced in the presence of respiratory acidosis. We examined a potential suppression of baroreflex function with bupivacaine and ropivacaine during ..
  17. Schwaderer A, Schwartz G. Back to basics: acidosis and alkalosis. Pediatr Rev. 2004;25:350-7 pubmed
  18. Zalunardo N, Lemaire M, Davids M, Halperin M. Acidosis in a patient with cholera: a need to redefine concepts. QJM. 2004;97:681-96 pubmed
    ..and a quantitative approach provided new insights and eventually better definitions of metabolic and respiratory acidosis. A shift in focus from HCO3- concentration to HCO3- content in the extracellular fluid (ECF) compartment ..
  19. Domino K, Swenson E, Hlastala M. Hypocapnia-induced ventilation/perfusion mismatch: a direct CO2 or pH-mediated effect?. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;152:1534-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we conclude that hypocapnia-induced VA/Q mismatch in hyperventilated dogs is pH-mediated and is not a function of PCO2 per se...
  20. Boedtkjer E. Acid-base regulation and sensing: Accelerators and brakes in metabolic regulation of cerebrovascular tone. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2017;:271678X17733868 pubmed publisher
    ..decreases in intracellular pH can counteract H+-mediated vasorelaxation during metabolic and respiratory acidosis, respectively, and may thereby reduce the risk of capillary damage and cerebral edema that could be ..
  21. Hoo G, Hakimian N, Santiago S. Hypercapnic respiratory failure in COPD patients: response to therapy. Chest. 2000;117:169-77 pubmed
    ..This should be useful in limiting or omitting medical therapy in high-risk patients, thereby avoiding delays in intubation as well as providing a framework for continued therapy in those more likely to improve. ..
  22. Leclerc C, Dupont B. [Respiratory acidosis during paediatric anaesthesia: eyes wide shut?]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2005;24:1315-6 pubmed
  23. Tohdoh Y, Sumita S, Kawamata T, Omote K, Kawana S, Namiki A. Acute respiratory and metabolic acidosis induced by excessive muscle contraction during spinal evoked stimulation. Br J Anaesth. 2001;86:589-93 pubmed
    ..To prevent SSEP-induced respiratory and metabolic acidosis, we recommend that SSEPs should be measured only when profound neuromuscular blockade has been obtained. ..
  24. Thomas K, Sainudeen S, Jose S, Nadhari M, Macaire P. Ultrasound-Guided Parasternal Block Allows Optimal Pain Relief and Ventilation Improvement After a Sternal Fracture. Pain Ther. 2016;5:115-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis showed respiratory acidosis. Pulmonary electrical impedance tomography showed hypoventilation of anterior portions of both lungs...
  25. Elliot S, Paramasivam K, Oram J, Bodenham A, Howell S, Mallick A. Pumpless extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal for life-threatening asthma. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:945-8 pubmed
    ..The two patients were subsequently weaned from mechanical ventilation and made a full recovery. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal proved to be a valuable adjunct to mechanical ventilation and other medical treatment. ..
  26. Racinet C, Ouellet P, Charles F, Daboval T. Neonatal metabolic acidosis at birth: In search of a reliable marker. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2016;44:357-62 pubmed publisher
    A newborn may present acidemia on the umbilical artery blood which can result from respiratory acidosis or metabolic acidosis or be of mixed origin...
  27. Nagler J, Wright R, Krauss B. End-tidal carbon dioxide as a measure of acidosis among children with gastroenteritis. Pediatrics. 2006;118:260-7 pubmed
    ..Capnography offers an objective noninvasive measure of the severity of acidosis among patients with gastroenteritis. ..
  28. Davis E, Jackson D. Lactate uptake by skeletal bone in anoxic turtles, Trachemys scripta. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2007;146:299-304 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the entire skeleton of the red-eared slider, like its shell, sequesters lactate and contributes thereby to lactic acid buffering. ..
  29. Osuorji I, Williams C, Hessney J, Patel T, Hsi D. Acute stress cardiomyopathy following treatment of status asthmaticus. South Med J. 2009;102:301-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Myocardial function improved dramatically with supportive treatment. Iatrogenically induced takotsubo syndrome with vasoactive agents should be suspected in acute left ventricular dysfunction without coronary artery disease. ..
