pleura

Summary

Summary: The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.

Top Publications

  1. Bernstein D, Rogers R, Sepulveda R, Donaldson K, Schuler D, Gaering S, et al. The pathological response and fate in the lung and pleura of chrysotile in combination with fine particles compared to amosite asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure: interim results. Inhal Toxicol. 2010;22:937-62 pubmed publisher
  2. Teixeira L, Vargas F, Acencio M, Ribeiro S, Sales R, Antonangelo L, et al. Blockage of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) reduces experimental pleurodesis. Lung Cancer. 2011;74:392-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the influence of the anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab) on pleurodesis induced by talc or silver nitrate and analyzed the temporal development of pleural angiogenesis...
  3. Bernstein D, Rogers R, Sepulveda R, Donaldson K, Schuler D, Gaering S, et al. Quantification of the pathological response and fate in the lung and pleura of chrysotile in combination with fine particles compared to amosite-asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure. Inhal Toxicol. 2011;23:372-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Subgroups were examined through 1 year. The translocation to and pathological response in the pleura was examined by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy (CM) using noninvasive methods...
  4. Han H, Lee O, Lim S, An J, Lee K, Choe K, et al. Extranodal interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma presenting in the pleura: a case report. J Korean Med Sci. 2011;26:304-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors report a case of extranodal IDCS presenting in the pleura. A 32-yr-old man presented with progressive chest pain...
  5. Murphy F, Poland C, Duffin R, Al Jamal K, Ali Boucetta H, Nunes A, et al. Length-dependent retention of carbon nanotubes in the pleural space of mice initiates sustained inflammation and progressive fibrosis on the parietal pleura. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:2587-600 pubmed publisher
    ..CNTs and long asbestos was characterized by acute inflammation, leading to progressive fibrosis on the parietal pleura, where stomata of strictly defined size limit the egress of long, but not short, fibers...
  6. Markov A, Voronkova M, Volgin G, Yablonsky P, Fromm M, Amasheh S. Tight junction proteins contribute to barrier properties in human pleura. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2011;175:331-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Information on pleural barrier function in health and disease, however, is scarce. Tissue specimens of human pleura were mounted in Ussing chambers for measurement of transmesothelial resistance...
  7. Hinescu M, Gherghiceanu M, Suciu L, Popescu L. Telocytes in pleura: two- and three-dimensional imaging by transmission electron microscopy. Cell Tissue Res. 2011;343:389-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim has been to examine whether telocytes (TCs) are present in pleura, as in epicardium and mesentery...
  8. Hoffmann M, Ulrich A, Schloericke E, Limmer S, Habermann J, Wolken H, et al. The application of cold-plasma coagulation on the visceral pleura results in a predictable depth of necrosis without fistula generation. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2012;14:239-43 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The application of cold-plasma coagulation to the pulmonary surface is safe in pigs. A potential clinical application of this technique is treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma...
  9. Rodriguez Panadero F, Montes Worboys A. Mechanisms of pleurodesis. Respiration. 2012;83:91-8 pubmed publisher
    Pleurodesis aims to obliterate the pleural space by producing extensive adhesion of the visceral and parietal pleura, in order to control relapse of either pleural effusions (mostly malignant) or pneumothorax...

More Information

Publications90

  1. Lal C, Huggins J, Sahn S. Parasitic diseases of the pleura. Am J Med Sci. 2013;345:385-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Common parasites involving the pleura include Entamoeba histolytica, Echinococcus granulosus and Paragonimus westermani...
  2. Donaldson K, Murphy F, Duffin R, Poland C. Asbestos, carbon nanotubes and the pleural mesothelium: a review of the hypothesis regarding the role of long fibre retention in the parietal pleura, inflammation and mesothelioma. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2010;7:5 pubmed publisher
    ..In the course of studying the potential impact of HARN on the pleura we have utilised the existing hypothesis regarding the role of the parietal pleura in the response to long fibres...
  3. Watanabe M, Boyer J, Crystal R. AAVrh.10-mediated genetic delivery of bevacizumab to the pleura to provide local anti-VEGF to suppress growth of metastatic lung tumors. Gene Ther. 2010;17:1042-51 pubmed publisher
    ..effectively suppresses the growth of metastatic lung tumors, suggesting AAV-mediated gene transfer to the pleura to deliver bevacizumab locally to the lung as a novel alternative platform to conventional monoclonal antibody ..
