central sleep apnea


Summary: A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.

Top Publications

  1. Szollosi I, Jones M, Morrell M, Helfet K, Coats A, Simonds A. Effect of CO2 inhalation on central sleep apnea and arousals from sleep. Respiration. 2004;71:493-8 pubmed
    CO(2) inhalation reduces central sleep apnea (CSA) in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and idiopathic CSA...
  2. Dernaika T, Tawk M, Nazir S, Younis W, Kinasewitz G. The significance and outcome of continuous positive airway pressure-related central sleep apnea during split-night sleep studies. Chest. 2007;132:81-7 pubmed
    To determine whether central sleep apnea (CSA) occurring during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) reflects subclinical congestive heart failure (CHF), and whether these ..
  3. Javaheri S, Shukla R, Zeigler H, Wexler L. Central sleep apnea, right ventricular dysfunction, and low diastolic blood pressure are predictors of mortality in systolic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;49:2028-34 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to determine whether central sleep apnea (CSA) contributes to mortality in patients with heart failure (HF).
  4. Lehman S, Antic N, Thompson C, Catcheside P, Mercer J, McEvoy R. Central sleep apnea on commencement of continuous positive airway pressure in patients with a primary diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2007;3:462-6 pubmed
    b>Central sleep apnea (CSA) may occur in patients with snoring and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea (OSAH) during commencement of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy...
  5. Tourneux P, Léké A, Kongolo G, Cardot V, Dégrugilliers L, Chardon K, et al. Relationship between functional residual capacity and oxygen desaturation during short central apneic events during sleep in "late preterm" infants. Pediatr Res. 2008;64:171-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Sleep stage differences argue for a major role of AS-related mechanisms in the occurrence of these apneas...
  6. Arzt M, Harth M, Luchner A, Muders F, Holmer S, Blumberg F, et al. Enhanced ventilatory response to exercise in patients with chronic heart failure and central sleep apnea. Circulation. 2003;107:1998-2003 pubmed
    In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), central sleep apnea (CSA) and enhanced ventilatory response (VE/VCO2 slope) to exercise are common. Both breathing disorders alone indicate poor prognosis in CHF...
  7. Sasayama S, Izumi T, Matsuzaki M, Matsumori A, Asanoi H, Momomura S, et al. Improvement of quality of life with nocturnal oxygen therapy in heart failure patients with central sleep apnea. Circ J. 2009;73:1255-62 pubmed
    Previously, we reported the benefit of 12 weeks of home oxygen therapy (HOT) in patients with central sleep apnea (CSA) and heart failure (HF)...
  8. Arzt M, Floras J, Logan A, Kimoff R, Series F, Morrison D, et al. Suppression of central sleep apnea by continuous positive airway pressure and transplant-free survival in heart failure: a post hoc analysis of the Canadian Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Patients with Central Sleep Apnea and Heart Failure T. Circulation. 2007;115:3173-80 pubmed
    In the main analysis of the Canadian Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) for Patients with Central Sleep Apnea (CSA) and Heart Failure Trial (CANPAP), CPAP had no effect on heart transplant-free survival; however, CPAP only ..
  9. Sahlin C, Svanborg E, Stenlund H, Franklin K. Cheyne-Stokes respiration and supine dependency. Eur Respir J. 2005;25:829-33 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, sleep in the supine body position increases the frequency of apnoeas and hypopnoeas in patients with Cheyne-Stokes respiration...

More Information


  1. Xie A, Skatrud J, Puleo D, Rahko P, Dempsey J. Apnea-hypopnea threshold for CO2 in patients with congestive heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;165:1245-50 pubmed
    To understand the pathogenesis of central sleep apnea (CSA) in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), we measured the end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PET(CO2)) during spontaneous breathing, the apnea-hypopnea threshold for CO2, ..
  2. Alattar M, Scharf S. Opioid-associated central sleep apnea: a case series. Sleep Breath. 2009;13:201-6 pubmed publisher
    Subjects on methadone maintenance for drug addiction have been reported to have central sleep apnea (CSA). However, there are few reports of disordered breathing in patients receiving opioids for chronic pain.
  3. Shigemitsu M, Nishio K, Kusuyama T, Itoh S, Konno N, Katagiri T. Nocturnal oxygen therapy prevents progress of congestive heart failure with central sleep apnea. Int J Cardiol. 2007;115:354-60 pubmed
    ..Nocturnal oxygen has been shown to abolish apnea. The aim of this study is to examine whether nocturnal oxygen reduces sympathetic nerve activity, and prevents progress of CHF...