  30. Fernández P, Muñoz P, Fischer D, Mendez F, Florenzano M, Valdes S, et al. [Bridge to lung transplantation with a novel pumpless lung assist device. Report of one case]. Rev Med Chil. 2009;137:1363-6 pubmed publisher the hospital due to a severe deterioration of his respiratory condition, with the presence of severe respiratory acidosis despite conventional invasive respiratory support...
  31. Johnson R. A Quick Reference on Respiratory Acidosis. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2017;47:185-189 pubmed publisher
    b>Respiratory acidosis, or primary hypercapnia, occurs when carbon dioxide production exceeds elimination via the lung and is mainly owing to alveolar hypoventilation...
  32. Wood C, Milligan C, Walsh P. Renal responses of trout to chronic respiratory and metabolic acidoses and metabolic alkalosis. Am J Physiol. 1999;277:R482-92 pubmed
    ..The differential responses to RA vs. MA parallel those in mammals; in fish they may be keyed to activation of phosphate secretion by RA and cortisol mobilization by MA. ..
  33. Oppersma E, Doorduin J, van der Hoeven J, Veltink P, van Hees H, Heunks L. The effect of metabolic alkalosis on the ventilatory response in healthy subjects. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2018;249:47-53 pubmed publisher
    Patients with acute respiratory failure may develop respiratory acidosis. Metabolic compensation by bicarbonate production or retention results in posthypercapnic alkalosis with an increased arterial bicarbonate concentration...
  34. Gooptu B, Ward L, Ansari S, Eraut C, Law D, Davison A. Oxygen alert cards and controlled oxygen: preventing emergency admissions at risk of hypercapnic acidosis receiving high inspired oxygen concentrations in ambulances and A&E departments. Emerg Med J. 2006;23:636-8 pubmed
    ..This figure rose to 94% in the accident and emergency department. These data support the usability of such a scheme to prevent iatrogenic hypercapnia in emergency admissions. ..
  35. Williamson J, Illing R, Gertler P, Braude S. Near-drowning treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Med J Aust. 2004;181:500-1 pubmed
  36. Varga J, Mester L, Börzsönyi L, Lekeux P, Szenci O. Improved pulmonary adaptation in newborn calves with postnatal acidosis. Vet J. 2001;162:226-32 pubmed
    ..This might be the result of overcompensation of acidosis and the interdependence between blood pH and Ca(2+)concentrations. ..
  37. Naidoo D, Gathiram V, Sadhabiriss A, Hassen F. Clinical diagnosis of cardiac beriberi. S Afr Med J. 1990;77:125-7 pubmed
  38. Bleul U, Schwantag S, Kähn W. Effects of hypertonic sodium bicarbonate solution on electrolyte concentrations and enzyme activities in newborn calves with respiratory and metabolic acidosis. Am J Vet Res. 2007;68:850-7 pubmed
    ..The treatment volume used was smaller, compared with that for an isotonic solution, which makes it more practical for use in field settings. ..
  39. Roemer V. How to determine and use base excess (BE) in perinatal medicine. Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol. 2007;211:224-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Correction uniformly leads to lower BE values (median: 2.7 mmol / L) and significantly higher correlation coefficients with important clinical variables (e. g., the APGAR index). ..
  40. Dimai H, Domej W, Leb G, Lau K. Bone loss in patients with untreated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is mediated by an increase in bone resorption associated with hypercapnia. J Bone Miner Res. 2001;16:2132-41 pubmed
    ..bone loss in untreated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with hypercapnia and/or respiratory acidosis. Bone mineral density (BMD) measured at the distal forearm of the nondominant arm (with peripheral ..
  41. Esquivel G, Schruers K, Maddock R, Colasanti A, Griez E. Acids in the brain: a factor in panic?. J Psychopharmacol. 2010;24:639-47 pubmed publisher
  42. Brugger H, Sumann G, Meister R, Adler Kastner L, Mair P, Gunga H, et al. Hypoxia and hypercapnia during respiration into an artificial air pocket in snow: implications for avalanche survival. Resuscitation. 2003;58:81-8 pubmed
    ..07 kPa (3.47-6.93 kPa) to 6.8 kPa (5.87-8.27 kPa; P<0.001), with consequent respiratory acidosis. Despite premature interruption due to hypoxia (SpO(2)</=75%) in 17 of 28 tests (61%), a respiratory ..
