cheyne stokes respiration


Summary: An abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by alternating periods of apnea and deep, rapid breathing. The cycle begins with slow, shallow breaths that gradually increase in depth and rate and is then followed by a period of apnea. The period of apnea can last 5 to 30 seconds, then the cycle repeats every 45 seconds to 3 minutes.

Top Publications

  1. Szollosi I, Roebuck T, Thompson B, Naughton M. Lateral sleeping position reduces severity of central sleep apnea / Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Sleep. 2006;29:1045-51 pubmed
    ..However, in central sleep apnea with Cheyne Stokes respiration (CSA-CSR) in which respiratory-control instability plays a major pathophysiologic role, the effect of ..
  2. Lanfranchi P, Braghiroli A, Bosimini E, Mazzuero G, Colombo R, Donner C, et al. Prognostic value of nocturnal Cheyne-Stokes respiration in chronic heart failure. Circulation. 1999;99:1435-40 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether CSR could affect prognosis in patients with CHF...
  3. Teschler H, Döhring J, Wang Y, Berthon Jones M. Adaptive pressure support servo-ventilation: a novel treatment for Cheyne-Stokes respiration in heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;164:614-9 pubmed
    ..All subjects preferred ASV to CPAP. One night ASV suppresses central sleep apnea and/or CSR (CSA/CSR) in heart failure and improves sleep quality better than CPAP or 2 L/min oxygen...
  4. Oksenberg A, Arons E, Snir D, Radwan H, Soroker N. Cheyne-Stokes respiration during sleep: a possible effect of body position. Med Sci Monit. 2002;8:CS61-5 pubmed
    ..The body position effect during sleep on obstructive breathing abnormalities is well known. However, the effect of body position during sleep on breathing abnormalities of central type like CSR has not been well documented...
  5. Andreas S, Bingeli C, Mohacsi P, Luscher T, Noll G. Nasal oxygen and muscle sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure. Chest. 2003;123:366-71 pubmed
    ..However, 100% O(2) may decrease cardiac output, thereby offsetting the effects on the chemoreflexes...
  6. Leung R, Floras J, Lorenzi Filho G, Rankin F, Picton P, Bradley T. Influence of Cheyne-Stokes respiration on cardiovascular oscillations in heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;167:1534-9 pubmed
    ..Cheyne-Stokes respiration is therefore one of the mechanisms that contributes to the very low-frequency oscillations in heart rate and blood pressure observed in patients with heart failure...
  7. Sinha A, Skobel E, Breithardt O, Norra C, Markus K, Breuer C, et al. Cardiac resynchronization therapy improves central sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with chronic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;44:68-71 pubmed
    ..We studied the effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on heart failure (HF) patients with central sleep apnea (CSA)...
  8. Sahlin C, Svanborg E, Stenlund H, Franklin K. Cheyne-Stokes respiration and supine dependency. Eur Respir J. 2005;25:829-33 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, sleep in the supine body position increases the frequency of apnoeas and hypopnoeas in patients with Cheyne-Stokes respiration...
  9. Lorenzi Filho G, Genta P, Figueiredo A, Inoue D. Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure: causes and consequences. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2005;60:333-44 pubmed
    ..Cheyne-Stokes respiration is an independent marker of poor prognosis and may participate in a vicious cycle, further stressing the failing heart...

More Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. Schulz R, Blau A, Borgel J, Duchna H, Fietze I, Koper I, et al. Sleep apnoea in heart failure. Eur Respir J. 2007;29:1201-5 pubmed
    ..This diagnostic approach should probably be adopted for all of these patients irrespective of the presence of sleep-related symptoms...
  2. Arzt M, Floras J, Logan A, Kimoff R, Series F, Morrison D, et al. Suppression of central sleep apnea by continuous positive airway pressure and transplant-free survival in heart failure: a post hoc analysis of the Canadian Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Patients with Central Sleep Apnea and Heart Failure T. Circulation. 2007;115:3173-80 pubmed
    ..This stratified analysis of CANPAP tested the hypothesis that suppression of CSA below this threshold by CPAP would improve left ventricular ejection fraction and heart transplant-free survival...