  4. Varani K, Maniero S, Vincenzi F, Targa M, Stefanelli A, Maniscalco P, et al. A? receptors are overexpressed in pleura from patients with mesothelioma and reduce cell growth via Akt/nuclear factor-?B pathway. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183:522-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Adenosine plays a key role in inflammatory processes and cancer, where it is involved in the regulation of cell death and proliferation...
  5. Guo Y, Tang K, Bilaceroglu S, Kalomenidis I, Salleng K, Lane K, et al. Iodopovidone is as effective as doxycycline in producing pleurodesis in rabbits. Respirology. 2010;15:119-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism by which iodopovidone achieves pleurodesis is unknown. This study investigated whether iodopovidone is as effective as doxycycline in producing pleurodesis and whether systemic corticosteroids diminish its efficacy...
  6. Tobin C, Lee Y. Pleural infection: what we need to know but don't. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2012;18:321-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite advances in modern healthcare, the rising incidence and mortality of empyema highlights a need for better understanding of the disease and more effective strategies in its diagnosis and treatment...
  7. Caramori G, Lasagna L, Casalini A, Adcock I, Casolari P, Contoli M, et al. Immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the parietal pleura of patients with tuberculous pleurisy. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22637 pubmed publisher
    The T lymphocyte-mediated immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the parietal pleura of patients with tuberculous pleurisy is unknown...
  8. Takagi K, Tsuchiya T, Araki M, Yamasaki N, Nagayasu T, Hyon S, et al. Novel biodegradable powder for preventing postoperative pleural adhesion. J Surg Res. 2013;179:e13-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-adhesive effects of commercially available anti-adhesive agents and a newly developed powder-type anti-adhesive agent...
  9. Zhang L, Wang W, Li W, Hao C, Li Z, Wu Q, et al. A new alternative for bony chest wall reconstruction using biomaterial artificial rib and pleura: animal experiment and clinical application. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2011;40:939-47 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate a new method for chest wall reconstruction using porcine-derived artificial rib and pleura in an animal experiment...
  10. Mortensen C, Bhatnagar R, Edey A. Imaging the pleura. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2012;73:626-32 pubmed
    ..In response, the field of pleural imaging has advanced in recent years, especially with regard to ultrasound. Salient multimodality imaging techniques are discussed...
  11. Acencio M, Vargas F, Marchi E, Carnevale G, Teixeira L, Antonangelo L, et al. Pleural mesothelial cells mediate inflammatory and profibrotic responses in talc-induced pleurodesis. Lung. 2007;185:343-8 pubmed
    ..We report that viable, talc-exposed, pleural mesothelial cells may actively mediate the primary inflammatory pleural response in talc-induced pleurodesis. ..
  12. Hasanoglu H, Bayram E, Hasanoglu A, Demirag F. Orally ingested chrysotile asbestos affects rat lungs and pleura. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2008;63:71-5 pubmed publisher
    The authors designed this study to show the effects of orally ingested asbestos on the lungs and pleura. They designated 3 groups of rats: group A (n = 18) was given 1...
  13. Christensen B, Houseman E, Godleski J, Marsit C, Longacker J, Roelofs C, et al. Epigenetic profiles distinguish pleural mesothelioma from normal pleura and predict lung asbestos burden and clinical outcome. Cancer Res. 2009;69:227-34 pubmed publisher
    ..of 1505 CpG loci associated with 803 cancer-related genes were studied in 158 pleural mesotheliomas and 18 normal pleura. After false-discovery rate correction, 969 CpG loci were independently associated with disease status (Q < 0...
  14. Sahn S. Pleural thickening, trapped lung, and chronic empyema as sequelae of tuberculous pleural effusion: don't sweat the pleural thickening. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2002;6:461-4 pubmed
  15. Huggins J, Sahn S. Causes and management of pleural fibrosis. Respirology. 2004;9:441-7 pubmed
    ..Clinically significant pleural fibrosis requires involvement of the visceral pleura. Isolated parietal pleural fibrosis, as with asbestos pleural plaques, does not cause restriction or respiratory ..
