Summary: Hemorrhage within the pleural cavity.

Top Publications

  1. Aizawa K, Iwashita C, Saito T, Misawa Y. Spontaneous rupture of an intercostal artery in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2010;10:128-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed spinal cord compression at the level of the 9th and 10th vertebrae. We evacuated the cellulose and coagulum. The patient's paraplegia improved and within six months he was walking without a crutch...
  2. Ciledag A, Celik G, Köycü G, Gürsoy E, Yüksel C. [A rare complication of oral anticoagulant treatment: hemothorax]. Tuberk Toraks. 2012;60:70-3 pubmed
    Although bleeding is the most serious complication of oral anticoagulant treatment, hemothorax is extremely rare...
  3. Morrison C, Lee T, Wall M, Carrick M. Use of a trauma service clinical pathway to improve patient outcomes for retained traumatic hemothorax. World J Surg. 2009;33:1851-6 pubmed publisher
    Early evacuation of retained hemothorax (RHTX) has been shown to improve clinical outcomes...
  4. Lai C, Chen J, Wu H, Wen J, Yang Y. Successful conservative management with positive end-expiratory pressure for massive haemothorax complicating pacemaker implantation. Resuscitation. 2007;75:189-91 pubmed
    ..We conclude that this simple but reproducible experience may offer effective haemostasis for a massive haemothorax caused by transvenous catheter perforation...
  5. Hieda M, Toyota N, Kakizawa H, Hirai N, Tachikake T, Yahiro Y, et al. Endovascular therapy for massive haemothorax caused by ruptured extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm with neurofibromatosis Type 1. Br J Radiol. 2007;80:e81-4 pubmed
    ..We report an intrathoracic rupture of the extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm with neurofibromatosis Type 1, successfully treated by coil and liquid embolisation...
  6. Hagiwara A, Yanagawa Y, Kaneko N, Takasu A, Hatanaka K, Sakamoto T, et al. Indications for transcatheter arterial embolization in persistent hemothorax caused by blunt trauma. J Trauma. 2008;65:589-94 pubmed publisher
    To confirm the usefulness of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) and the efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) in patients, who undergo tube thoracostomy for hemothorax secondary to blunt chest trauma.
  7. Meyer D. Hemothorax related to trauma. Thorac Surg Clin. 2007;17:47-55 pubmed
    ..injuries, the underlying organ damage may be the more life-threatening process, not the presence or absence of a hemothorax. For both blunt and penetrating injuries, the presence of retained hemothorax is well-treated by early ..
  8. Oudyi M, David M, Blondel B, Bosdure E, Gorincour G, Launay F, et al. [Hemothorax and hereditary multiple exostosis in a 9-year-old boy]. Arch Pediatr. 2011;18:170-5 pubmed publisher
    We report a case of spontaneous hemothorax in a 9-year-old boy due to costal exostosis in the context of hereditary multiple exostosis disease. This is an unusual complication, whose pathophysiology remains unclear.
  9. Tan C, Wu K, Wu R, Lui Y. Spontaneous hemothorax caused by metastasis of a rib tumour. CMAJ. 2008;178:679 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Mahmood I, Abdelrahman H, Al Hassani A, Nabir S, Sebastian M, Maull K. Clinical management of occult hemothorax: a prospective study of 81 patients. Am J Surg. 2011;201:766-9 pubmed publisher
    Intrapleural blood detected by computed tomography scan, but not evident on plain chest radiograph, defines occult hemothorax. This study determined the role for tube thoracostomy.
  2. Arai K, Sanada J, Kurozumi A, Watanabe T, Matsui O. Spontaneous hemothorax in neurofibromatosis treated with percutaneous embolization. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2007;30:477-9 pubmed
    ..evaluated the effectiveness of transcatheter arterial coil embolization therapy for the treatment of spontaneous hemothorax followed by aneurysm rupture in neurofibromatosis patients...
  3. Conlon N, Redmond K, Celi L. Spontaneous hemothorax in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 and undiagnosed pheochromocytoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;84:1021-3 pubmed
    Spontaneous hemothorax in neurofibromatosis type 1 rarely occurs, is potentially life-threatening, and requires expedient management...
  4. DuBose J, Inaba K, Demetriades D, Scalea T, O CONNOR J, Menaker J, et al. Management of post-traumatic retained hemothorax: a prospective, observational, multicenter AAST study. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;72:11-22; discussion 22-4; quiz 316 pubmed publisher
    The natural history and optimal management of retained hemothorax (RH) after chest tube placement is unknown. The intent of our study was to determine practice patterns used and identify independent predictors of the need for thoracotomy.