  3. Steens R, Millar T, Su X, Biberdorf D, Buckle P, Ahmed M, et al. Effect of inhaled 3% CO2 on Cheyne-Stokes respiration in congestive heart failure. Sleep. 1994;17:61-8 pubmed
    ..03 virtually eradicates CSR in all-night polysomnographically monitored studies in patients with severe stable CHF. The clinical significance of these findings remains to be determined...
  4. Javaheri S. Central sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in heart failure: prevalence, impact, and treatment. Sleep. 1996;19:S229-31 pubmed
    ..Large-scale studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these treatment options on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality of patients with heart failure...
  5. Mortara A, Sleight P, Pinna G, Maestri R, Capomolla S, Febo O, et al. Association between hemodynamic impairment and Cheyne-Stokes respiration and periodic breathing in chronic stable congestive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol. 1999;84:900-4 pubmed
    ..001). In conclusion, abnormalities of breathing activity during daytime are significantly associated with a prolonged circulation time and a more severe impairment of systolic and diastolic LV indexes...
  6. Francis D, Willson K, Davies L, Coats A, Piepoli M. Quantitative general theory for periodic breathing in chronic heart failure and its clinical implications. Circulation. 2000;102:2214-21 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we introduce a new approach to the quantitative analysis of the dynamic physiology governing cardiorespiratory stability in CHF...
  7. Fleetham J, Ayas N, Bradley D, Ferguson K, Fitzpatrick M, George C, et al. Canadian Thoracic Society guidelines: diagnosis and treatment of sleep disordered breathing in adults. Can Respir J. 2006;13:387-92 pubmed
  8. Pływaczewski R, Czerniawska J, Bieleń P, Bednarek M, Gorecka D, Sliwiński P. [Central sleep apnoea (CSA) in male with heart failure]. Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2006;74:426-30 pubmed
    ..We did not find any obstructive episodes during sleep study. Patient responded to CPAP therapy and apnoea hypopnoe index decreased to 12/hour on 8 mbar pressure. ..
  9. Oku Y, Okada M. Periodic breathing and dysphagia associated with a localized lateral medullary infarction. Respirology. 2008;13:608-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Polysomnography or overnight SaO(2) monitoring should be considered for patients with dysphagia due to a brainstem lesion, to investigate the possible presence of abnormal breathing. ..
  10. Manconi M, Vitale G, Ferri R, Zucconi M, Ferini Strambi L. Periodic leg movements in Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Eur Respir J. 2008;32:1656-62 pubmed publisher
  11. Tung P, Levitzky Y, Wang R, Weng J, Quan S, Gottlieb D, et al. Obstructive and Central Sleep Apnea and the Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation in a Community Cohort of Men and Women. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..CSA was defined by a central apnea index ≥5 or the presence of Cheyne Stokes Respiration. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between sleep disordered breathing and incident ..
  12. Sakurai S. [Physiopathology and complications of sleep apnea syndrome. Cheyne-Stokes respiration syndrome]. Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. 2004;93:1109-13 pubmed
  13. Köhnlein T, Welte T. Treatment strategies for Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Eur Respir J. 2006;27:238 pubmed
  14. Zhang X, Yin K, Li X, Jia E, Su M. Efficacy of adaptive servoventilation in patients with congestive heart failure and Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Chin Med J (Engl). 2006;119:622-7 pubmed
    ..01). ASV treatment is of better efficacy and greater clinical significance in improvement of CHF by eliminating CSR than oxygen therapy. ..
  15. Franklin K. Sleep apnoea screening in heart failure? Not until benefit is proven!. Eur Respir J. 2007;29:1073-4 pubmed
  16. Suhas S, Behbehani K, Vijendra S, Burk J, Lucas E. ECG biomarkers for simultaneous detection of obstructive sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes breathing. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2007;2007:1047-50 pubmed
    ..75%, 100% and 83.3% for Normal, OSA and CSR epochs respectively in case of training set (66 clips). Detection rates of 75%, 85.71% and 70.5% for Normal, OSA and CSR epochs respectively were obtained in case of test set (39 clips). ..