  4. Eckert D, Jordan A, Merchia P, Malhotra A. Central sleep apnea: Pathophysiology and treatment. Chest. 2007;131:595-607 pubmed
    b>Central sleep apnea (CSA) is characterized by a lack of drive to breathe during sleep, resulting in repetitive periods of insufficient ventilation and compromised gas exchange...
  5. Tamura A, Kawano Y, Naono S, Kotoku M, Kadota J. Relationship between beta-blocker treatment and the severity of central sleep apnea in chronic heart failure. Chest. 2007;131:130-5 pubmed
    We sought to examine the relationship between use of beta-blockers and the severity of central sleep apnea (CSA) in patients with chronic heart failure.
  6. Wang D, Teichtahl H, Drummer O, Goodman C, Cherry G, Cunnington D, et al. Central sleep apnea in stable methadone maintenance treatment patients. Chest. 2005;128:1348-56 pubmed
    ..Our previous data show that 6 of 10 methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients had central sleep apnea (CSA). This study aims to confirm these results and to investigate the pathogenesis of the CSA.
  7. Javaheri S, Almoosa K, Saleh K, Mendenhall C. Hypocapnia is not a predictor of central sleep apnea in patients with cirrhosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;171:908-11 pubmed
    ..the level of PCO(2), such that if the prevailing spontaneous PCO(2) decreases below the apneic threshold, central sleep apnea (CSA) occurs...
  8. Yiu K, Lee K, Lau C, Siu C, Miu K, Lam B, et al. Alleviation of pulmonary hypertension by cardiac resynchronization therapy is associated with improvement in central sleep apnea. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2008;31:1522-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have demonstrated that cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) reduces sleep apnea in heart failure (HF); however, the mechanism of benefit remains unclear...
  9. Leung R, Huber M, Rogge T, Maimon N, Chiu K, Bradley T. Association between atrial fibrillation and central sleep apnea. Sleep. 2005;28:1543-6 pubmed
    We previously described an association between atrial fibrillation and central sleep apnea in a group of patients with congestive heart failure...
  10. Kuzniar T, Golbin J, Morgenthaler T. Moving beyond empiric continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) trials for central sleep apnea: a multi-modality titration study. Sleep Breath. 2007;11:259-66 pubmed
    There is no universally accepted method to determine effective therapy for central sleep apnea (CSA). Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) applied acutely most often does not eliminate apneas and hypopneas...
  11. Corcoran S, Mysliwiec V, Niven A, Fallah D. Development of central sleep apnea after maxillofacial surgery for obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2009;5:151-3 pubmed
    b>Central sleep apnea is a rarely reported complication of surgery for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)...
  12. Khayat R, Xie A, Patel A, Kaminski A, Skatrud J. Cardiorespiratory effects of added dead space in patients with heart failure and central sleep apnea. Chest. 2003;123:1551-60 pubmed
    Inhaled CO(2) has been shown to stabilize the breathing pattern of patients with central sleep apnea (CSA) with and without congestive heart failure (CHF)...
  13. Yumino D, Redolfi S, Ruttanaumpawan P, Su M, Smith S, Newton G, et al. Nocturnal rostral fluid shift: a unifying concept for the pathogenesis of obstructive and central sleep apnea in men with heart failure. Circulation. 2010;121:1598-605 pubmed publisher
    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central sleep apnea are common in patients with heart failure...
  14. Carmona Bernal C, Ruiz García A, Villa Gil M, Sanchez Armengol A, Quintana Gallego E, Ortega Ruiz F, et al. Quality of life in patients with congestive heart failure and central sleep apnea. Sleep Med. 2008;9:646-51 pubmed publisher
    To assess the impact of Cheyne-Stoke respiration-central sleep apnea (CSR-CSA) on quality of life (QOL) in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF)...
  15. Solin P, Roebuck T, Johns D, Walters E, Naughton M. Peripheral and central ventilatory responses in central sleep apnea with and without congestive heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;162:2194-200 pubmed
    Given that the apnea-ventilation cycle length during central sleep apnea (CSA) with congestive heart failure (CHF) is approximately 70 s, we hypothesized that rapidly responsive peripheral CO(2) ventilatory responses would be raised in ..