  16. Jakobsen C, Torp P, Sloth E. Perioperative feasibility of imaging the heart and pleura in patients with aortic stenosis undergoing aortic valve replacement. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2007;24:589-95 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of perioperative imaging of the heart and pleura according to the focused assessed transthoracic echocardiography protocol in patients scheduled for aortic valve ..
  17. Jammes Y, Trousse D, Delpierre S. Identification and properties of parietal pleural afferents in rabbits. J Physiol. 2005;567:641-50 pubmed
    ..pain and dyspnoea are common symptoms in pleural diseases, there are few studies on the sensory innervation of the pleura. Using rabbits, after removal of all muscles in the intercostal space to be studied, we investigated the afferents ..
  18. Bianchi C, Bianchi T, Grandi G. Malignant mesothelioma of the pleura among seafarers. Med Lav. 2005;96:490-5 pubmed
    ..1 years). When compared with shipyard workers, the seamen with mesothelioma show signs of less intense exposure to asbestos, and longer latency periods. Mesothelioma in seamen should be considered as an occupational disease. ..
  19. Reissig A, Heyne J, Kroegel C. Sonography of lung and pleura in pulmonary embolism: sonomorphologic characterization and comparison with spiral CT scanning. Chest. 2001;120:1977-83 pubmed
    ..The accuracy of TS was 84% (accuracy of CT scanning, 89%). TS is a noninvasive technique that is used for diagnosing parenchymal alterations, and it may serve as an additional method in the strategy for diagnosing PE. ..
  20. Mutsaers S, Prele C, Brody A, Idell S. Pathogenesis of pleural fibrosis. Respirology. 2004;9:428-40 pubmed
  21. Choi Y, Song S. Cytologic clue of so-called nodular histiocytic hyperplasia of the pleura. Diagn Cytopathol. 2001;24:256-9 pubmed
    ..Recently, we encountered a case of so-called NHH of the pleura and confused it with various malignant neoplasms on histologic examination...
  22. Tagliabue F, Vertemati G, Confalonieri G, Romelli A, Terragni S, Costa M. Benign solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura: a clinical review and report of six cases. Chir Ital. 2005;57:649-53 pubmed
    Primary tumours of the pleura are commonly divided into two major categories: diffuse and localised...
  23. Kunz C, Jadus M, Kukes G, Kramer F, Nguyen V, Sasse S. Intrapleural injection of transforming growth factor-beta antibody inhibits pleural fibrosis in empyema. Chest. 2004;126:1636-44 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemistry revealed localization of TGF-beta to macrophages in the exudative material and the visceral pleura. After injection of the antibody to TGF-beta, the amount of purulent, exudative material in the pleural space of ..
  24. Vega F, Padula A, Valbuena J, Stancu M, Jones D, Medeiros L. Lymphomas involving the pleura: a clinicopathologic study of 34 cases diagnosed by pleural biopsy. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2006;130:1497-502 pubmed
    ..However, there are very few clinicopathologic studies reported in the literature of lymphomas involving the pleura. To characterize the clinicopathologic features of lymphomas involving the pleura...
  25. Gary Lee Y, Melkerneker D, Thompson P, Light R, Lane K. Transforming growth factor beta induces vascular endothelial growth factor elaboration from pleural mesothelial cells in vivo and in vitro. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;165:88-94 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, mesothelial cells are an important source of VEGF. TGF-beta increases the VEGF production by mesothelial cells in vivo and in vitro. ..
  26. Michailova K. Mesothelial lamellar bodies in norm and experimental conditions. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic observations on the peritoneum, pleura and pericardium. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2004;208:301-9 pubmed
    ..Strip-like profiles, continuous covering and smaller groups of LB with similar morphology and preferable submesothelial position characterize the mesothelium after EP. ..
  27. Muller K, Schmitz I, Konstantinidis K. Black spots of the parietal pleura: morphology and formal pathogenesis. Respiration. 2002;69:261-7 pubmed
    ..Black spots' seen as flat-to-nodular lesions of the parietal pleura are common findings in former miners. They represent areas of coal dust accumulation...