  5. Karmy Jones R, Holevar M, Sullivan R, Fleisig A, Jurkovich G. Residual hemothorax after chest tube placement correlates with increased risk of empyema following traumatic injury. Can Respir J. 2008;15:255-8 pubmed
    ..Residual fluid has also been cited as a risk factor for empyema, although the imaging technique to identify this varies...
  6. Innami Y, Oyaizu T, Ouchi T, Umemura N, Koitabashi T. Life-threatening hemothorax resulting from right brachiocephalic vein perforation during right internal jugular vein catheterization. J Anesth. 2009;23:135-8 pubmed publisher
    We present a life-threatening case of hemothorax resulting from right brachiocephalic vein perforation during right internal jugular vein catheterization...
  7. Wei H, Chung H, Wu C, Huang J. Aortic dissection complicated with hemothorax in an adolescent patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: case report and review of literature. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2011;41:12-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To report a young patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) complicated by aortic dissection. The relevant literature on the association of SLE and aortic dissection is reviewed...
  8. Morales Uribe C, Villegas Lanau M, Petro Sánchez R. Best timing for thoracoscopic evacuation of retained post-traumatic hemothorax. Surg Endosc. 2008;22:91-5 pubmed
    To determine the best timing for thoracoscopic drainage of clotted hemothorax in order to ensure safe and effective results and to identify risk factors associated with drainage failure.
  9. Elmali M, Akan H, Findik S, Kale M, Celenk C. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia associated with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations presenting as hemothorax. J Thorac Imaging. 2008;23:295-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thoracentesis revealed hemorrhagic fluid. We present successful coil embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia...
  10. Heidecker J, Kaplan A, Sahn S. Pleural fluid and peripheral eosinophilia from hemothorax: hypothesis of the pathogenesis of EPE in hemothorax and pneumothorax. Am J Med Sci. 2006;332:148-52 pubmed
    ..We report a case of an eosinophilic pleural effusion after spontaneous hemothorax that illustrates the course of pleural fluid and blood eosinophilia in following hemothorax and describe the ..
  11. Ma O, Mateer J. Trauma ultrasound examination versus chest radiography in the detection of hemothorax. Ann Emerg Med. 1997;29:312-5; discussion 315-6 pubmed
    To compare the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of ultrasonography with those of the initial plain chest radiograph for detection of hemothorax in trauma patients.
  12. Palimento D, Picchio M. Meningioma of the mediastinum causing spontaneous hemothorax. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;81:1903-4 pubmed
    Ectopic meningiomas are extremely rare. Mediastinal tumors may rarely cause spontaneous hemothorax. We report a case of angioblastic meningioma of the posterior mediastinum causing spontaneous hemothorax.
  13. Miura T, Kawano Y, Chujo M, Miyawaki M, Mori H, Kawahara K. Spontaneous hemothorax in patients with von Recklinghausen's disease. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005;53:649-52 pubmed
    ..We encountered two cases of critical massive hemothorax in patients with von Recklinghausen's disease (type I neurofibromatosis)...
  14. Pezzetta E, Paroz A, Ris H, Martinet O. Spontaneous hemothorax associated with von Recklinghausen's disease. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2003;23:1062-4 pubmed
    Spontaneous hemothorax is a rare and life threatening complication of neurofibromatosis...
  15. Rodriguez J, Barcena M, Alvarez J. [Acute contralateral hemothorax after cannulation of the left subclavian vein for hemodialysis]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2002;49:428-31 pubmed
    Contralateral hemothorax after subclavian vein cannulation is a rare complication of this procedure...
  16. Lee M, Vrazas J. Ruptured left gastric artery aneurysm: unique presentation with hemothorax and hemomediastinum. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2006;29:438-42 pubmed
    ..of a left gastric artery aneurysm after presenting with acute chest pain and the unusual computed tomography findings of hemothorax and hemomediastinum. To our knowledge, only one other similar case has been published in the literature.
  17. Navsaria P, Vogel R, Nicol A. Thoracoscopic evacuation of retained posttraumatic hemothorax. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;78:282-5; discussion 285-6 pubmed
    ..Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has emerged as an alternative to thoracotomy to evacuate these retained collections. This report reviews a recent trauma unit experience with thoracoscopic evacuation of hemothoraces...