  17. Carmona Bernal C, Ruiz García A, Villa Gil M, Sanchez Armengol A, Quintana Gallego E, Ortega Ruiz F, et al. Quality of life in patients with congestive heart failure and central sleep apnea. Sleep Med. 2008;9:646-51 pubmed publisher
    ..QOL was established using the MLHFQ (Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire), and the FOSQ (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire)...
  18. AlDabal L, Bahammam A. Cheyne-stokes respiration in patients with heart failure. Lung. 2010;188:5-14 pubmed publisher
  19. Celen Y, Peker Y. Cardiovascular consequences of sleep apnea: I -epidemiology. Anadolu Kardiyol Derg. 2010;10:75-80 pubmed
    ..In the current article, the clinic-and population-based epidemiologic data will be reviewed in this context. ..
  20. Thalhofer S, Dorow P, Schuler S, Hetzer R. [Oxygen saturation and sleep structure in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy]. Pneumologie. 1991;45 Suppl 1:259-60 pubmed
    ..These disturbances became manifest partially as Cheyne-Stokes breathing, partially as central sleep apnea. During these periods, oxygen saturation dropped as far as to 65 per cent of the original level. ..
  21. Rubin A, Gottlieb S, Gold A, Schwartz A, Smith P. Elimination of central sleep apnoea by mitral valvuloplasty: the role of feedback delay in periodic breathing. Thorax. 2004;59:174-6 pubmed
    ..This case demonstrates the role of feedback delay in central sleep apnoea and suggests that similar haemodynamic mechanisms may lead to central sleep apnoea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration. ..
  22. Brack T. Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with heart failure: ominous sign or innocent bystander?. Swiss Med Wkly. 2007;137:133-8 pubmed
    ..When CSR persists despite optimal drug therapy for heart failure, non-invasive ventilation, particularly as adaptive servoventilation, and cardiac resynchronisation therapy are currently the most promising treatment options. ..
  23. Escourrou P, Meurice J. [Central apnea]. Rev Mal Respir. 2007;24:666-8 pubmed
  24. Bekfani T, Abraham W. Current and future developments in the field of central sleep apnoea. Europace. 2016;18:1123-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Large studies to date have been disappointing, but therapeutic options targeting the physiology of the disease may herald a new era in understanding and treating CSA. ..
  25. Grimm W, Kesper K, Cassel W, Timmesfeld N, Hildebrandt O, Koehler U. Cheyne-stokes respiration during wakefulness in patients with chronic heart failure. Sleep Breath. 2017;21:419-426 pubmed publisher
    ..CSR during wakefulness appears to be a marker of heart failure severity. ..
  26. Pearce J. Cheyne-Stokes respiration. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002;72:595 pubmed
  27. Pepin J, Chouri Pontarollo N, Tamisier R, Levy P. Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central sleep apnoea in chronic heart failure: proposals for a diagnostic and therapeutic strategy. Sleep Med Rev. 2006;10:33-47 pubmed
    ..Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), oxygen, adaptive Servo-ventilation (ASV) and non-invasive ventilation have been proposed. Large randomised trials demonstrating survival and time free from heart transplantation are lacking...
  28. Badr S. Central sleep apnea in patients with congestive heart failure. Heart Fail Rev. 2009;14:135-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This article will review the determinants of central apnea, the specific features of CHF-related central apnea, and outline a management approach. ..
  29. Duchna H, Schultze Werninghaus G. [Cheyne-Stokes respiration and cardiovascular risk]. Pneumologie. 2009;63:399-403 pubmed publisher
    ..This review describes the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and therapeutic options of CSR with a special focus on the elevated cardiovascular risk of patients with CSR. ..
  30. Linz D, Fox H, Bitter T, Spießhöfer J, Schöbel C, Skobel E, et al. Impact of SERVE-HF on management of sleep disordered breathing in heart failure: a call for further studies. Clin Res Cardiol. 2016;105:563-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Its close association with outcomes in chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF) suggests that it may be a potential treatment target. Herein, we provide an update on SDB and its treatment in HF-REF. ..