  16. Javaheri S. Central sleep apnea in congestive heart failure: prevalence, mechanisms, impact, and therapeutic options. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;26:44-55 pubmed
    ..According to reports from several laboratories, a large number of patients with heart failure have central sleep apnea. Central sleep apnea causes arousals and sleep disruption, alters blood gases, and increases sympathetic ..
  17. Toyama T, Seki R, Kasama S, Isobe N, Sakurai S, Adachi H, et al. Effectiveness of nocturnal home oxygen therapy to improve exercise capacity, cardiac function and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in patients with chronic heart failure and central sleep apnea. Circ J. 2009;73:299-304 pubmed
    b>Central sleep apnea, often found in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), has a high risk of poor prognosis.
  18. Sinha A, Skobel E, Breithardt O, Norra C, Markus K, Breuer C, et al. Cardiac resynchronization therapy improves central sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with chronic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;44:68-71 pubmed
    We studied the effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on heart failure (HF) patients with central sleep apnea (CSA).
  19. Bradley T, Logan A, Kimoff R, Series F, Morrison D, Ferguson K, et al. Continuous positive airway pressure for central sleep apnea and heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:2025-33 pubmed
    The Canadian Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Patients with Central Sleep Apnea and Heart Failure trial tested the hypothesis that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) would improve the survival rate without heart ..
  20. Kasai T, Narui K, Dohi T, Takaya H, Yanagisawa N, Dungan G, et al. First experience of using new adaptive servo-ventilation device for Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central sleep apnea among Japanese patients with congestive heart failure: report of 4 clinical cases. Circ J. 2006;70:1148-54 pubmed
    Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central sleep apnea (CSR-CSA) in congestive heart failure (CHF) is generally considered a poor prognostic indicator, but treatment of CSR-CSA using an adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) device has been ..
  21. Allam J, Olson E, Gay P, Morgenthaler T. Efficacy of adaptive servoventilation in treatment of complex and central sleep apnea syndromes. Chest. 2007;132:1839-46 pubmed
    ..Treatment of CompSAS or central sleep apnea (CSA) syndrome with adaptive servoventilation (ASV) is now an option, but no large series exist describing ..
  22. Javaheri S. Central sleep apnea. Clin Chest Med. 2010;31:235-48 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews current knowledge on central sleep apnea.
  23. Javaheri S. Acetazolamide improves central sleep apnea in heart failure: a double-blind, prospective study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;173:234-7 pubmed
    ..Acetazolamide is a mild diuretic and a respiratory stimulant. It is used to treat periodic breathing at high altitude...
  24. Mansfield D, Kaye D, Brunner La Rocca H, Solin P, Esler M, Naughton M. Raised sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure and central sleep apnea is due to heart failure severity. Circulation. 2003;107:1396-400 pubmed
    Congestive heart failure (CHF) patients with central sleep apnea (CHF-CSA) have elevated plasma norepinephrine (NE) compared with CHF patients without apnea (CHF-N)...
  25. Bradley T, Floras J. Sleep apnea and heart failure: Part II: central sleep apnea. Circulation. 2003;107:1822-6 pubmed
  26. Garcia Touchard A, Somers V, Olson L, Caples S. Central sleep apnea: implications for congestive heart failure. Chest. 2008;133:1495-1504 pubmed publisher
    ..heart failure (HF), an exceedingly common and costly disease, is frequently seen in association with central sleep apnea (CSA), which often manifests as a periodic breathing rhythm referred to as Cheyne-Stokes respiration...
  27. Andreas S. Central sleep apnea and chronic heart failure. Sleep. 2000;23 Suppl 4:S220-3 pubmed
    b>Central sleep apnea with Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) during sleep affects about 40 % of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF)...
  28. Szollosi I, Roebuck T, Thompson B, Naughton M. Lateral sleeping position reduces severity of central sleep apnea / Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Sleep. 2006;29:1045-51 pubmed
    The influence of sleeping position on obstructive sleep apnea severity is well established. However, in central sleep apnea with Cheyne Stokes respiration (CSA-CSR) in which respiratory-control instability plays a major pathophysiologic ..
  29. White D. Pathogenesis of obstructive and central sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;172:1363-70 pubmed
    ..b>Central sleep apnea, in its various forms, is generally the product of an unstable ventilatory control system (high loop gain) ..
