mouth breathing


Summary: Abnormal breathing through the mouth, usually associated with obstructive disorders of the nasal passages.

Top Publications

  1. Souki B, Pimenta G, Souki M, Franco L, Becker H, Pinto J. Prevalence of malocclusion among mouth breathing children: do expectations meet reality?. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73:767-73 pubmed publisher on the prevalence of malocclusion among a group of children, consecutively admitted at a referral mouth breathing otorhinolaryngological (ENT) center...
  2. Ikenaga N, Yamaguchi K, Daimon S. Effect of mouth breathing on masticatory muscle activity during chewing food. J Oral Rehabil. 2013;40:429-35 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of mouth breathing on masticatory muscle activity during chewing food...
  3. Aznar T, Galán A, Marin I, Dominguez A. Dental arch diameters and relationships to oral habits. Angle Orthod. 2006;76:441-5 pubmed
    ..a questionnaire about oral habits, including the use of a dummy or a bottle (or both), finger sucking, mouth breathing, breast- or bottle-feeding, and duration of these habits...
  4. Kharbanda O, Sidhu S, Sundaram K, Shukla D. Oral habits in school going children of Delhi: a prevalence study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2003;21:120-4 pubmed
    ..5%. Tongue thrust was the commonest habit (18.1%) followed by mouth breathing (6.6%). Thumb sucking was relatively less common habit and seen in only 0.7% of children...
  5. Bakor S, Pereira J, Frascino S, Ladalardo T, Pignatari S, Weckx L. Demineralization of teeth in mouth-breathing patients undergoing maxillary expansion. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;76:709-12 pubmed
    b>Mouth breathing may cause deformities on the dental arch and be a risk factor for caries and periodontal disease; fixed orthodontic appliances compound the problem.
  6. Hsu H, Yamaguchi K. Decreased chewing activity during mouth breathing. J Oral Rehabil. 2012;39:559-67 pubmed publisher
    This study examined the effect of mouth breathing on the strength and duration of vertical effect on the posterior teeth using related functional parameters during 3 min of gum chewing in 39 nasal breathers...
  7. Malhotra S, Pandey R, Nagar A, Agarwal S, Gupta V. The effect of mouth breathing on dentofacial morphology of growing child. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2012;30:27-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The oral mode of respiration cause postural adaptations of structures in the head and neck region producing the effect on the positional relationship of the jaws...
  8. Bachour A, Maasilta P. Mouth breathing compromises adherence to nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Chest. 2004;126:1248-54 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that patients who breathe mainly through their mouths during sleep, compared to those who breathe mainly through their noses, would have more mouth leak during CPAP and therefore lower adherence to CPAP...
  9. Lessa F, Enoki C, Feres M, Valera F, Lima W, Matsumoto M. Breathing mode influence in craniofacial development. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2005;71:156-60 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in facial proportions of nose and mouth breathing children using cephalometric analysis.

More Information


  1. Weiler R, Fisberg M, Barroso A, Nicolau J, Simi R, Siqueira W. A study of the influence of mouth-breathing in some parameters of unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva of adolescents. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;70:799-805 pubmed
  2. Dutra E, Maruo H, Vianna Lara M. Electromyographic activity evaluation and comparison of the orbicularis oris (lower fascicle) and mentalis muscles in predominantly nose- or mouth-breathing subjects. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006;129:722.e1-9 pubmed
  3. Lee S, Choi J, Shin C, Lee H, Kwon S, Lee S. How does open-mouth breathing influence upper airway anatomy?. Laryngoscope. 2007;117:1102-6 pubmed
    Open-mouth breathing during sleep may increase the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and complicate nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in patients with OSA...
  4. Motta L, Bachiega J, Guedes C, Laranja L, Bussadori S. Association between halitosis and mouth breathing in children. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2011;66:939-42 pubmed
    To determine whether there is a correlation between halitosis and mouth breathing in children.
  5. Juliano M, Machado M, Carvalho L, Prado L, do Prado G. Mouth breathing children have cephalometric patterns similar to those of adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2009;67:860-5 pubmed
    To determine whether mouth breathing children present the same cephalometric patterns as patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS).