  31. Toyama T, Hoshizaki H, Kasama S, Miyaishi Y, Kan H, Yamashita E, et al. Adaptive servo-ventilation therapy improves cardiac sympathetic nerve activity, cardiac function, exercise capacity, and symptom in patients with chronic heart failure and Cheyne-Stokes respiration. J Nucl Cardiol. 2017;24:1926-1937 pubmed publisher
    ..4 vs 0.3 ± 0.7), and NYHA class (2.2 ± 0.4 vs 2.7 ± 0.5) after 6-month therapy. Performing ASV for 6 months achieved improvement of CSR-CSA, CSNA, cardiac symptoms/function, and exercise capacity in CHF patients with CSR-CSA. ..
  32. Parker K, Dunbar S. Sleep and heart failure. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2002;17:30-41 pubmed
    ..This article provides an overview of sleep disturbances in patients with HF, suggests evidence-based strategies for managing the sleep problems, and identifies pertinent areas for future nursing inquiry. ..
  33. Christ M, Grimm W, Rostig S, Klima T, Fenske H, Becker H, et al. Association of right ventricular dysfunction and Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with chronic heart failure. J Sleep Res. 2003;12:161-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, CSR is associated with depressed systolic RV function and increased RV dimensions in CHF patients. Future studies will show whether optimized treatment of CSR will improve RV function. ..
  34. Leung R, Bradley T. Respiratory modulation of heart rate and blood pressure during Cheyne-Stokes respiration. J Electrocardiol. 2003;36 Suppl:213-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that ventilatory oscillations during Cheyne-Stokes respiration can modulate HR and BP independent of the effects of hypoxia and arousals from sleep. ..
  35. Kasai T, Narui K, Dohi T, Ishiwata S, Yoshimura K, Nishiyama S, et al. Efficacy of nasal bi-level positive airway pressure in congestive heart failure patients with cheyne-stokes respiration and central sleep apnea. Circ J. 2005;69:913-21 pubmed
    ..Bi-level positive airway pressure (bi-level PAP) may be an effective alternative for treating CSR-CSA and CHF...
  36. Dong F, Langford W. Models of Cheyne-Stokes respiration with cardiovascular pathologies. J Math Biol. 2008;57:497-519 pubmed publisher
    ..In all cases, the model is consistent with medical observations. ..
  37. Pepperell J, Maskell N, Jones D, Langford Wiley B, Crosthwaite N, Stradling J, et al. A randomized controlled trial of adaptive ventilation for Cheyne-Stokes breathing in heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;168:1109-14 pubmed
    ..This study suggests improvements in neurohormonal activation with this treatment. ..
  38. Morgenthaler T, Gay P, Gordon N, Brown L. Adaptive servoventilation versus noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for central, mixed, and complex sleep apnea syndromes. Sleep. 2007;30:468-75 pubmed
    ..01). These data confirm that in patients with CSA/CSR, mixed apneas, and CompSAS, both NPPV and ASV are effective in normalizing breathing and sleep parameters, and that ASV does so more effectively than NPPV in these types of patients. ..
  39. Soll B, Yeo K, Davis J, Seto T, Schatz I, Shen E. The effect of posture on Cheyne-Stokes respirations and hemodynamics in patients with heart failure. Sleep. 2009;32:1499-506 pubmed
    ..This decrease occurs on a constant base of hypopneas. The changes in Cheyne-Stokes apneas are not related to changes in lung congestion and left ventricular hemodynamics. ..
  40. Malhotra A, Owens R. What is central sleep apnea?. Respir Care. 2010;55:1168-78 pubmed
    ..A paucity of research exists in this area, emphasizing the opportunities for young investigators who are interested in this field. ..
  41. Heidbreder A, Spießhöfer J, Stypmann J, Boentert M, Young P, Duning T. Microstructural cerebral lesions are associated with the severity of central sleep apnea with Cheyne-Stokes-respiration in heart failure and are modified by PAP-therapy. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2018;247:181-187 pubmed publisher
    ..Microstructural cerebral lesions might contribute to the pathophysiology of CSA-CSR in HF. In these patients PAP-therapy induces neuronal plasticity. ..
  42. Fletcher A, Moor D. The lives and works of John Cheyne (1777-1836) and William Stokes (1804-1878). J Intensive Care Soc. 2017;18:323-325 pubmed publisher
    ..Although primarily known for this condition, both men contributed a lot more to the understanding and practice of medicine than this eponym...