  18. Collini A, Nepi S, Ruggieri G, Carmellini M. Massive hemothorax after removal of subclavian vein catheter: a very unusual complication. Crit Care Med. 2002;30:697-8 pubmed
    A case of massive hemothorax developing a few minutes after removal of a central venous catheter is described in a 51-yr-old woman, who had undergone a renal transplant...
  19. Lee H, Wang H, Huang I, Chang H, Lu J. Endometriosis associated with hemothorax. J Chin Med Assoc. 2006;69:42-6 pubmed
    ..We describe the case of a 40-year-old multiparous female featuring right-sided hemothorax presenting with right shoulder pain and progressive shortness of breath for the preceding 2 months...
  20. Dominguez J, Sancho C, Escalante E, Morera J, Moya J, Bernat R. Percutaneous treatment of a ruptured intercostal aneurysm presenting as massive hemothorax in a patient with type I neurofibromatosis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2002;124:1230-2 pubmed
  21. Eroglu A, Kurkcuoglu I, Karaoglanoglu N, Alper F, Gundogdu C. Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma of the diaphragm presenting with hemothorax. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;78:715-7 pubmed
    ..A 12-year-old girl presented spontaneous occurrences of the right hemothorax. After drainage, a roentgenogram film, computed tomography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance image showed ..
  22. Ishikawa T, Kohno T, Teratani T, Omata M. Thoracoscopic radiofrequency ablation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma above the diaphragm associated with intractable hemothorax. Endoscopy. 2002;34:843 pubmed
  23. Mrug M, Mishra P, Lusane H, Cunningham J, Alpert M. Hemothorax and retroperitoneal hematoma after anticoagulation with enoxaparin. South Med J. 2002;95:936-8 pubmed
    A 58-year-old woman with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had spontaneous bilateral hemothorax and a retroperitoneal hematoma after 4 days of anticoagulation therapy with enoxaparin (1 mg/kg subcutaneously every 12 hours) for ..
  24. Xiros N, Economopoulos T, Papageorgiou E, Mantzios G, Raptis S. Massive hemothorax due to intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis in a patient with hereditary spherocytosis. Ann Hematol. 2001;80:38-40 pubmed
    ..man with hereditary spherocytosis, who presented with anemia, jaundice, intrathoracic EMH, and massive hemothorax. The diagnosis of EMH was established after computer tomography (CT)-guided punctuation of the paravertebral ..
  25. Kim S, Kim C, Kim S, Lee T, Kim K, Moon T, et al. Endovascular treatment of a ruptured internal thoracic artery pseudoaneurysm presenting as a massive hemothorax in a patient with type I neurofibromatosis. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2005;28:818-21 pubmed
    We report a case of acute hemothorax caused by a left internal thoracic artery pseudoaneurysm rupture in a patient with neurofibromatosis type I, which was successfully treated with endovascular coil embolization.
  26. Iida Y, Kashimoto S, Matsukawa T, Kumazawa T. A hemothorax after thoracic epidural anesthesia. J Clin Anesth. 1994;6:505-7 pubmed
    A case of a hemothorax that occurred after thoracic epidural anesthesia is described. This situation might have been caused by accidental puncture of the intercostal vessel and visceral pleura by a Tuohy needle...
  27. Karmy Jones R, Hastreiter D, Burdick T. Hemothorax complicating bronchial artery aneurysm. Can Respir J. 2005;12:279-81 pubmed
    An elderly patient presented with spontaneous hemothorax. Workup identified a right-sided bronchial aneurysm as the source, which was successfully embolized...
  28. Wei Y, Wang H, Chang Y. Hemothorax due to metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma presenting with massive hemoptysis. J Formos Med Assoc. 2006;105:346-8 pubmed
    Hemoperitoneum caused by ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not uncommon in patients with HCC. Hemothorax due to rupture of metastatic HCC, however, is a very rare complication with high mortality because of uncontrollable ..
  29. Velmahos G, Demetriades D, Chan L, Tatevossian R, Cornwell E, Yassa N, et al. Predicting the need for thoracoscopic evacuation of residual traumatic hemothorax: chest radiograph is insufficient. J Trauma. 1999;46:65-70 pubmed
    The early removal of large residual posttraumatic hemothorax by videothoracoscopy is increasingly used to avoid the late sequelae of trapped lung and empyema...