  6. Engelke W, Jung K, Knösel M. Intra-oral compartment pressures: a biofunctional model and experimental measurements under different conditions of posture. Clin Oral Investig. 2011;15:165-76 pubmed publisher
  7. Faria P, de Oliveira Ruellas A, Matsumoto M, Anselmo Lima W, Pereira F. Dentofacial morphology of mouth breathing children. Braz Dent J. 2002;13:129-32 pubmed relation to the cranial base in the mouth breathers; 2) the SNGoGn and NSGn angles were greater in the mouth breathing group; 3) incisor inclination in both jaws and the interincisal angle were not different between groups...
  8. Yi L, Jardim J, Inoue D, Pignatari S. The relationship between excursion of the diaphragm and curvatures of the spinal column in mouth breathing children. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2008;84:171-7 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the relationship between excursion of the diaphragm muscle and spinal curvatures in mouth breathing children.
  9. Harari D, Redlich M, Miri S, Hamud T, Gross M. The effect of mouth breathing versus nasal breathing on dentofacial and craniofacial development in orthodontic patients. Laryngoscope. 2010;120:2089-93 pubmed publisher
    To determine the effect of mouth breathing during childhood on craniofacial and dentofacial development compared to nasal breathing in malocclusion patients treated in the orthodontic clinic.
  10. Peltomaki T. The effect of mode of breathing on craniofacial growth--revisited. Eur J Orthod. 2007;29:426-9 pubmed
    It has been maintained that because of large adenoids, nasal breathing is obstructed leading to mouth breathing and an 'adenoid face', characterized by an incompetent lip seal, a narrow upper dental arch, increased anterior face height, ..
  11. Niaki S, Shafaroodi H, Ghasemi M, Shakiba B, Fakhimi A, Dehpour A. Mouth breathing increases the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice: a role for ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Epilepsy Behav. 2008;13:284-9 pubmed publisher
    Nasal obstruction and consequent mouth breathing have been shown to change the acid-base balance, producing respiratory acidosis...
  12. Nascimento Filho E, Mayer M, Pontes P, Pignatari A, Weckx L. Caries prevalence, levels of mutans streptococci, and gingival and plaque indices in 3.0- to 5.0-year-old mouth breathing children. Caries Res. 2004;38:572-5 pubmed
  13. Ferla A, Silva A, Corrêa E. Electrical activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles in mouth and nasal breathing children. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;74:588-95 pubmed
    b>Mouth breathing has been associated with severe impact on the development of the stomatognathic system.
  14. Felcar J, Bueno I, Massan A, Torezan R, Cardoso J. [Prevalence of mouth breathing in children from an elementary school]. Cien Saude Colet. 2010;15:437-44 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this article is to identify the prevalence of mouth breathing in children from an elementary school...
  15. Kanehira T, Takehara J, Takahashi D, Honda O, Morita M. Prevalence of oral malodor and the relationship with habitual mouth breathing in children. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2004;28:285-8 pubmed
    The prevalence of oral malodor and association of habitual mouth breathing with oral malodor were investigated in children residing in rural areas. One hundred and nineteen children participated in this study...
  16. Hebling S, Cortellazzi K, Tagliaferro E, Hebling E, Ambrosano G, Meneghim M, et al. Relationship between malocclusion and behavioral, demographic and socioeconomic variables: a cross-sectional study of 5-year-olds. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2008;33:75-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between malocclusions, such as open bite and crossbite, and behavioral, demographic and socioeconomic variables in a sample of 5-year-old children attending preschools...
  17. Fujimoto S, Yamaguchi K, Gunjigake K. Clinical estimation of mouth breathing. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009;136:630.e1-7; discussion 630-1 pubmed publisher
    Breathing mode was objectively determined by monitoring airflow through the mouth, measuring nasal resistance and lip-seal function, and collecting information via questionnaire on the patient's etiology and symptoms of mouth breathing.