  28. Agostoni E, Zocchi L. Pleural liquid and its exchanges. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2007;159:311-23 pubmed
    After an account on morphological features of visceral and parietal pleura, mechanical coupling between lung and chest wall is outlined...
  29. Iyem H, Islamoglu F, Yagdi T, Sargin M, Berber O, Hamulu A, et al. Effects of pleurotomy on respiratory sequelae after internal mammary artery harvesting. Tex Heart Inst J. 2006;33:116-21 pubmed
    ..retrospective study to evaluate the effects on postoperative pulmonary function of pleural integrity versus opened pleura, in patients who receive a left internal mammary artery graft...
  30. Goksin I, Baltalarli A, Sacar M, Sungurtekin H, Ozcan V, Gurses E, et al. Preservation of pleural integrity in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: effect on postoperative bleeding and respiratory function. Acta Cardiol. 2006;61:89-94 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of preserved integrity of pleura on postoperative bleeding and respiratory function in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)...
  31. Lee Y, Devin C, Teixeira L, Rogers J, Thompson P, Lane K, et al. Transforming growth factor beta2 induced pleurodesis is not inhibited by corticosteroids. Thorax. 2001;56:643-8 pubmed
    Talc and tetracyclines induce pleurodesis by directly injuring the pleura. The injury results in intense inflammation which subsequently leads to fibrosis. Corticosteroids can inhibit talc pleurodesis by reducing the inflammatory process...
  32. Ferrer J, Montes J, Villarino M, Light R, García Valero J. Influence of particle size on extrapleural talc dissemination after talc slurry pleurodesis. Chest. 2002;122:1018-27 pubmed
    ..Samples from the ipsilateral lung, chest wall, diaphragm, mediastinal pleura, heart, liver, spleen, and right kidney were obtained at 24 h and 7 days and processed for optic and electron ..
  33. Kim H, Song K, Lee H, Lee J, Lim T. Parietal pleura and extrapleural space in chronic tuberculous empyema: CT-pathologic correlation. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2001;25:9-15 pubmed
    The purpose of this work was to describe CT findings of the parietal pleura and extrapleural space in patients with chronic tuberculous empyema and to compare them with histopathologic findings following decortication.
  34. Guo Y, Kalomenidis I, Hawthorne M, Parman K, Lane K, Light R. Pleurodesis is inhibited by anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody. Chest. 2005;128:1790-7 pubmed
    ..84, p < 0.01). VEGF and angiogenesis appear to play a pivotal role in the production of a pleurodesis. ..
  35. Baumann M, Nolan R, Petrini M, Lee Y, Light R, Schneider E. Pleural tuberculosis in the United States: incidence and drug resistance. Chest. 2007;131:1125-32 pubmed
    ..The diagnostic approach is under debate. Knowledge of pleural TB epidemiology would be beneficial. To help clarify pleural TB epidemiology, we analyzed US national TB surveillance data for 1993 to 2003...
  36. Li Y, Li J. Ultrastructure and three-dimensional study of the lymphatic stomata in the costal pleura of the rabbit. Microsc Res Tech. 2003;62:240-6 pubmed
    ..the ultrastructure and three-dimensional organization of the pleural lymphatic stomata in the adult rabbit costal pleura by electron microscopy...
  37. Kouritas V, Hatzoglou C, Foroulis C, Hevas A, Gourgoulianis K, Molyvdas P. Low glucose level and low pH alter the electrochemical function of human parietal pleura. Eur Respir J. 2007;30:354-7 pubmed
    ..usually measured in complicated pleural effusions, alter the electrochemical function of healthy human parietal pleura. Parietal pleural pieces were stripped from 66 patients during thoracic surgery and were mounted in Ussing ..
  38. Fraticelli A, Robaglia Schlupp A, Riera H, Monjanel Mouterde S, Cau P, Astoul P. Distribution of calibrated talc after intrapleural administration: an experimental study in rats. Chest. 2002;122:1737-41 pubmed
    ..The animals were randomly assigned for autopsy at 24 or 72 h after pleural injection. Lungs, parietal pleura, diaphragm, liver, kidneys, spleen, pericardium, brain, and blood were assessed by polarized light for ..