  30. Liman S, Kuzucu A, Tastepe A, Ulasan G, Topcu S. Chest injury due to blunt trauma. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2003;23:374-8 pubmed
    ..Given its importance in trauma practice, we aimed to determine the pathologies associated with blunt chest injuries and to analyze the accurate identification of patients at high risk for major chest trauma...
  31. Cohn L, Stoll M, Branson K, Roudabush A, Kerl M, Langdon P, et al. Fatal hemothorax following management of an esophageal foreign body. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2003;39:251-6 pubmed
    ..Immediately afterward, the dog developed hemothorax and eventually died. It was determined that many small arterial branches were avulsed from the aorta...
  32. Nasiłowski J, Krenke R. [Hemothorax with high number of eosinophils following warfarin overdose]. Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2002;70:496-503 pubmed
    ..The authors discuss different mechanisms of drug-induced pleural effusion, with special attention to eosinophilic pleural effusion and review the literature on the spontaneous haemothorax as a complication of anticoagulant therapy...
  33. Molnar T, Hasse J, Jeyasingham K, Rendeki M. Changing dogmas: history of development in treatment modalities of traumatic pneumothorax, hemothorax, and posttraumatic empyema thoracis. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;77:372-8 pubmed
    ..If we let the past fade away, the danger of committing the mistakes of our predecessors increases without having their excuses. Our present is only the past of the future...
  34. Niwa T, Nakamura A, Kato T, Kutsuna T, Tonegawa K, Kawai A, et al. An adult case of Bochdalek hernia complicated with hemothorax. Respiration. 2003;70:644-6 pubmed
    ..Resection of the necrotic organs and closure of the hernial orifice were followed by good recovery...
  35. Hamilton D, Sargsyan A, Kirkpatrick A, Nicolaou S, Campbell M, Dawson D, et al. Sonographic detection of pneumothorax and hemothorax in microgravity. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2004;75:272-7 pubmed
    ..A similar approach is planned for the ISS; however, an unnecessary evacuation would cause a significant mission impact and an exorbitant expense...
  36. Pornsuriyasak P, Suwatanapongched T, Wangsuppasawad N, Ngodngamthaweesuk M, Angchaisuksiri P. Massive hemothorax in a beta-thalassemic patient due to spontaneous rupture of extramedullary hematopoietic masses: diagnosis and successful treatment. Respir Care. 2006;51:272-6 pubmed
    ..The hematopoietic masses spontaneously ruptured, resulting in massive hemothorax. The condition was confirmed by video-assisted thoracoscopy and successfully treated with surgery, hydroxyurea, ..
  37. Tovar J. The lung and pediatric trauma. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2008;17:53-9 pubmed
    ..and laceration cause parenchymal hemorrhage and consolidation sometimes accompanied by pneumothorax and/or hemothorax. Tracheobronchial disruption is rare but life-threatening...
  38. Stroszczynski C, Jöres A, von Ruthendorf Przewoski J, Bethke A. [Image-guided biopsy of the thorax]. Radiologe. 2008;48:1169-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this tutorial is to summarize the special aspects concerning the intervention, including evaluation, the technical needs, different kinds of access to the target, and risk and complication management. ..
  39. Wang C, Ng C, Seak C, Seak C. Spontaneous hemothorax following thrombolytic and anticoagulant therapy for massive pulmonary embolism. Am J Emerg Med. 2013;31:999.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    Massive spontaneous hemothorax following combined thrombolytic and anticoagulant therapy for pulmonary embolism(PE) is a rare event that is little documented in the literature...
  40. Bolukbas S, Ghezel Ahmadi D, Kwozalla A, Schirren J. [Diagnostic assessment and treatment concepts for thoracic trauma]. Chirurg. 2011;82:843-49; quiz 850 pubmed publisher
  41. Furui M, Ohashi T, Hirai Y, Kageyama S. Congenital pericardial defect with ruptured acute type A aortic dissection. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2012;15:912-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it may be necessary to consider congenital pericardial defects before performing an operation in case of acute type A aortic dissection with massive haemothorax. ..
  42. Hunt I, Hartley S, Alwahab Y, Birkill G. Aortoesophageal perforation following ingestion of razorblades with massive haemothorax. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2007;31:946-8 pubmed
    ..We present a case of massive haemothorax following deliberate ingestion of razorblades that highlights clinically and radiologically the natural course of such a tragic action. ..