  43. Wall R. Respiratory acid-base disorders. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2001;31:1355-67, viii pubmed
    ..Recognition of the mechanisms and causes of respiratory acidosis and alkalosis can prompt clinical detection of the acid-base derangement, allowing for appropriate ..
  44. Dagan R, Sikuler Cohen M, Zamir O, Janco J, Givon Lavi N, Fraser D. Effect of a conjugate pneumococcal vaccine on the occurrence of respiratory infections and antibiotic use in day-care center attendees. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001;20:951-8 pubmed
  45. Ammar Y, Launois C, Perotin J, Dury S, Servettaz A, Perdu D, et al. [Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting as severe alveolar hypoventilation and the shrinking lung syndrome]. Rev Mal Respir. 2017;34:571-575 pubmed publisher
    ..The creatinine phophokinase level was increased at 280U/L. Progress was marked by a rapidly increasing respiratory acidosis (pH 7.24, PaCO2 109mmHg) requiring invasive ventilation...
  46. Casutt M, Konrad C. An unexpected ventilation problem during the anaesthesia of a patient with a stiff neck. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2008;52:314 pubmed publisher
  47. Palpant N, D Alecy L, Metzger J. Single histidine button in cardiac troponin I sustains heart performance in response to severe hypercapnic respiratory acidosis in vivo. FASEB J. 2009;23:1529-40 pubmed publisher
  48. Nichol A, O Cronin D, Howell K, Naughton F, O Brien S, Boylan J, et al. Infection-induced lung injury is worsened after renal buffering of hypercapnic acidosis. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:2953-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore wished to determine the effects of buffered hypercapnia on acute lung injury induced by endotoxin or Escherichia coli infection in vivo...
  49. Sahni A, Gonzalez H, Tulaimat A. Effect of arterial puncture on ventilation. Heart Lung. 2017;46:149-152 pubmed publisher
    ..leads clinicians to falsely interpret a PaCO2 and pH near the upper limit of normal as a chronic respiratory acidosis corrected by an acute respiratory alkalosis...
  50. Acsell J. pH-stat ventilation management: a simple method of achieving this regimen. J Extra Corpor Technol. 2003;35:287-9 pubmed
    ..This technique of providing pH-stat ventilation has been used at our institution for over three years. It has proven to be easy to accomplish, adjust and maintain. ..
  51. Lien Y, Lai L. Respiratory acidosis in carbonic anhydrase II-deficient mice. Am J Physiol. 1998;274:L301-4 pubmed
    ..The metabolic acidosis in CA II-deficient mice was corrected ([HCO3-], 22.9 +/- 2.4 meq/l), and respiratory acidosis became more profound (Pco2, 50.4 +/- 2.4 mmHg)...
  52. Wade C, Wang T, Lang K, Corbin B, Steele M. Rat growth, body composition, and renal function during 30 days increased ambient CO2 exposure. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2000;71:599-609 pubmed
    ..In experiments using rodents onboard orbiting spacecraft, specimens may be exposed to an increase in ambient CO2...
  53. Schwarz C, Oberbauer R. [Acid-base balance]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2007;119:21-37; quiz 38 pubmed
  54. Derekoy F, Fidan H, Fidan F, Aktepe F, Kahveci O. Tonsillar lipoma causing difficult intubation: a case report. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg. 2007;17:329-32 pubmed
    ..An emergency intubation was planned due to the development of respiratory acidosis and hypoxemia, but the patient could not be intubated...
  55. Adrogue H. Diagnosis and management of severe respiratory acidosis: a 65-year-old man with a double-lung transplant and shortness of breath. Am J Kidney Dis. 2010;56:994-1000 pubmed publisher
    b>Respiratory acidosis is characterized by a primary increase in whole-body carbon dioxide stores caused by a positive carbon dioxide balance...
  56. Terragni P, Del Sorbo L, Mascia L, Urbino R, Martin E, Birocco A, et al. Tidal volume lower than 6 ml/kg enhances lung protection: role of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal. Anesthesiology. 2009;111:826-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors verified whether VT lower than 6 ml/kg may enhance lung protection and that consequent respiratory acidosis may be managed by extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal.
