scimitar syndrome


Summary: An anomalous pulmonary venous return in which the right PULMONARY VEIN is not connected to the LEFT ATRIUM but to the INFERIOR VENA CAVA. Scimitar syndrome is named for the crescent- or Turkish sword-like shadow in the chest radiography and is often associated with hypoplasia of the right lung and right pulmonary artery, and dextroposition of the heart.

Top Publications

  1. Inoue T, Ichihara M, Uchida T, Sakai Y, Hayashi T, Morooka S. Three-dimensional computed tomography showing partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection complicated by the scimitar syndrome. Circulation. 2002;105:663 pubmed
  2. Mordue B. A case series of five infants with scimitar syndrome. Adv Neonatal Care. 2003;3:121-32 pubmed
    b>Scimitar syndrome is a rare association of congenital cardiopulmonary anomalies consisting of a partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection of the right lung to the inferior vena cava, right lung hypoplasia, dextroposition of the heart,..
  3. Zagol B, Book S, Krasuski R. Late "adult form" scimitar syndrome presenting with "infant form" complications. J Invasive Cardiol. 2006;18:E82-5 pubmed
    This case report describes an 85-year-old woman with complications resulting from scimitar syndrome, anomalous drainage of the right pulmonary veins into the inferior vena cava...
  4. Wang C, Wu E, Chen S, Lu F, Huang S, Wang J, et al. Scimitar syndrome: incidence, treatment, and prognosis. Eur J Pediatr. 2008;167:155-60 pubmed
    This study is based on a database of 16 years; we sought to define the incidence and outcome of scimitar syndrome. Of 8,771 patients, 5 (0.057%) with scimitar syndrome were identified and constituted the study population...
  5. Kabbani M, Haider N, Abu Sulaiman R. Bilateral scimitar syndrome. Cardiol Young. 2004;14:447-9 pubmed
    b>Scimitar syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly that affects classically the right lung and the heart...
  6. Le Rochais J, Icard P, Davani S, Abouz D, Evrard C. Scimitar syndrome with pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999;68:1416-8 pubmed
    ..fissure, dextrocardia, and systemic arterial supply of a variable degree, are the characteristics of the scimitar syndrome. We report on a patient in whom this rare syndrome was associated with pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas ..
  7. Juraszek A, Cohn H, Van Praagh R, Van Praagh S. Isolated left-sided scimitar vein connecting all left pulmonary veins to the right inferior vena cava. Pediatr Cardiol. 2005;26:846-7 pubmed
    ..Such cases have been described as "scimitar syndrome." We report the case of a young female patient in whom all the left pulmonary veins converged into a ..
  8. Jain K, Braze A, Shapiro M, Perez Tamayo R. Aberrant right subclavian artery-esophageal fistula and severe gastrointestinal bleeding after surgical correction of scimitar syndrome. Tex Heart Inst J. 2012;39:571-4 pubmed
    b>Scimitar syndrome and gastrointestinal bleeding from an aberrant right subclavian artery-esophageal fistula are each extremely rare...
  9. Tortoriello T, Vick G, Chung T, Bezold L, Vincent J. Meandering right pulmonary vein to the left atrium and inferior vena cava: the first case with associated anomalies. Tex Heart Inst J. 2002;29:319-23 pubmed
    ..noted to drain into both the inferior vena cava and left atrium in association with findings consistent with scimitar syndrome. The anomalous pulmonary vein took a very circuitous route through the lungs before draining into the left ..