  30. Kasai T, Narui K, Dohi T, Ishiwata S, Yoshimura K, Nishiyama S, et al. Efficacy of nasal bi-level positive airway pressure in congestive heart failure patients with cheyne-stokes respiration and central sleep apnea. Circ J. 2005;69:913-21 pubmed
    Cheyne - Stokes respiration with central sleep apnea (CSR-CSA) contributes to the poor prognosis in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF)...
  31. Parra O, Arboix A, Bechich S, García Eroles L, Montserrat J, Lopez J, et al. Time course of sleep-related breathing disorders in first-ever stroke or transient ischemic attack. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;161:375-80 pubmed
    ..No correlation was found between neurological location and the presence or type of SRBD. Obstructive events seem to be a condition prior to the neurological disease whereas central events and CSB could be its consequence...
  32. Yumino D, Bradley T. Central sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2008;5:226-36 pubmed publisher
    Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central sleep apnea (CSR-CSA) is a form of periodic breathing, commonly observed in patients with heart failure (HF), in which central apneas alternate with hyperpneas that have a waxing-waning pattern of ..
  33. Walker J, Farney R, Rhondeau S, Boyle K, Valentine K, Cloward T, et al. Chronic opioid use is a risk factor for the development of central sleep apnea and ataxic breathing. J Clin Sleep Med. 2007;3:455-61 pubmed
    ..Chronic opioid therapy for pain management has increased dramatically without adequate study of potential deleterious effects on breathing during sleep...
  34. Tourneux P, Cardot V, Museux N, Chardon K, Léké A, Telliez F, et al. Influence of thermal drive on central sleep apnea in the preterm neonate. Sleep. 2008;31:549-56 pubmed
    ..The incidence of apnea in neonates depends on a number of factors, including sleep state and thermoregulation...
  35. Lanfranchi P, Somers V, Braghiroli A, Corra U, Eleuteri E, Giannuzzi P. Central sleep apnea in left ventricular dysfunction: prevalence and implications for arrhythmic risk. Circulation. 2003;107:727-32 pubmed
  36. Noda A, Izawa H, Asano H, Nakata S, Hirashiki A, Murase Y, et al. Beneficial effect of bilevel positive airway pressure on left ventricular function in ambulatory patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and central sleep apnea-hypopnea: a preliminary study. Chest. 2007;131:1694-701 pubmed
    ..We investigated whether treatment of central sleep apnea-hypopnea with bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) in ambulatory patients with idiopathic dilated ..
  37. Hammel M, Klein M, Trips T, Priessmann H, Ankermann T, Holzinger A. Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome due to PHOX2b gene defects: inheritance from asymptomatic parents. Klin Padiatr. 2009;221:286-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Germline mosaicism may lead to CCHS in children from unaffected parents. Genetic counseling should include these variations. ..
  38. Yang T, Chang J, Tseng M, Wang H, Niu D, Yang L. Extreme hypernatremia combined with rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. J Chin Med Assoc. 2009;72:555-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This report highlights an unusual cause of rhabdomyolysis in children and the experience of managing such a difficult clinical situation. ..
  39. Fertleman C, Ferrie C, Aicardi J, Bednarek N, Eeg Olofsson O, Elmslie F, et al. Paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (previously familial rectal pain syndrome). Neurology. 2007;69:586-95 pubmed
    ..It is most likely to be misdiagnosed as epilepsy and, particularly in infancy, as hyperekplexia and reflex anoxic seizures. ..
  40. Fitze G, Paditz E, Schläfke M, Kuhlisch E, Roesner D, Schackert H. Association of germline mutations and polymorphisms of the RET proto-oncogene with idiopathic congenital central hypoventilation syndrome in 33 patients. J Med Genet. 2003;40:E10 pubmed
  41. Kumar R, Macey P, Woo M, Alger J, Harper R. Diffusion tensor imaging demonstrates brainstem and cerebellar abnormalities in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. Pediatr Res. 2008;64:275-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Midbrain, pontine, and lateral medullary structures, and the cerebellum and its fiber systems are injured in CCHS, likely contributing to the characteristics found in the syndrome. ..
  42. Qingyu J, Nomura T, Ochi H, Taniwaki T, Furuya H, Kira J. [Cortical cerebellar atrophy presenting with central type sleep apnea syndrome]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2005;45:490-4 pubmed
    ..Sleep apnea seen in the present patient was distinct from MSA in which central type sleep apnea dominated, and that the sleeping rhythm including REM was preserved. ..