  57. McLaughlin M, Kassirer J. Rational treatment of acid-base disorders. Drugs. 1990;39:841-55 pubmed
    ..Treatment of respiratory acidosis should be targeted at restoring ventilation; alkali should be administered only for superimposed metabolic ..
  58. Brown S, Howden R. The effects of a respiratory acidosis on human heart rate variability. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;605:361-5 pubmed
    Human heart rate variability (HRV) was examined during a mild respiratory acidosis induced by inhalation of a normoxic hypercapnic gas mixture...
  59. Lopez I, Aguilera Tejero E, Felsenfeld A, Estepa J, Rodriguez M. Direct effect of acute metabolic and respiratory acidosis on parathyroid hormone secretion in the dog. J Bone Miner Res. 2002;17:1691-700 pubmed
    Because both metabolic (Met Acid) and respiratory acidosis (Resp Acid) have diverse effects on mineral metabolism, it has been difficult to establish whether acidosis directly affects parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion...
  60. Gøthgen I. What is the lower limits of arterial pO2?. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2007;51:393-4 pubmed
  61. Joulia F, Steinberg J, Faucher M, Jamin T, Ulmer C, Kipson N, et al. Breath-hold training of humans reduces oxidative stress and blood acidosis after static and dynamic apnea. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2003;137:19-27 pubmed
    ..After dynamic apnea, the blood acidosis was reduced and the oxidative stress no more occurred. These results suggest that the practice of breath-holding improves the tolerance to hypoxemia independently from any genetic factor...
  62. Bin Jaliah I, Maskell P, Kumar P. Indirect sensing of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia by the carotid body in the rat. J Physiol. 2004;556:255-66 pubmed
  63. Doerr C, Gajic O, Berrios J, Caples S, Abdel M, Lymp J, et al. Hypercapnic acidosis impairs plasma membrane wound resealing in ventilator-injured lungs. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;171:1371-7 pubmed
    ..02). This finding was subsequently confirmed in alveolar epithelial cell scratch models. The potential relevance of these observations for lung inflammation and remodeling after mechanical injury is discussed...
  64. Shibasaki M, Okano K, Kageyama K, Nakajima Y, Ibuki T, Tanaka Y. [Perioperative management of a neonate with a retroperitoneal giant teratoma who underwent its extirpation under general anesthesia: a case report]. Masui. 2005;54:1302-5 pubmed
    ..We report the difficulty for management during anesthesia because of severe respiratory acidosis due to pressure from diaphragmatic pleura by tumor, severe circulatory disorder due to massive bleeding ..
  65. Bordier P, Garrigue S, Reuter S, Bordachar P, Clementy J. Death during polysomnography of a patient with cheyne-stokes respiration, respiratory acidosis, and chronic heart failure. Chest. 2004;126:1698-700 pubmed
    ..This report illustrates a case of respiratory drive failure during sleep as the mode of death in a patient with heart failure, sleep apnea syndrome, and CRF...
  66. Effros R, Su J, Casaburi R, Shaker R, Biller J, Dunning M. Utility of exhaled breath condensates in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a critical review. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2005;11:135-9 pubmed
    ..Evaluation of the utility of exhaled breath condensates in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
  67. Iizuka M, Fregosi R. Influence of hypercapnic acidosis and hypoxia on abdominal expiratory nerve activity in the rat. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2007;157:196-205 pubmed
    ..Thus, both hypercapnic acidosis and hypoxia activate abdominal muscle motoneurons in the absence of phasic afferent inputs...
  68. Broccard A. Respiratory acidosis and acute respiratory distress syndrome: time to trade in a bull market?. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:229-31 pubmed
  69. Emeis M, Sonntag J, Willam C, Strauss E, Walka M, Obladen M. Acidosis activates complement system in vitro. Mediators Inflamm. 1998;7:417-20 pubmed
    ..002). Respiratory acidosis activated C3a (p=0.007) and C5a (p=0.003) compared to normocapnic controls...
  70. Budweiser S, Jörres R, Pfeifer M. Treatment of respiratory failure in COPD. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2008;3:605-18 pubmed
    ..and the duration of intensive care unit or hospital stays, particularly in the presence of mild to moderate respiratory acidosis. COPD with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failurebecame a major indication for domiciliary mechanical ..