  43. Bonsignore A, Bernucci L, Canepa M, Ventura F. Suicide due to four speargun shots: a case report. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2013;34:201-4 pubmed publisher
    ..It also shows how it is possible to survive for some time after being shot by such a weapon. ..
  44. Chuang Y, Tsao T, Su C, Lin M. Conservative management of bronchopulmonary artery perforation without associated haemothorax occurring at thoracentesis: a case report. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2010;92:W69-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the successful non-surgical management of an unusual case of pulmonary artery perforation without concomitant haemothorax in an 82-year-old man who underwent thoracentesis. ..
  45. Chetcuti K, Barnard J, Loggos S, Hassan M, Srivastava V, Mourad F, et al. Massive hemothorax secondary to metastatic renal carcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010;89:2014-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The tumor was biopsied after the bleeding was controlled. The histologic report revealed metastatic renal cell carcinoma, which is a rare cause for a spontaneous massive hemothorax.
  46. Solaini L, Prusciano F, Solaini L, Carletti M. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for postoperative hemothorax. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011;59:475-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The videothoracoscopic approach for postoperative hemothorax requiring surgical reexploration seems to be safe and effective and guarantees the benefits of minimally ..
  47. Arakawa Y, Shiose A, Takaseya T, Fumoto H, Kim H, Boyle E, et al. Superior chest drainage with an active tube clearance system: evaluation of a downsized chest tube. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;91:580-3 pubmed publisher
    ..system that incorporates an active tube clearance (ATC) system, and we evaluated its efficacy in an acute hemothorax model...
  48. Iguchi T, Hiraki T, Ishii H, Gobara H, Fujiwara H, Matsui Y, et al. Transosseous Route for CT Fluoroscopy-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2015;26:1694-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and one case each of asymptomatic rib fracture 6 mo after treatment, neuralgia, pulmonary hemorrhage, and hemothorax), two grade 2 events (pneumonia and high fever), and one grade 3 event (pneumothorax requiring pleurodesis)...
  49. Tayyareci Y, Tastan C, Bayazit P, Akar H, Yilmaz U, Ozalp T, et al. Extrapleural hematoma, a rare post-operative complication of coronary bypass grafting with left internal mammary artery. Anadolu Kardiyol Derg. 2008;8:E6 pubmed
  50. Fedoruk L, English J, Fradet G. Spontaneous hemothorax and neurofibromatosis: a review of a lethal combination. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2007;15:342-4 pubmed
    We present a case report of spontaneous hemothorax associated with neurofibromatosis. On review of the literature, a significant mortality rate of 36% is revealed in addition to a surgical mortality of 33%...
  51. Muslim M, Bilal A, Salim M, Khan M, Baseer A, Ahmed M. Tube thorocostomy: management and outcome in patients with penetrating chest trauma. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2008;20:108-11 pubmed
    ..It also reduces the time to removal of chest drains, the hospital stay and the chances of surgery for clotted Haemothorax or Empyema. ..
  52. Marigliano A, Cirio E, Versace R. [Pericardial cyst with intracystic hemorrhage. A case report and review of the literature]. G Ital Cardiol (Rome). 2010;11:493-7 pubmed
    ..We describe the case of a patient for whom the echocardiographic follow-up allowed to disclose intracystic hemorrhage, leading to surgical treatment before the patient became symptomatic. ..
  53. Andrabi S, Andrabi S, Mansha M, Ahmed M. An iatrogenic complication of closed tube thoracostomy for penetrating chest trauma. N Z Med J. 2007;120:U2784 pubmed
    ..Patients with penetrating injuries to the zone between the abdomen and chest should be managed with a high index of suspicion. ..
  54. Tejedor A, Anglada M, Pons M, Callejas M, Gomar C. [Outpatient or short-stay videothoracoscopy-assisted thoracic sympathectomy: anesthesia in 445 cases]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2010;57:553-8 pubmed
    ..To demonstrate the safety of outpatient or short-stay bilateral videothoracoscopy-assisted thoracic sympathectomy...
  55. Fraile P, Cosmes P, García Bernalt V, Tabernero J. [Late-onset hemothorax after left jugular vein catheterization for hemodialysis]. Nefrologia. 2008;28:115-6 pubmed
  56. Cerdán Pascual R, Cantín Blázquez S, Bernal Jaulín J, Barranco Domínguez J, Ruiz Montoya J, Esarte Muniain J. [Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture. A review of seven cases]. Cir Cir. 2006;74:425-9 pubmed
    ..We undertook this study to analyze the epidemiology of diaphragmatic rupture and to report our results in the diagnosis and treatment of this injury...