  43. Jounieaux V, Rodenstein D. Acknowledging previous work is part of scientific process. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;169:1071; author reply 1071-2 pubmed
  44. Silber M. Autoimmune sleep disorders. Handb Clin Neurol. 2016;133:317-26 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Central sleep apnea and central neurogenic hypoventilation are found in patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor ..
  45. Nolte J, Dette F, Cassel W, Riese C, Augsten M, Koehler U. [Long-term opioid therapy and respiratory insufficiency during sleep]. Pneumologie. 2010;64:241-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In patients under chronic opioid therapy with hypersomnia, the presence of central breathing disorders should be considered. ..
  46. Fox H, Bitter T, Horstkotte D, Oldenburg O, Gutleben K. Long-Term Experience with First-Generation Implantable Neurostimulation Device in Central Sleep Apnea Treatment. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2017;40:498-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Novel remedē® device shows sustained therapy efficacy and safety in terms of stable lead positions over 4 years. Long-term phrenic nerve neurostimulation therapy for central SDB/CSR appears feasible in a clinical routine setting. ..
  47. Bullemer F, Heindl S, Karg O. ["Ondine's curse" in adults]. Pneumologie. 1999;53 Suppl 2:S91-2 pubmed
    ..One female patient has already died, the others are under stable clinical condition with the underlying central disorder remaining unchanged. Only 2 patients showed central defects visible in magnetic resonance tomography. ..
  48. Bachetti T, Robbiano A, Parodi S, Matera I, Merello E, Capra V, et al. Brainstem anomalies in two patients affected by congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174:706-9 pubmed
  49. Scharf C, Turk A, Brack T, Bloch K. Cardiac resynchronization therapy, central sleep apnea, and Cheyne-Stokes respiration in chronic heart failure patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45:633; author reply 633-4 pubmed
  50. Silva C, Lorenzi Filho G, Marcondes B, Osmundo G, Mangini S, Freitas A, et al. [Reduction of central sleep apnea in heart failure patients with beta-blockers therapy]. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010;94:223-9, 239-45, 226-32 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of sleep apnea (IAH > 15/h) hit 46.1% in the total population, however, central sleep apnea was identified in 18.4% of patients...
  51. Arzt M, Oldenburg O, Graml A, Erdmann E, Teschler H, Wegscheider K, et al. Phenotyping of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction-the SchlaHF Registry. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    Different sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) phenotypes, including coexisting obstructive and central sleep apnea (OSA-CSA), have not yet been characterized in a large sample of patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (..
  52. Or S, Tong M, Lo F, Law C, Miu T, Trochet D, et al. PHOX2B mutations in three Chinese patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. Chin Med J (Engl). 2006;119:1749-52 pubmed
  53. Gaultier C, Simonneau M, Dauger S, Gallego J. [Genetics and respiratory control: studies in normal humans and genetically modified animals]. Rev Mal Respir. 2003;20:77-94 pubmed
    ..Respiratory control genetics is opening up new paths for research into respiratory physiology and pathophysiology. ..
  54. Sivak E, Shefner J, Mitsumoto H, Taft J. The use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in ALS patients. A need for improved determination of intervention timing. Amyotroph Lateral Scler Other Motor Neuron Disord. 2001;2:139-45 pubmed
  55. Manni R, Terzaghi M. REM behavior disorder associated with epileptic seizures. Neurology. 2005;64:883-4 pubmed
    ..In each patient, RBD preceded the onset of seizures by several years. The authors hypothesize that REM sleep disruption may facilitate seizure occurrence...
  56. Cross S, Morgan J, Pattyn A, West K, McKie L, Hart A, et al. Haploinsufficiency for Phox2b in mice causes dilated pupils and atrophy of the ciliary ganglion: mechanistic insights into human congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:1433-9 pubmed
  57. Ogren J, Macey P, Kumar R, Woo M, Harper R. Central autonomic regulation in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. Neuroscience. 2010;167:1249-56 pubmed publisher
  58. Abe H, Takahashi M, Yaegashi H, Eda S, Kitahara H, Tsunemoto H, et al. Valve repair improves central sleep apnea in heart failure patients with valvular heart diseases. Circ J. 2009;73:2148-53 pubmed
    ..Relationships between HF with valvular heart diseases and 2 types of SAS (obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central sleep apnea (CSA)) were examined. The effects of valve repair surgery on OSA and CSA was also investigated.