  39. Lombardi G, Zustovich F, Nicoletto M, Donach M, Artioli G, Pastorelli D. Diagnosis and treatment of malignant pleural effusion: a systematic literature review and new approaches. Am J Clin Oncol. 2010;33:420-3 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the correct treatment depends on several factors such as performance status, expected survival, presence of lung reexpansion following pleural drainage and comorbidities...
  40. Ryman Rasmussen J, Cesta M, Brody A, Shipley Phillips J, Everitt J, Tewksbury E, et al. Inhaled carbon nanotubes reach the subpleural tissue in mice. Nat Nanotechnol. 2009;4:747-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This work suggests that minimizing inhalation of nanotubes during handling is prudent until further long-term assessments are conducted...
  41. Kunter E, Ilvan A, Kilic E, Cerrahoglu K, Isitmangil T, Capraz F, et al. The effect of pleural fluid content on the development of pleural thickness. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2002;6:516-22 pubmed
    ..Residual pleural thickness (RPT) is a common complication of tuberculous pleurisy (TP), and the degree of RPT cannot be predicted in advance...
  42. Grimaldi A, Moriondo A, Sciacca L, Guidali M, Tettamanti G, Negrini D. Functional arrangement of rat diaphragmatic initial lymphatic network. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;291:H876-85 pubmed
  43. Mohammed K, Nasreen N, Hardwick J, Logie C, Patterson C, Antony V. Bacterial induction of pleural mesothelial monolayer barrier dysfunction. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2001;281:L119-25 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that bacterial pathogens induce VEGF release in mesothelial cells and alter mesothelial permeability, leading to protein exudation in empyema...
  44. Bianchi C, Bianchi T, Tommasi M. [Mesothelioma of the pleura in the Province of Trieste]. Med Lav. 2007;98:374-80 pubmed
    ..The Province of Trieste, north-eastern Italy (population about 240,000), has been identified as an area with a high incidence of pleural mesothelioma...
  45. De B, Heguy A, Leopold P, Wasif N, Korst R, Hackett N, et al. Intrapleural administration of a serotype 5 adeno-associated virus coding for alpha1-antitrypsin mediates persistent, high lung and serum levels of alpha1-antitrypsin. Mol Ther. 2004;10:1003-10 pubmed
    ..6-fold higher than the accepted therapeutic level of 570 microg/ml. In the context that the pleura is a safe site for administration, intrapleural administration using AAV5 vectors may represent an attractive gene ..
  46. Santos R, Haddad R, Lima C, Liu Y, Misztal M, Ferreira T, et al. Patterns of recurrence and long-term survival after curative resection of localized fibrous tumors of the pleura. Clin Lung Cancer. 2005;7:197-201 pubmed
    Localized fibrous tumors of the pleura (LFTPs) are uncommon thoracic neoplasms with variable malignant potential that were previously classified as benign presentation of mesothelioma...
  47. Mohn K, Quiot J, Nonent M, Lacut K, Le Gall G, Couturaud F, et al. Transthoracic sonography of the lung and pleura in view of a suspected pulmonary embolism: a pilot study. J Ultrasound Med. 2003;22:673-8; quiz 680-1 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the diagnostic performance of transthoracic sonography of the lung in view of an acute suspicion of pulmonary embolism...
  48. Uskul B, Turker H, Ulman C, Ertugrul M, Selvi A, Kant A, et al. The relation of the pleural thickening in tuberculosis pleurisy with the activity of adenosine deaminase. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2005;63:101-7 pubmed
  49. Schopf L, Fraga J, Amantéa S, Sanches P, Muller A, Borowski S, et al. Induction of pleural empyema in rats by thoracentesis with intrapleural pressure monitoring. Pediatr Surg Int. 2004;20:515-9 pubmed
    ..The macroscopic changes, amount of pleural fluid, and anatomopathological aspects of pleura and lungs were recorded, as well as death causes and bacteriological findings of pleural fluid for animals that ..
  50. Kouritas V, Hatzoglou C, Ioannou M, Gourgoulianis K, Molyvdas P. Insulin alters the permeability of sheep pleura. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2010;118:304-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Direct stimulation of sheep pleura by insulin and the possible electrophysiology mechanisms involved were investigated.