  57. Atkinson J, Fode Thomas N, Fealey R, Eisenach J, Goerss S. Endoscopic transthoracic limited sympathotomy for palmar-plantar hyperhidrosis: outcomes and complications during a 10-year period. Mayo Clin Proc. 2011;86:721-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To review surgical results of endoscopic transthoracic limited sympathotomy for palmar-plantar hyperhidrosis during the past decade...
  58. Hyacinthe A, Broux C, Francony G, Genty C, Bouzat P, Jacquot C, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in the acute assessment of common thoracic lesions after trauma. Chest. 2012;141:1177-1183 pubmed publisher
    The accuracy of combined clinical examination (CE) and chest radiography (CXR) (CE + CXR) vs thoracic ultrasonography in the acute assessment of pneumothorax, hemothorax, and lung contusion in chest trauma patients is unknown.
  59. Kao Y, Chow J, Wang K, Fang C, Chu J, Chen C. Primary pleural angiosarcoma as a mimicker of mesothelioma: a case report **VS**. Diagn Pathol. 2011;6:130 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the case of a 49-year-old male patient with primary pleural angiosarcoma, who presented with initial hemothorax, followed by a rapid progress to an inoperable status.
  60. Bradley M, Okoye O, DuBose J, Inaba K, Demetriades D, Scalea T, et al. Risk factors for post-traumatic pneumonia in patients with retained haemothorax: results of a prospective, observational AAST study. Injury. 2013;44:1159-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The development of pneumonia has previously been reported to be as high as 19.5% in the setting of traumatic RH. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for the development of pneumonia as a complication in RH...
  61. Reddy N, Hornick P. Haemothorax. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2007;68:M71-3 pubmed
  62. Tamura Y, Kushibe K, Tojo T, Takahama M, Kimura M, Taniguchi S. Intralobar sequestration presenting as a large intrapulmonary hematoma and massive hemothorax. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006;54:437-9 pubmed
    ..His chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a large intrapulmonary hematoma and massive hemothorax, mimicking a benign lung tumor ruptured into the pleural cavity...
  63. Apostolakis E, Nikolakopoulou N, Papanastasiou D, Mavromatis T, Dougenis D. Isolated costal hyperostosis: a rare cause of severe hemothorax. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2007;23:25-7 pubmed
    Chest pain due to hemothorax is rare. However, the possibility of traumatic hemothorax must always be suspected...
  64. Karimov J, Gillinov A, Schenck L, Cook M, Kosty Sweeney D, Boyle E, et al. Incidence of chest tube clogging after cardiac surgery: a single-centre prospective observational study. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2013;44:1029-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to determine the incidence of chest tube clogging and the role of bedside assessment in identifying the potential for failure to drain...
  65. Mollberg N, Wise S, de Hoyos A, Lin F, Merlotti G, Massad M. Chest computed tomography for penetrating thoracic trauma after normal screening chest roentgenogram. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012;93:1830-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to examine the changes in utilization of CCT over time and evaluate its contribution to guiding therapeutic intervention...
  66. Kang S. Rib fractures, pneumothorax, haemothorax and chest drain insertion. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2007;68:M158-9 pubmed
  67. Catena F, Bianchi R, Ansaloni L, Pinna A. Hemothorax caused by rupture of a primitive thoracic leiomyosarcoma of the thoracic aorta: description of a case and literature review. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2008;135:688-9 pubmed publisher
  68. Honda J, Yamamoto S, Wada H, Hiramoto A, Kuroki K, Okeda R. [Ruptured proximal aorta after operation for type A dissection presenting as opacified left hemothorax; report of a case]. Kyobu Geka. 2008;61:398-402 pubmed
    We report an unusual clinical presentation of ruptured proximal aorta as a left hemothorax after operation for type A dissection...
  69. Park S, Kwak Y. Congenital aberrant vessel as a source of massive hemothorax in blunt trauma. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2008;56:436-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This is a case of massive hemothorax caused by a ruptured aberrant congenital vessel in a blunt trauma victim who sustained a two meter fall.
  70. Li Y, Wu W, Yang X, Li J. Treatment of 38 cases of foreign body aspiration in children causing life-threatening complications. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73:1624-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The objectives of this study were to discuss the clinical magnifications and therapies of tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration (FBA) in children causing life-threatening complications...