  59. Suri J, Sen M, Bose P, Mehta C, Ojha U. A case of motor neurone disease with sleep apnoea syndrome. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 1999;41:169-73 pubmed
    ..His sleep architecture was fragmented with a high apnea-hypopnea index of 65 per hour and maximum oxygen-desaturation of 78 percent. Total correction of sleep pattern with nasal non-invasive ventilation (BiPAP-ST) was demonstrated...
  60. Lehrman S, Maguire G. Positive airway pressure for the failing heart. Heart Dis. 2002;4:61-2 pubmed
  61. Verbraecken J, Willemen M, Wittesaele W, Van de Heyning P, De Backer W. Short-term CPAP does not influence the increased CO2 drive in idiopathic central sleep apnea. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2002;57:10-8 pubmed
    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves idiopathic central sleep apnea (ICSA), but the mechanisms are not completely understood...
  62. Varma R, Narayanankutty P, Rajagopalan K, Rajeevan K. Hirschsprung's disease associated with Ondine's curse. Indian J Pediatr. 2002;69:987-8 pubmed
    ..In about 50% of the cases of CCHS there is associated Hirschsprung's disease. There are only about 48 cases reported worldwide. The disease has a very high mortality especially in the settings of a developing country...
  63. Diedrich A, Malow B, Antic N, Sato K, McEvoy R, Mathias C, et al. Vagal and sympathetic heart rate and blood pressure control in adult onset PHOX2B mutation-confirmed congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. Clin Auton Res. 2007;17:177-85 pubmed
  64. Robertson J, Curley J, Kaye J, Quinn J, Pfankuch T, Raber J. apoE isoforms and measures of anxiety in probable AD patients and Apoe-/- mice. Neurobiol Aging. 2005;26:637-43 pubmed
    ..Consistent with the mouse data, male and female PRAD patients with epsilon4/epsilon4 showed higher anxiety scores than those with epsilon3/epsilon3. We conclude that human apoE isoforms have differential effects on measures of anxiety...
  65. Kumar R, Lee K, Macey P, Woo M, Harper R. Mammillary body and fornix injury in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. Pediatr Res. 2009;66:429-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypoxic processes, together with diminished neuroprotection from micronutrient deficiencies secondary to fluid and dietary absorption issues, may contribute to the injury...
  66. Sawaguchi T, Kato I, Franco P, Sottiaux M, Kadhim H, Shimizu S, et al. Apnea, glial apoptosis and neuronal plasticity in the arousal pathway of victims of SIDS. Forensic Sci Int. 2005;149:205-17 pubmed
    ..04). These findings in the dorsal raphe nucleus of the midbrain and PPTN, that play important roles in the arousal pathway suggest a possible link between changes in arousal and SIDS...
  67. Pepin J, Chouri Pontarollo N, Tamisier R, Levy P. Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central sleep apnoea in chronic heart failure: proposals for a diagnostic and therapeutic strategy. Sleep Med Rev. 2006;10:33-47 pubmed
    ..Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), oxygen, adaptive Servo-ventilation (ASV) and non-invasive ventilation have been proposed. Large randomised trials demonstrating survival and time free from heart transplantation are lacking...
  68. Henriques Filho P, Pratesi R. Sleep apnea and REM sleep behavior disorder in patients with Chiari malformations. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2008;66:344-9 pubmed
    ..Chiari malformations (CM) may result in the appearance of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) that can be considered markers of brain stem dysfunction...
  69. Grotz W, Büchner N, Wessendorf T, Teschler H, Grote L, Becker H, et al. [Sleep apnea--treatment improves hypertension]. Med Klin (Munich). 2006;101:880-5 pubmed
    ..This is especially true for the obstructive sleep apnea patient with refractory hypertension. CPAP therapy is probably the best therapy for sleep apnea-induced nocturnal blood pressure rises...
  70. Fauroux B, Leroux K, Pepin J, Lofaso F, Louis B. Are home ventilators able to guarantee a minimal tidal volume?. Intensive Care Med. 2010;36:1008-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of home ventilators to maintain a minimal tidal volume during different conditions associated with alveolar hypoventilation...