  18. Ruhle K, Nilius G. Mouth breathing in obstructive sleep apnea prior to and during nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Respiration. 2008;76:40-5 pubmed
    ..It is believed that this is due to mouth breathing (MB)...
  19. Chaves T, de Andrade e Silva T, Monteiro S, Watanabe P, Oliveira A, Grossi D. Craniocervical posture and hyoid bone position in children with mild and moderate asthma and mouth breathing. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;74:1021-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of the present study was to assess the craniocervical posture and the positioning of the hyoid bone in children with asthma who are mouth breathers compared to non-asthma controls...
  20. Izu S, Itamoto C, Pradella Hallinan M, Pizarro G, Tufik S, Pignatari S, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in mouth breathing children. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;76:552-6 pubmed
    It is well known that mouth breathing is associated with adenotonsillar hypertrophy - which is the main cause of obstructive sleep apnea among children...
  21. Lourenço E, Lopes K, Pontes A, Oliveira M, Umemura A, Vargas A. Comparison between radiological and nasopharyngolaryngoscopic assessment of adenoid tissue volume in mouth breathing children. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2005;71:23-7 pubmed
    ..The study came to the conclusion that nasopharyngolaryngoscopy is a much more accurate diagnostic procedure than radiological evaluation of the nasopharynx...
  22. Abreu R, Rocha R, Lamounier J, Guerra A. Prevalence of mouth breathing among children. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2008;84:467-70 pubmed publisher
    To determine the prevalence of mouth breathing among children aged 3 to 9 years living in the urban districts of the town of Abaeté, MG, Brazil...
  23. Corrêa E, Berzin F. Efficacy of physical therapy on cervical muscle activity and on body posture in school-age mouth breathing children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;71:1527-35 pubmed
    The mouth breathing resulting from nasal obstruction has been highly incident, mostly as a consequence of allergic rhinitis...
  24. Camoin A, Tardieu C, Blanchet I, Orthlieb J. [Sleep bruxism in children]. Arch Pediatr. 2017;24:659-666 pubmed publisher multifactorial: mainly central (neuropathic disorder, anxiety) but also genetic and local (posture, mouth breathing)...
  25. Lopatiene K, Babarskas A. [Malocclusion and upper airway obstruction]. Medicina (Kaunas). 2002;38:277-83 pubmed
    ..characteristics of the respiratory obstruction syndrome are presence of hypertrophied tonsils or adenoids, mouth breathing, open-bite, cross-bite, excessive anterior face height, incompetent lip posture, excessive appearance of ..
  26. Łapienis M. [Sleep-disordered breathing in children--the analysis of some diagnostic methods]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2005;59:149-51 pubmed
  27. Jakobsone G, Urtane I, Terauds I. Soft tissue profile of children with impaired nasal breathing. Stomatologija. 2006;8:39-43 pubmed
    ..Soft tissue profile of the children with impaired nasal breathing in general is not different from the soft tissue profile of other orthodontic patients and mostly is dependent on the craniocervical posture and age. ..
  28. Koga Ito C, Unterkircher C, Watanabe H, Martins C, Vidotto V, Jorge A. Caries risk tests and salivary levels of immunoglobulins to Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans in mouthbreathing syndrome patients. Caries Res. 2003;37:38-43 pubmed
    ..No differences were observed for anti-S. mutans and anti-Candida IgA levels among the groups. The findings suggest that mouthbreathing cannot be considered a risk factor for dental caries. ..
  29. Giuca M, Caputo E, Nastasio S, Nastassio S, Pasini M, Passini M. Correlation between otitis media and dental malocclusion in children. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2011;12:241-4 pubmed
    ..Posterior cross-bite and adenoids-tonsils enlargement are factors significantly associated with otitis media in children. ..
  30. Ovsenik M. Incorrect orofacial functions until 5 years of age and their association with posterior crossbite. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009;136:375-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Bottle feeding decreased during the observation years, but atypical swallowing, thumb sucking, and mouth breathing persisted...