  71. Albright R, Friedman A, Fram E, Harbury O, Molter B, Skatoff J, et al. Comparison of [125I]HIPDm and [125I]iodoantipyrine in quantifying regional cerebral blood flow in rats. Stroke. 1988;19:1404-10 pubmed
  72. Sahai A, Laughrey E, Tannen R. Relationship between intracellular pH and ammonia metabolism in LLC-PK1 cells. Am J Physiol. 1990;258:F103-8 pubmed
    ..Despite the absence of pH-responsive ammonia-genesis in still cultured cells the pHi values were altered in a fashion similar to their rocked counterparts, indicating the lack of an effect of the pHi signal on ammonia metabolism...
  73. Carroll G. Effect of alkalinization and fluids on survival in acute, non-hypoxic respiratory acidosis. Resuscitation. 1990;19:253-70 pubmed
    ..hypertonic saline, and Tromethamine were studied in 21 pigs and 60 rats subjected to acute, severe respiratory acidosis. Transient multiphasic alterations of systemic arterial pressures were seen with boluses of each agent-..
  74. Niaki S, Shafaroodi H, Ghasemi M, Shakiba B, Fakhimi A, Dehpour A. Mouth breathing increases the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice: a role for ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Epilepsy Behav. 2008;13:284-9 pubmed publisher
    Nasal obstruction and consequent mouth breathing have been shown to change the acid-base balance, producing respiratory acidosis. Additionally, there exists a large body of evidence maintaining that acidosis affects the activity of ATP-..
  75. Pedersen D, Stefansson E, Kiilgaard J, Jensen P, Eysteinsson T, Bang K, et al. Optic nerve pH and PO2: the effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibition, and metabolic and respiratory acidosis. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2006;84:475-80 pubmed
    ..and compared how optic nerve pH (ONpH) and ONPO(2) are affected by: (1) carbonic anhydrase inhibition; (2) respiratory acidosis, and (3) metabolic acidosis...
  76. O Driscoll B, Howard L, Davison A. BTS guideline for emergency oxygen use in adult patients. Thorax. 2008;63 Suppl 6:vi1-68 pubmed publisher
  77. Hampson N, Piantadosi C. Near-infrared optical responses in feline brain and skeletal muscle tissues during respiratory acid-base imbalance. Brain Res. 1990;519:249-54 pubmed
    ..These experiments demonstrate preferential distribution of oxygen to brain during hypercapnia and the ability of NIR spectroscopy to assess regional oxygenation in multiple tissues non-invasively...
  78. Costello J, Higgins B, Contreras M, Chonghaile M, Hassett P, O Toole D, et al. Hypercapnic acidosis attenuates shock and lung injury in early and prolonged systemic sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:2412-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, prolonged hypercapnia worsens pneumonia-induced lung injury. The effects of hypercapnia and acidosis in the setting of systemic sepsis remain to be determined...
  79. Kirksey K, Holt Ashley M, Goodroad B. An easy method for interpreting the results of arterial blood gas analysis. Crit Care Nurse. 2001;21:49-54 pubmed
    ..M.K.) has been using the H model for many years to teach students how to interpret the results of arterial blood gas analysis. The students are often amazed at how easy and fun the model makes learning a subject many perceive as complex...
  80. Boix J, Bataller A, Aznar O, Monferrer J, Kuret E, Gonzalez E, et al. [Acute respiratory failure in chronic obstructive lung disease. Effective weaning and excess base]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1994;41:332-5 pubmed
    ..When pH is kept within normal range by a high BE, the withdrawal of AMV, accompanied by either support system, is usually well-tolerated...
  81. Forster H, Murphy C, Brice A, Pan L, Lowry T. In vivo regulation of plasma [H+] in ponies during acute changes in PCO2. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1990;68:316-21 pubmed
    ..001) when Pco2 was increased from 25 to 55 Torr. A 3.5-meq/l decrease in [Cl-] (P less than 0.001) and a 1.3 +/- 0.1 meq/l increase in [Na+] (P less than 0.001) accounted for the SID change.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  82. Krapf R. [Hypo- and hyperventilation: consequences for acid-base balance]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1991;80:1058-61 pubmed
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    ..treatments superimposed on the infusion caused the expected disturbances in systemic acid-base status: respiratory acidosis by exposure to high environmental PCO2, metabolic acidosis by infusion of HCl, and metabolic alkalosis by ..