  43. Cherniack N, Longobardo G, Evangelista C. Causes of Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Neurocrit Care. 2005;3:271-9 pubmed
    ..Mathematical models have helped greatly in the understanding of the causes of recurrent apneas. ..
  44. Tolhurst S, Yee B, Corbett J. Paroxysmal Cheyne-Stokes respiration during sleep temporally associated with paroxysmal cardiac bigeminy and reduction in pulse rate. Sleep Med. 2007;8:94-5 pubmed
  45. Krachman S, Nugent T, Crocetti J, D Alonzo G, Chatila W. Effects of oxygen therapy on left ventricular function in patients with Cheyne-Stokes respiration and congestive heart failure. J Clin Sleep Med. 2005;1:271-6 pubmed
    ..Although 1 month of nocturnal oxygen therapy decreases the AHI in patients with CSR and CHF, there is no improvement in left ventricular function. ..
  46. Kasai T, Usui Y, Yoshioka T, Yanagisawa N, Takata Y, Narui K, et al. Effect of flow-triggered adaptive servo-ventilation compared with continuous positive airway pressure in patients with chronic heart failure with coexisting obstructive sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Circ Heart Fail. 2010;3:140-8 pubmed publisher
    ..1+/-4.7% versus +1.9+/-10.9%). These results suggest that patients with coexisting obstructive sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration-central sleep apnea may receive greater benefit from treatment with ASV than with CPAP. ..
  47. Berger P, Skuza E, Brodecky V, Cranage S, Adamson T, Wilkinson M. Unusual respiratory response to oxygen in an infant with repetitive cyanotic episodes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;161:2107-11 pubmed
    ..We conclude that oxygen therapy involves potential risks when employed to treat respiratory disorders involving unstable breathing patterns in the infant...
  48. Ogawa A, Iwase T, Yamamoto T, Nishiyama S, Narui K, Momomura S. Improvement of cheyne-stokes respiration, central sleep apnea and congestive heart failure by noninvasive bilevel positive pressure and medical treatment. Circ J. 2004;68:878-82 pubmed
    ..In patients with CHF, it is important to be aware of sleep-related breathing disorders because treatment will not only improve the hypoxemia, but also the cardiac dysfunction...
  49. Hoch B, Barth H. Cheyne-Stokes respiration as an additional risk factor for pulmonary hypertension in a boy with trisomy 21 and atrioventricular septal defect. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2001;31:261-4 pubmed
    ..However, this may be exacerbated by sleep-related breathing disorders, as illustrated in the following case report...
  50. Staniforth A, Sporton S, Early M, Wedzicha J, Nathan A, Schilling R. Ventricular arrhythmia, Cheyne-Stokes respiration, and death: observations from patients with defibrillators. Heart. 2005;91:1418-22 pubmed
    ..To determine whether ventricular arrhythmia related to nocturnal hypoxaemia during Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) explains the observation that CSR is an independent marker of death in heart failure...
  51. Yasuma F. Cheyne-Stokes respiration in congestive heart failure: continuous positive airway pressure of 5-8 cm H2O for 1 year in five cases. Respiration. 2005;72:198-201 pubmed
  52. Philippe C, Stoïca Herman M, Drouot X, Raffestin B, Escourrou P, Hittinger L, et al. Compliance with and effectiveness of adaptive servoventilation versus continuous positive airway pressure in the treatment of Cheyne-Stokes respiration in heart failure over a six month period. Heart. 2006;92:337-42 pubmed
  53. Hu K, Li Q, Yang J, Chen X, Hu S, Wu X. The role of high-frequency jet ventilation in the treatment of Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with chronic heart failure. Int J Cardiol. 2006;106:224-31 pubmed
    ..Various modes of positive airway pressure have been suggested as treatments. The authors hypothesized that high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) can improve central sleep apnea in patients with chronic heart failure...
  54. Sasayama S, Izumi T, Seino Y, Ueshima K, Asanoi H. Effects of nocturnal oxygen therapy on outcome measures in patients with chronic heart failure and cheyne-stokes respiration. Circ J. 2006;70:1-7 pubmed
    ..However, the effects of oxygen on the cardiac function and QOL of heart failure patients have not been fully elucidated...