  31. Padzys G, Tankosic C, Trabalon M, Martrette J. Craniofacial development and physiological state after early oral breathing in rats. Eur J Oral Sci. 2012;120:21-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a 3-d nasal obstruction period in young rats leads to long-term hormonal changes and to craniofacial structural adaptation. ..
  32. Pereira S, Bakor S, Weckx L. Adenotonsillectomy in facial growing patients: spontaneous dental effects. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2011;77:600-4 pubmed
    ..Prospective clinical study to compare the cephalometric measurements before and after adenotonsillectomy in mouth breathing patients...
  33. Jiang Y, Liang Y, Kacmarek R. The principle of upper airway unidirectional flow facilitates breathing in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;105:854-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest this may be the reason that such a breathing pattern is preferred during respiratory distress. ..
  34. Frapier L, Jaussent A, Yachouh J, Goudot P, Dauvilliers Y, Picot M. Impact of genioplasty on mandibular growth during puberty. Int Orthod. 2010;8:342-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Early genioplasty permits redirection of mandibular growth conducive to orthopedic correction of high angle Class II. ..
  35. Urbina M, Glover C. Should I stay or should I go?: Physiological, metabolic and biochemical consequences of voluntary emersion upon aquatic hypoxia in the scaleless fish Galaxias maculatus. J Comp Physiol B. 2012;182:1057-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these findings add to previous studies suggesting that inanga are relatively poorly adapted to survive aquatic hypoxia. ..
  36. Raskin S, Limme M. [Vertical dimension in the OSAHS in adults: an example of functional alteration]. Orthod Fr. 2003;74:411-29 pubmed
    ..Their facial characteristics, especially vertical dimension, are consistent with those displayed by mouth breathing children...
  37. Majorana A, Bardellini E, Amadori F, Conti G, Polimeni A. Timetable for oral prevention in childhood--developing dentition and oral habits: a current opinion. Prog Orthod. 2015;16:39 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper focuses on the most common oral habits influencing dentofacial growth in childhood and management of these habits in the developing dentition. ..
  38. Bayardo R, Mejia J, Orozco S, Montoya K. Etiology of oral habits. ASDC J Dent Child. 1996;63:350-3 pubmed
    ..Oral habits should be considered a major health hazard because of their high incidence. Successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach to the basic cause of the problem. ..
  39. da Silva Dalben G, Teixeira Das Neves L, Ribeiro Gomide M. Oral health status of children with treacher Collins syndrome. Spec Care Dentist. 2006;26:71-5; quiz 85-7 pubmed
    ..There was no association between the gingival index and presence of mouth breathing. There was predominance of the D component in both the dmft and DMFT indexes; this was associated with a need ..
  40. Saccomanno S, Antonini G, D Alatri L, d Angelantonio M, Fiorita A, Deli R. Patients treated with orthodontic-myofunctional therapeutic protocol. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2012;13:241-3 pubmed
    ..Orthodontic treatment alone, in presence of bad habits, is not enough to solve the orthodontic issues, so it needs to be combined with myofunctional treatment. ..
  41. Das U, Beena J. Effectiveness of circumoral muscle exercises in the developing dentofacial morphology in adenotonsillectomized children: an ultrasonographic evaluation. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2009;27:94-103 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of mouth breathing on the facial morphology is probably greatest during the growth period...
  42. Limme M. [Non-obstructive etiology of mouth breathing]. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg. 1993;47:141-4 pubmed
  43. Haytac M, Oz I. Atypical streptococcal infection of gingiva associated with chronic mouth breathing. Quintessence Int. 2007;38:E577-82 pubmed
    ..tests, the final diagnosis was an atypical streptococcal gingivitis with chronic adenoid-related mouth breathing and oral hygiene neglect as contributing factors...
  44. Cattoni D, Fernandes F, Di Francesco R, Latorre M. [Characteristics of the stomatognathic system of mouth breathing children: anthroposcopic approach]. Pro Fono. 2007;19:347-51 pubmed
    the use of anthroposcopy in the assessment of posture and morphology of the stomatognathic system of mouth breathing children...