More Information


  1. Brown J, Ruzmetov M, Minnich D, Vijay P, Edwards C, Uhlig P, et al. Surgical management of scimitar syndrome: an alternative approach. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;125:238-45 pubmed
    The scimitar syndrome is a congenital anomaly that consists in part of total or partial anomalous venous drainage of the right lung to the inferior vena cava...
  2. Argueta Morales I, Meador L, Nykanen D, DeCampli W. Infantile form of scimitar syndrome with contralateral pulmonary vein stenosis. Pediatr Cardiol. 2010;31:550-2 pubmed publisher
    Infantile scimitar syndrome (SS) carries significant mortality. Consistent management guidelines have not been well established, and outcomes continue to be disappointing...
  3. Rokade M, Rananavare R, Shetty D, Saifi S. Scimitar syndrome. Indian J Pediatr. 2005;72:245-7 pubmed
    b>Scimitar syndrome, a rare anomaly of partial pulmonary venous drainage into the hepatic portion of the inferior vena cava, detected in a ten-day-old neonate who presented clinically with respiratory distress and diagnosed on ultrasound ..
  4. Sinha R, Singh P, Bhatnagar A, Batra A. Scimitar syndrome: imaging by magnetic resonance angiography and Doppler echocardiography. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2004;46:283-6 pubmed
    ..of both an anomalous pulmonary venous drainage and an anomalous systemic arterial supply in a patient with scimitar syndrome. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography provides an excellent non-invasive diagnostic tool for ..
  5. Midyat L, Demir E, Aşkin M, Gulen F, Ulger Z, Tanac R, et al. Eponym. Scimitar syndrome. Eur J Pediatr. 2010;169:1171-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Scimitar syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly, characterized by partial or complete anomalous pulmonary venous drainage of the right or left lung into the inferior vena cava...
  6. Khan A, Ring N, Hughes P. Scimitar syndrome (congenital pulmonary venolobar syndrome). Postgrad Med J. 2005;81:216 pubmed
  7. Tutar E, Fitoz S, Atalay S, Uysalel A, Aral A, Ekici F, et al. Magnetic resonance angiographic and three-dimensional computerized tomographic identification of scimitar syndrome in an 8-month-old infant. Turk J Pediatr. 2005;47:92-4 pubmed
    b>Scimitar syndrome is a rare congenital abnormality. Clear anatomic definition is an important issue before operation...
  8. Rajaii Khorasani A, Kahrom M, Mottaghi H, Kahrom H. Surgical management of scimitar syndrome: an alternative approach. ANZ J Surg. 2008;78:419-20 pubmed publisher
  9. Tsitouridis I, Tsinoglou K, Morichovitou A, Stratilati S, Siouggaris N, Kontaki T. Scimitar syndrome versus meandering pulmonary vein: evaluation with three-dimensional computed tomography. Acta Radiol. 2006;47:927-32 pubmed
    ..In the first case, an unusual form of scimitar syndrome was detected, consisting of two scimitar veins uniting into a common trunk immediately before their ..
  10. Lee M, Yang S, Yang A. Transcatheter occlusion of the isolated scimitar vein anomaly camouflaged under dual pulmonary venous drainage of the right lung by the Amplatzer Ductal Occluder. Int J Cardiol. 2007;115:e90-3 pubmed
  11. Benito Bartolomé F, González García A, Oliver Ruiz J. [Intraluminal dilation of inferior vena cava stenosis after repair of the scimitar syndrome in an adult patient]. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2002;55:190-2 pubmed
    ..After the procedure the gradient decreased and she improved tolerance to effort, which persisted 10 months later...
  12. Reddy R, Shah R, Thorpe J, Gibbs J. Scimitar syndrome: a rare cause of haemoptysis. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2002;22:821 pubmed
  13. Walles T, Lichtenberg A, Shiraga K, Klima U. Combined correction of an adult scimitar syndrome and coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;73:640-2 pubmed
    Combined scimitar syndrome and coronary artery disease is a rare combination of congenital and acquired cardiac disease in adults. Hence, no guidelines for surgical correction are available...
  14. Agayev A, Yekeler E. Left-sided scimitar syndrome. Pediatr Radiol. 2009;39:191 pubmed publisher
  15. Khalilzadeh S, Hassanzad M, Khodayari A. Scimitar syndrome. Arch Iran Med. 2009;12:79-81 pubmed
    b>Scimitar syndrome or congenital pulmonary venolobar syndrome is a rare anomaly most commonly consisting of partial pulmonary venous drainage into the hepatic portion of the inferior vena cava, right lung hypoplasia, dextroposition of the ..
  16. Baskar Karthekeyan R, Saldanha R, Sahadevan M, Rao S, Vakamudi M, Rajagopal B. Scimitar syndrome: experience with 6 patients. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2009;17:266-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Scimitar syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by anomalous pulmonary venous drainage to the inferior vena cava, causing a left-to-right shunt...
  17. Sehgal A, Loughran Fowlds A. Scimitar syndrome. Indian J Pediatr. 2005;72:249-51 pubmed