  55. Kasai T, Narui K, Dohi T, Takaya H, Yanagisawa N, Dungan G, et al. First experience of using new adaptive servo-ventilation device for Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central sleep apnea among Japanese patients with congestive heart failure: report of 4 clinical cases. Circ J. 2006;70:1148-54 pubmed
    ..This is the first evaluation of its use in the management of CSR-CSA in Japanese CHF patients...
  56. Wellman A, Malhotra A, Jordan A, Stevenson K, Gautam S, White D. Effect of oxygen in obstructive sleep apnea: role of loop gain. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2008;162:144-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that ventilatory instability is an important mechanism causing obstructive sleep apnea in some patients (those with a relatively high LG), since lowering LG with oxygen in these patients significantly reduces AHI...
  57. Levy P, Pepin J, Arnaud C, Tamisier R, Borel J, Dematteis M, et al. Intermittent hypoxia and sleep-disordered breathing: current concepts and perspectives. Eur Respir J. 2008;32:1082-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, chronic intermittent hypoxia appears to have specific genomic effects that differ notably from continuous hypoxia. Further research is required to fully elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms...
  58. Schonhofer B, Barchfeld T, Suchi S, Kerl J, Simon A, Kohler D. [Positive pressure ventilation in Cheyne-Stokes respiration]. Pneumologie. 2002;56:282-7 pubmed
    ..The majority of patients with CSR responded to CPAP and BiPAP S/ST mode. Compared to the other responder groups the best quality was reached with BiPAP T. However the latter was performed only by 29 % of the population...
  59. Spieker E, Motzer S. Sleep-disordered breathing in patients with heart failure: pathophysiology, assessment, and management. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2003;15:487-93 pubmed
    ..To provide clinicians in primary care settings information on the effects of sleep-disordered breathing in patients with heart failure (HF). Assessment and screening tools, as well as management considerations, are presented...
  60. Han F. New approach for new target: adaptive servo-ventilation on Cheyne-Stokes respiration in congestive heart failure. Chin Med J (Engl). 2006;119:619-21 pubmed
  61. Naqvi T, Rafique A. Novel insights on effect of atrioventricular programming of biventricular pacemaker in heart failure--a case series. Cardiovasc Ultrasound. 2006;4:38 pubmed
    ..Echocardiography plays an integral role in the diagnosis of congestive heart failure including measurement of left heart pressure as well as mechanical dyssynchrony...
  62. Badoual T, Hittinger L, d Ortho M. [Sleep apnea syndrome and heart failure]. Presse Med. 2007;36:990-8 pubmed
    ..Sleep respiratory disorders are underdiagnosed and undertreated in patients with stable heart failure. To improve management of sleep apnea, patients with stable heart failure should be screened with small outpatient oximeters...
  63. Padeletti M, Green P, Mooney A, Basner R, Mancini D. Sleep disordered breathing in patients with acutely decompensated heart failure. Sleep Med. 2009;10:353-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study is to systematically characterize sleep disordered breathing (SDB) during acute heart failure (HF) decompensation...
  64. Passino C, Giannoni A, Milli M, Polettii R, Emdin M. [Recent knowledges on chemosensitivity to hypoxia and hypercapnia in cardiovascular disease]. Recenti Prog Med. 2010;101:308-13 pubmed
    ..In the early stages of this syndrome, the chemoreflex acts as a compensatory mechanism. Later on, however, it contributes to sustain the sympathetic activation, with detrimental effects on cardiovascular function and prognosis...
  65. Calverley P. Nasal CPAP in cardiac failure: case not proven. Sleep. 1996;19:S236-9 pubmed
    ..Substantial questions remain to be answered before the role of CPAP in the maintenance treatment of CCF can be considered established...
  66. Fanfulla F, Mortara A, Maestri R, Pinna G, Bruschi C, Cobelli F, et al. The development of hyperventilation in patients with chronic heart failure and Cheyne-Strokes respiration: a possible role of chronic hypoxia. Chest. 1998;114:1083-90 pubmed
    ..To analyze the relationship between daytime respiratory and cardiac function in patients with compensated chronic heart failure (CHF) with and without periodic breathing (PB) or Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR)...