  45. Urschitz M, Guenther A, Eitner S, Urschitz Duprat P, Schlaud M, Ipsiroglu O, et al. Risk factors and natural history of habitual snoring. Chest. 2004;126:790-800 pubmed
    ..5; 95% CI, 1.8 to 7.1), low maternal education (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.7), regular daytime mouth breathing (OR, 7.4; 95% CI, 3.5 to 15.6), and a higher frequency of sore throats (OR, 17.6; 95% CI, 6.4 to 48...
  46. Bahadir O, Caylan R, Bektas D, Bahadir A. Effects of adenoidectomy in children with symptoms of adenoidal hypertrophy. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;263:156-9 pubmed
    ..Nasal obstruction, mouth breathing, snoring, hearing loss and nasal discharge were present preoperatively in 55 (91...
  47. Dörschug H. [Tongue, teeth, sweet tea. Orthodontic preventative car]. Kinderkrankenschwester. 2004;23:195-9 pubmed
  48. Wu L, Chang R, Mu Y, Deng X, Wu F, Zhang S, et al. Association between obesity and dental caries in Chinese children. Caries Res. 2013;47:171-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The logistic regression model showed no correlation between dental caries and obesity. Drinking yogurt and chewing gum are protective factors, whereas oral breathing and genetic predisposition to caries are risk factors. ..
  49. Yokota R, Mishiro M, Abe T, Miyake A, Shiina N, Sueishi K, et al. Pressure on anterior region of palate during thumb-sucking. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll. 2007;48:57-66 pubmed
    ..Measurement of thumb-sucking pressure is believed to be effective for assessment of the qualitative relationship between thumb-sucking and malocclusion. ..
  50. McNicholas W. The nose and OSA: variable nasal obstruction may be more important in pathophysiology than fixed obstruction. Eur Respir J. 2008;32:3-8 pubmed publisher
  51. McDonald J. The role of the dental surgeon in an integrated care pathway for the treatment of breathing difficulties. Br Dent J. 2005;198:449 pubmed
  52. Wang M, Li H, Wang Q, Xu H, He J. [Relationship between abnormal swallowing and mouth breathing]. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2013;48:750-1 pubmed
    To investigate the relationship between abnormal swallowing and mouth breathing.
  53. Sayinsu K, Isik F. Combined orthodontic and surgical treatment of severe mandibular laterognathie with bimaxillary protrusion: case report. World J Orthod. 2007;8:65-71 pubmed
    ..a patient with a severe dolichofacial pattern with a convex profile, severe lip incompetency, and concomitant mouth breathing. Her maxillary occlusal plane had a cant and the maxillary and mandibular midlines were shifted 2 and 4 mm to ..
  54. Faulks D, Veyrune J, Hennequin M. Consequences of oral rehabilitation on dyskinesia in adults with Down's syndrome: a clinical report. J Oral Rehabil. 2002;29:209-18 pubmed
    ..A multidisciplinary approach may be necessary to diagnose and treat these patients...
  55. Vuono I, Zanoteli E, de Oliveira A, Fujita R, Pignatari S, Pizarro G, et al. Histological analysis of palatopharyngeal muscle from children with snoring and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;71:283-90 pubmed
  56. Martinot Randoux G. [Rehabilitation of the mouth-breathing child]. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg. 1993;47:273-5 pubmed
    ..Myotherapy requires neuromuscular rehabilitation and is also a treatment for a more expressive speech. Rehabilitation procedures are listed...
  57. Iwatani K, Matsuo K, Kawase S, Wakimoto N, Taguchi A, Ogasawara T. Effects of open mouth and rubber dam on upper airway patency and breathing. Clin Oral Investig. 2013;17:1295-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the condition of a rubber dam over an open mouth may also obstruct the route for respiration. We tested whether an open mouth with or without a rubber dam would affect upper airway patency and breathing pattern...
  58. Stefănescu I, Zetu I, Rusu M. [News on prevalence of vicious habits in children]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2011;115:1258-61 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral habits among children according to sex and location...