  51. Liu J, Wong H, Moselhy J, Bowen B, Wu X, Johnston M. Targeting colloidal particulates to thoracic lymph nodes. Lung Cancer. 2006;51:377-86 pubmed
    ..Micro- or nanoparticulates are used as carriers for therapeutic agents. We investigated the lymphatic distribution after intrapleural administration of three different particulates...
  52. Hatzoglou C, Gourgoulianis K, Molyvdas P. Effects of SNP, ouabain, and amiloride on electrical potential profile of isolated sheep pleura. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;90:1565-9 pubmed
    ..and solute transport properties of pleural tissue were studied by using specimens of intact visceral and parietal pleura from adult sheep lungs...
  53. Ianaro A, Ialenti A, Maffia P, Pisano B, Di Rosa M. Role of cyclopentenone prostaglandins in rat carrageenin pleurisy. FEBS Lett. 2001;508:61-6 pubmed
  54. Adams R, Gray W, Davies R, Gleeson F. Percutaneous image-guided cutting needle biopsy of the pleura in the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. Chest. 2001;120:1798-802 pubmed
    ..This study explores whether percutaneous image-guided cutting needle biopsy (CNB) combined with immunohistochemistry is accurate in diagnosing pleural thickening due to mesothelioma...
  55. Yew W, Leung S. Prediction of residual pleural thickening in tuberculous pleural effusion. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2003;7:199-200 pubmed
  56. Conde M, Loivos A, Rezende V, Soares S, Mello F, Reingold A, et al. Yield of sputum induction in the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;167:723-5 pubmed
    ..6). The yield of sputum cultures obtained by SI is high in patients suspected of having pleural TB even in those cases with no pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities on the chest radiograph...
  57. Jimenez Castro D, Diaz G, Perez Rodriguez E, Light R. Prognostic features of residual pleural thickening in parapneumonic pleural effusions. Eur Respir J. 2003;21:952-5 pubmed
    ..There are certain risk factors for the development of residual pleural thickening. However, this complication was not associated with long-term functional repercussions in the series of patients involved in this study...
  58. Du H, Xie C, He Q, Deng X. Increased expression of aquaporin-1 on the pleura of rats with a tuberculous pleural effusion. Lung. 2007;185:325-36 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of AQP-1 on the pleura is altered in a rat model with a tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) and to study its function.
  59. Reissig A, Kroegel C. Transthoracic ultrasound of lung and pleura in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: a novel non-invasive bedside approach. Respiration. 2003;70:441-52 pubmed
    ..bedside approach which is based on (1) detecting alterations in the lung parenchyma, (2) involvement of the pleura and (3) peripheral perfusion characteristics associated with thromboembolism. Using a 5 MHz or 3...
  60. Mitchev K, Dumortier P, De Vuyst P. 'Black Spots' and hyaline pleural plaques on the parietal pleura of 150 urban necropsy cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002;26:1198-206 pubmed
    The absence of any direct connection between the lung and the parietal pleura raises questions about the mechanisms of pleural migration and retention of inhaled particles...
  61. Maskell N, Butland R. BTS guidelines for the investigation of a unilateral pleural effusion in adults. Thorax. 2003;58 Suppl 2:ii8-17 pubmed
  62. Cavazza A, Rossi G, Agostini L, Roncella S, Ferro P, Fedeli F. Cytokeratin-positive malignant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura: an unusual pitfall in the diagnosis of pleural spindle cell neoplasms. Histopathology. 2003;43:606-8 pubmed
  63. Lai Fook S. Pleural mechanics and fluid exchange. Physiol Rev. 2004;84:385-410 pubmed
    ..Homeostasis in pleural liquid volume is achieved by an adjustment of the pleural liquid thickness to the filtration rate that is matched by an outflow via lymphatic stomata...
  64. Han D, Song J, Chung H, Lee J. Resolution of residual pleural disease according to time course in tuberculous pleurisy during and after the termination of antituberculosis medication. Chest. 2005;128:3240-5 pubmed
    ..To assess the resolution of pleural disease in patients with tuberculous pleurisy (TP) during and after antituberculosis medication...