  67. Schulz R, Fegbeutel C, Olschewski H, Rose F, Schäfers H, Seeger W. Reversal of nocturnal periodic breathing in primary pulmonary hypertension after lung transplantation. Chest. 2004;125:344-7 pubmed
    ..This case illustrates the crucial roles of blood gas alterations and hemodynamic impairment in the emergence of PB in PPH, and is in favor of a genuine association between advanced right heart failure and the development of SDB...
  68. Cherniack N. It's not as simple as it seems: continuous positive airway pressure and cheyne-stokes respiration. Respiration. 2005;72:132-3 pubmed
  69. Sasayama S. [Home oxygen therapy (HOT) for patients with heart failure associated with sleep disturbed breathing]. Nihon Rinsho. 2006;64:968-73 pubmed
    ..Therefore, home oxygen therapy(HOT) can be a valuable nonpharmacological option for the treatment of patients with CHF and CSR-CSA...
  70. Pack A, Goldberg L. Routine polysomnography is not indicated in congestive heart failure. Con. J Clin Sleep Med. 2005;1:19-22 pubmed
  71. Guimarães L, Dominguez del Toro E, Chatonnet F, Wrobel L, Pujades C, Monteiro L, et al. Exposure to retinoic acid at the onset of hindbrain segmentation induces episodic breathing in mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:3526-36 pubmed
    ..Thus, early developmental specifications in the rostral hindbrain are required for the development of neurones that stabilize the function of the respiratory rhythm generator, thereby preventing HEB during post-natal maturation...
  72. Gur S, Dursunoglu D, Dursunoglu N, Kilic M. [Acute effects of adaptive servo-ventilation therapy on neurohormones and Cheyne-Stokes respiration in the patients with heart failure]. Anadolu Kardiyol Derg. 2009;9:206-14 pubmed
    b>Cheyne Stokes respiration (CSR) is frequently seen in the patients with heart failure (HF) and it increases mortality...
  73. Hagenah G, Zapf A, Schüttert J. Cheyne-stokes respiration and prognosis in modern-treated congestive heart failure. Lung. 2010;188:309-13 pubmed publisher
    ..08). In conclusion, no significant change of Cheyne-Stokes prevalence can be found in our small group of modern-treated patients with CHF. Cardiac resynchronization therapy was associated with improved patient outcome...
  74. Wedewardt J, Bitter T, Prinz C, Faber L, Horstkotte D, Oldenburg O. Cheyne-Stokes respiration in heart failure: cycle length is dependent on left ventricular ejection fraction. Sleep Med. 2010;11:137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of CSR in patients with varying degrees of impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)...
  75. Becker K, Poon C, Zeidler M, Wang T. An unusual cause of delirium. J Clin Sleep Med. 2010;6:290-1 pubmed
    ..We present a patient with clear manifestations of CSA with frank delirium that improved only after BPAP therapy...
  76. Janssens J, Pautex S, Hilleret H, Michel J. Sleep disordered breathing in the elderly. Aging (Milano). 2000;12:417-29 pubmed
    ..The possibility of SDB should be considered in the elderly in the differential diagnosis of "reversible dementias", increased daytime sleepiness, or unexplained right-sided heart failure...
  77. Julu P, Kerr A, Apartopoulos F, Al Rawas S, Engerstrom I, Engerstrom L, et al. Characterisation of breathing and associated central autonomic dysfunction in the Rett disorder. Arch Dis Child. 2001;85:29-37 pubmed
    ..To investigate breathing rhythm and brain stem autonomic control in patients with Rett disorder...
  78. Littner M, Han S. Cheyne-stokes respiration and congestive heart failure: are oxygen stores the critical factor?. Chest. 2003;123:7-9 pubmed
  79. Egea Santaolalla C, Carmona Bernal C. [Sleep apneas and heart failure: is the relation clear yet?]. Arch Bronconeumol. 2003;39:141-2 pubmed
  80. Nesser H, Breithardt O, Khandheria B. Established and evolving indications for cardiac resynchronisation. Heart. 2004;90 Suppl 6:vi5-9 pubmed
  81. Nopmaneejumruslers C, Kaneko Y, Hajek V, Zivanovic V, Bradley T. Cheyne-Stokes respiration in stroke: relationship to hypocapnia and occult cardiac dysfunction. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;171:1048-52 pubmed
    ..Central sleep apnea (CSA) and Cheyne-Stokes respiration have been reported in association with stroke, but their pathophysiologic correlates have not been well described...