  59. Hollandt J, Klaiber S, Gabler R, Siegert R. [Sleep apnea. Effect of nose breathing]. HNO. 2002;50:765-70; quiz 771, 773 pubmed
  60. Yang K, Zeng X, Yu M. A study on the difference of craniofacial morphology between oral and nasal breathing children. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2002;37:385-7 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to compare the difference of craniofacial morphology between oral and nasal breathing children, and discover the relationship between respiratory mode and craniofacial morphology...
  61. Landouzy J, Sergent Delattre A, Fenart R, Delattre B, Claire J, Biecq M. The tongue: deglutition, orofacial functions and craniofacial growth. Int Orthod. 2009;7:227-56 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to render this article more lively and accessible, we have chosen to let the tongue speak in the first person--which, after all, is only normal!..
  62. Farid M, Metwalli N. Computed tomographic evaluation of mouth breathers among paediatric patients. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2010;39:1-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Mouth breathing causes many serious problems in the paediatric population. It has been maintained that enlarged adenoids are principally responsible for mouth breathing...
  63. Corrêa E, Berzin F. Mouth Breathing Syndrome: cervical muscles recruitment during nasal inspiration before and after respiratory and postural exercises on Swiss Ball. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;72:1335-43 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to evaluate the recruitment of cervical muscles during nasal inspiration before and after breathing and postural exercises on the Swiss Ball in children with Mouth Breathing Syndrome (MBS).
  64. Martin M. [Tweed-Merrifield technique and vertical dimension in hyperdivergent Class II]. Orthod Fr. 2005;76:13-25 pubmed
    ..Because of its consistent capability of achieving predictable resolution of the most varied and complex orthodontic disorders, the author has chosen this technique for routine use in his daily orthodontic practice...
  65. Vitale M, Barbieri F, Ricotta R, Arpesella M, Emanuelli M. [Epidemiological study of dental and facial asymmetries in a sample of preschool subjects]. Epidemiol Prev. 2015;39:45-51 pubmed
  66. Stavert D, Archuleta D, Behr M, Lehnert B. Relative acute toxicities of hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen bromide in nose- and pseudo-mouth-breathing rats. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1991;16:636-55 pubmed experimental information is currently available about their injurious effects when they are inhaled during mouth breathing. In this study, we simulated mouth breathing by using a pseudo-mouth-breathing (MB) rat model in order to: (1)..
  67. Seo W, Cho E, Thomas R, An S, Ryu J, Kim H, et al. The association between periodontitis and obstructive sleep apnea: a preliminary study. J Periodontal Res. 2013;48:500-6 pubmed publisher
    ..apnea (OSA) is a common disorder that is characterized by repeated disruptions in breathing during sleep, and mouth breathing is a common characteristic among patients with OSA...
  68. Vieira B, Sanguino A, Mattar S, Itikawa C, Anselmo Lima W, Valera F, et al. Influence of adenotonsillectomy on hard palate dimensions. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;76:1140-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate hard palate width and height in mouth-breathing children pre- and post-adenotonsillectomy...
  69. Park J, Tai K, Iida S. Unilateral delayed eruption of a mandibular permanent canine and the maxillary first and second molars, and agenesis of the maxillary third molar. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2013;143:134-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In patients with delayed tooth eruption, careful and accurate diagnosis and treatment planning will allow the orthodontist to start treatment at the proper stage and might reduce the overall orthodontic treatment time...
  70. Tsuda H, Fastlicht S, Almeida F, Lowe A. The correlation between craniofacial morphology and sleep-disordered breathing in children in an undergraduate orthodontic clinic. Sleep Breath. 2011;15:163-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to assess children in an orthodontic teaching clinic to determine the relationship between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) symptoms and craniofacial morphology...
  71. Norlander T, Lindén M. Powered-assisted partial turbinectomy versus mometasone furoate nasal spray for relief of nasal blockage in chronic or idiopathic rhinosinusitis. Acta Otolaryngol. 2011;131:1286-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Power-assisted turbinectomy is a safe and reliable alternative for patients with nasal blockage if nasal corticosteroid spray therapy is not suitable...