  65. Cailhier J, Sawatzky D, Kipari T, Houlberg K, Walbaum D, Watson S, et al. Resident pleural macrophages are key orchestrators of neutrophil recruitment in pleural inflammation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;173:540-7 pubmed
    ..The role played by resident pleural macrophages in the initiation of pleural inflammation is currently unclear...
  66. Oz B, Iyem H, Akay H, Yildirim V, Karabacak K, Bolcal C, et al. Preservation of pleural integrity during coronary artery bypass surgery affects respiratory functions and postoperative pain: a prospective study. Can Respir J. 2006;13:145-9 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the role of preserved pleural integrity in postoperative pain and respiratory functional status in patients undergoing coronary revascularization...
  67. Perna V, Rivas F, Morera R, Saumench J, Ramos R, Macia I, et al. Localized (solitary) fibrous tumors of the pleura: an analysis of 15 patients. Int J Surg. 2008;6:298-301 pubmed publisher
    Localized fibrous tumors of the pleura (LFTPs) are rare neoplasms, which are considered to originate from submesothelial connective tissue...
  68. Antony V, Nasreen N, Mohammed K, Sriram P, Frank W, Schoenfeld N, et al. Talc pleurodesis: basic fibroblast growth factor mediates pleural fibrosis. Chest. 2004;126:1522-8 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that the intrapleural instillation of talc induces the pleural mesothelial production of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which is responsible for pleural fibrosis...
  69. Bernaudin J, Fleury Feith J. [Structure and physiology of the pleura and the pleural space]. Rev Pneumol Clin. 2006;62:73-7 pubmed
    ..on the species while the lymphatic circulation is directly connected to the pleural space via pores in the parietal pleura. Pleural physiology and movement of pleural fluid are directly related to the particular structures of the pleura.
  70. Roach H, Davies G, Attanoos R, Crane M, Adams H, Phillips S. Asbestos: when the dust settles an imaging review of asbestos-related disease. Radiographics. 2002;22 Spec No:S167-84 pubmed
    Asbestos-related neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases of the lungs and pleura range from pleural effusion and pleural plaques to lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma...
  71. Jantz M, Antony V. Pathophysiology of the pleura. Respiration. 2008;75:121-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We will also review the processes involved in the pathogenesis of pleural fibrosis...
  72. Adams R, Gleeson F. Percutaneous image-guided cutting-needle biopsy of the pleura in the presence of a suspected malignant effusion. Radiology. 2001;219:510-4 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of percutaneous image-guided cutting-needle biopsy of pleural thickening in the presence of a suspected malignant pleural effusion...
  73. Pham Q. Chest radiography in the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2001;5:478-82 pubmed
    ..Report of a workshop on Occupational Lung Diseases, IUATLD Respiratory Disease Section, Bangkok 1998...
  74. Bonacchi M, Prifti E, Giunti G, Salica A, Frati G, Sani G. Respiratory dysfunction after coronary artery bypass grafting employing bilateral internal mammary arteries: the influence of intact pleura. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2001;19:827-33 pubmed
  75. Hussain T, Nasreen N, Lai Y, Bellew B, Antony V, Mohammed K. Innate immune responses in murine pleural mesothelial cells: Toll-like receptor-2 dependent induction of beta-defensin-2 by staphylococcal peptidoglycan. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008;295:L461-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that PMCs may contribute to host innate immune defense upon exposure to gram-positive bacteria or their products within the pleural space by upregulating TLR-2 and mBD-2 expression...
  76. Jimenez D, Diaz G, Garcia Rull S, Vidal R, Sueiro A, Light R. Routine use of pleural fluid cultures. Are they indicated? Limited yield, minimal impact on treatment decisions. Respir Med. 2006;100:2048-52 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, at least in our institution, routine microbial investigation of pleural fluid adds very little to the standard management of parapneumonic effusions...
  77. Papaioannou A, Kostikas K, Tsopa P, Kiropoulos T, Tsilioni I, Oikonomidi S, et al. Residual pleural thickening is related to vascular endothelial growth factor levels in parapneumonic pleural effusions. Respiration. 2010;80:472-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Pleural fluid vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels are known to be elevated in complicated parapneumonic effusion and seem to play a major role in the fibrotic process in the pleura.
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