  82. Yasuma F, Murohara T. Should cardiologists treat Cheyne-Stokes respiration and congestive heart failure with oxygen, bi-level/continuous positive airway pressures or drugs alone?. Circ J. 2006;70:802; author reply 803 pubmed
  83. Brack T, Thuer I, Clarenbach C, Senn O, Noll G, Russi E, et al. Daytime Cheyne-Stokes respiration in ambulatory patients with severe congestive heart failure is associated with increased mortality. Chest. 2007;132:1463-71 pubmed
    ..Daytime CSR supposedly poses an even greater risk, but its prevalence and prognostic importance remain elusive. Therefore, we investigated the circadian prevalence of CSR and its influence on survival in patients with heart failure...
  84. Garde A, Giraldo B, Jane R, Diaz I, Herrera S, Benito S, et al. Analysis of respiratory flow signals in chronic heart failure patients with periodic breathing. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2007;2007:307-10 pubmed
    ..And the best result was obtained with non linear technique, with 100% correctly classified patients, using only two parameters, fp and Slope(max)...
  85. Willson G, Grunstein R, Kirjavainen T, Young I, Piper A, Sullivan C, et al. Electroencephalographic arousals during sleep do not alter the pressor response to Cheyne-Stokes respiration in subjects with chronic heart failure. J Sleep Res. 2007;16:421-7 pubmed
    ..44, P = 0.22]. This study showed that EEG-defined arousal does not amplify the pressor response to CSR in CHF...
  86. Oldenburg O, Schmidt A, Lamp B, Bitter T, Muntean B, Langer C, et al. Adaptive servoventilation improves cardiac function in patients with chronic heart failure and Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Eur J Heart Fail. 2008;10:581-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Adaptive servoventilation (ASV) was recently introduced to treat CSR in CHF. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ASV on CSR and CHF parameters...
  87. Ingle L, Isted A, Witte K, Cleland J, Clark A. Impact of different diagnostic criteria on the prevalence and prognostic significance of exertional oscillatory ventilation in patients with chronic heart failure. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2009;16:451-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Two different definitions of EOV have been proposed by Corrá and Leite. We aimed to compare the prevalence of EOV and its prognostic significance in patients with chronic heart failure using the two diagnostic approaches...
  88. Bitter T, Langer C, Vogt J, Lange M, Horstkotte D, Oldenburg O. Sleep-disordered breathing in patients with atrial fibrillation and normal systolic left ventricular function. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2009;106:164-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and type of sleep-disordered breathing in patients with AFib and normal systolic left ventricular function...
  89. Ahmed M, Serrette C, Kryger M, Anthonisen N. Ventilatory instability in patients with congestive heart failure and nocturnal Cheyne-Stokes breathing. Sleep. 1994;17:527-34 pubmed
    ..Results in the patients were compatible with absence of such STP decay, but could also have been due to a reduction in ventilatory drive early in hyperoxia related to prolonged circulation times.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  90. Joubert K, Briggs P, Gerber D, Gottschalk R. The sedative and analgesic effects of detomidine-butorphanol and detomidine alone in donkeys. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 1999;70:112-8 pubmed
    ..Four donkeys developed a Cheyne-Stokes respiratory pattern. The combination of detomidine and butorphanol is an effective combination for sedation and analgesia of donkeys for standing procedures...
  91. Tateishi O, Mochizuki S, Machida K. Oxygen desaturation and heart rate variability due to Cheyne-Stokes respiration in congestive heart failure patients. Biomed Pharmacother. 2002;56 Suppl 2:345s-348s pubmed
    ..We concluded that apnea HRV is a predictor of the number of apnea attacks or oxygen desaturation, but does not reflect the degree of oxygen desaturation in Cheyne-Stokes respiration...
  92. Mansfield D, Solin P, Roebuck T, Bergin P, Kaye D, Naughton M. The effect of successful heart transplant treatment of heart failure on central sleep apnea. Chest. 2003;124:1675-81 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of successful heart transplant on sympathetic nervous system activity and CSA severity in patients with CHF...