  72. Esteller More E, Pons Calabuig N, Romero Vilariño E, Puigdollers Pérez A, Segarra Isern F, Matiñó Soler E, et al. [Dentofacial development abnormalities in paediatric sleep-related breathing disorders]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2011;62:132-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The recent interest in sleep-related breathing disorders has re-opened the old debate as to whether there is a causal relationship between upper respiratory obstruction and abnormalities in dentofacial development...
  73. Fregonezi G, Resqueti V, Güell Rous R. [Pursed lips breathing]. Arch Bronconeumol. 2004;40:279-82 pubmed
  74. Bennett W, Zeman K. Effect of race on fine particle deposition for oral and nasal breathing. Inhal Toxicol. 2005;17:641-8 pubmed
    ..DF for both nasal and mouth breathing was measured separately by laser photometry at the same tidal volume and breathing rate for resting and light ..
  75. Gartner Schmidt J, Rosen C, Radhakrishnan N, Ferguson B. Odor provocation test for laryngeal hypersensitivity. J Voice. 2008;22:333-8 pubmed
  76. Iida M, Nakagaki H, Kato K, Chu S, Kojima S, Igo J, et al. Fluoride release from a light-cured bonding material in openbite orthodontic patients. ASDC J Dent Child. 1998;65:330-4, 355 pubmed
    ..01; contribution, 49.63 percent after 3 days). In conclusion, the fluoride released from the bonding materials on the tooth surfaces was retained more in openbite than in non-openbite patients, suggesting their lower flow rate of saliva...
  77. Padzys G, Martrette J, Tankosic C, Thornton S, Trabalon M. Effects of short term forced oral breathing: physiological changes and structural adaptation of diaphragm and orofacial muscles in rats. Arch Oral Biol. 2011;56:1646-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied adaptation of diaphragm and orofacial muscles as well as hormonal responses to forced oral breathing (lasting for only 4 days) following reversible bilateral nasal obstruction performed on day 8 post-natal male rats...
  78. Defabjanis P. Impact of nasal airway obstruction on dentofacial development and sleep disturbances in children: preliminary notes. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2003;27:95-100 pubmed
    ..Pediatric dentists must be aware of the problems connected with mouth breathing and OSAS (obstructive sleep apnea syndrome) in children as any delay in diagnosis and treatment may cause ..
  79. Sforza C, Colombo A, Turci M, Grassi G, Ferrario V. Induced oral breathing and craniocervical postural relations: an experimental study in healthy young adults. Cranio. 2004;22:21-6 pubmed
    ..0083). In conclusion, induced oral respiration may have a significant role in the alteration of head and craniocervical posture, but the effect was highly variable...
  80. Urzal V, Braga A, Ferreira A. The prevalence of anterior open bite in Portuguese children during deciduous and mixed dentition--correlations for a prevention strategy. Int Orthod. 2013;11:93-103 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of AOB in Portuguese children during deciduous and mixed dentition in order to assess the need for orthodontic treatment and to determine its relation to other associated features...
  81. Bensch L. [Early recognition of orthodontic problems by the general dentist during oral examination: signs which should attract attention]. Rev Belge Med Dent (1984). 2004;59:170-8 pubmed
    ..Anterior/posterior relation, cross-bites, deep and open bite, habits and crowding shall be briefly discussed. Heaving knowledge of these, the GP can decide referring the patient to the orthodontist for further orthodontic evaluation...
  82. Chaves T, Grossi D, de Oliveira A, Bertolli F, Holtz A, Costa D. Correlation between signs of temporomandibular (TMD) and cervical spine (CSD) disorders in asthmatic children. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2005;29:287-92 pubmed
    Neck accessory respiratory muscles and mouth breathing suggest a direct relationship among asthma, Temporomandibular (TMD) and Cervical Spine (CSD) Disorders...
  83. Fiorotti R, Bertolini M, Nicola J, Nicola E. Early lingual frenectomy assisted by CO2 laser helps prevention and treatment of functional alterations caused by ankyloglossia. Int J Orofacial Myology. 2004;30:64-71 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrated that this technique is safe, effective and perfect for use in young children and can be performed in an outpatient unit...