    b>Scimitar syndrome is a relatively uncommon constellation of cardio-pulmonary anomalies, its typical feature being partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection. It can present in the neonatal period as well as later in life...
  18. Marco de Lucas E, Canga A, Sadaba P, Martin Duran R, Otero M, Cerezal L. Scimitar syndrome: complete anatomical and functional diagnosis with gadolinium-enhanced and velocity-encoded cine MRI. Pediatr Radiol. 2003;33:716-8 pubmed
    ..8-year-old girl with anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the IVC and systemic arterial supply (scimitar syndrome)...
  19. Ors F, Deniz O, Kocaoglu M, Tasar M, Celik T. Agenesis of the hepatic vena cava in a patient with scimitar syndrome. Vascular. 2007;15:109-12 pubmed
    ..b>Scimitar syndrome, also called venolobar syndrome and hypogenetic lung syndrome, is a rare pulmonary vascular anomaly of the ..
  20. Yehia B, Bachmann J, Traill T. Scimitar syndrome: a rare cause of dyspnea in adults. South Med J. 2010;103:578-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Scimitar syndrome is a rare congenital malformation resulting in anomalous pulmonary venous return and lung malformations. Symptoms commonly develop in the first year of life, leading to diagnosis and surgical correction...
  21. Rutledge J, Hiatt P, Wesley Vick G, Grifka R. A sword for the left hand: an unusual case of left-sided scimitar syndrome. Pediatr Cardiol. 2001;22:350-2 pubmed
    b>Scimitar syndrome is a rare anomaly involving abnormalities of the heart and lung which classically involves the right side...
  22. Rose C, Vosshenrich R. Incomplete scimitar syndrome. Cardiol Young. 2002;12:389-90 pubmed
  23. Gavazzi E, Ravanelli M, Farina D, Chiari M, Maroldi R. Scimitar syndrome: comprehensive, noninvasive assessment with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation. 2008;118:e63-4 pubmed publisher
  24. Barata I. Cardiac emergencies. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2013;31:677-704 pubmed publisher
    ..Later presentations are the result of volume overload or pump failure and present with signs of congestive heart failure. Acquired diseases also present as congestive heart failure or arrhythmias. ..
  25. Sinha S, Morgan Hughes N, O Toole L, Hunter S. Minimal access mitral valve repair in a patient with a right pneumonectomy for Scimitar syndrome. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2016;22:851-3 pubmed publisher
    ..In 1968, he had undergone right pneumonectomy due to Scimitar syndrome. Dense adhesions due to previous interventions, such as thoracotomy, make it difficult to insert ports, and ..
  26. Arévalo Salas L, Solano Fiesco L, Villatoro Fernández J. [Percutaneous closure of ductus arteriosus through an arteriovenous loop in a patient with scimitar syndrome]. Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex. 2017;74:55-59 pubmed publisher
    b>Scimitar syndrome consists in a rare malformation characterized by a partial abnormal connection in one or both right pulmonary veins to the inferior vena cava, right lung hypoplasia and systemic circulation from the descending aorta...
  27. Çakır U, KahvecioÄŸlu D, Alan S, Erdeve Ã, Atasay B, Uçar T, et al. Portal Vein Thrombosis of a Newborn with Corrected Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return. Turk J Haematol. 2015;32:267-70 pubmed publisher
    ..PVT, TAPVD anomalisi olan ve tam düzeltici açık kalp onarımı yapılan hastalarda akılda tutulmalıdır. Her bir yenidoğan için tedavi, risk ve yarar göz önünde tutularak bireyselleştirilmelidir. ..
  28. Wu M, Lai R, Huang Y, Hsiao S. Images in cardiovascular medicine. Scimitar syndrome with esophageal varices: magnetic resonance angiography detects anomalous pulmonary venous return. Circulation. 2004;110:e540-1 pubmed
  29. Luciani G, Hoxha S, Lucchese G, Rebonato M, Rossetti L, Faggian G, et al. Neonatal repair of truncus arteriosus with "scimitar-like" mixed total pulmonary venous return. Ann Thorac Surg. 2014;97:e167-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The unprecedented anatomic pattern of the systemic and pulmonary venous connection and the original surgical strategy are discussed. ..
  30. Alsoufi B, Cai S, Van Arsdell G, Williams W, Caldarone C, Coles J. Outcomes after surgical treatment of children with partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;84:2020-6; discussion 2020-6 pubmed right PAPVC into the right atrium in 29 (12%), left PAPVC into the innominate vein in 22 (9%), and scimitar syndrome in 15 (6%)...
  31. Marshall G, Wong J, Sadler D, Gray R. Answer to case of the month # 99 scimitar syndrome. Can Assoc Radiol J. 2005;56:103-5 pubmed
  32. Walsh S. A Swashbuckling film not starring Johnny Depp. J Pediatr Health Care. 2007;21:49-50, 67-8 pubmed
  33. Bhupali A, Kumar J, Patil J, Chitnis N, Prasad S. Use of 64 slice CT in scimitar syndrome. J Assoc Physicians India. 2010;58:698-700 pubmed
    b>Scimitar Syndrome is a relatively rare variety of partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection in which the right pulmonary veins form an anomalous confluence which drains into the infra-diaphragmatic inferior vena cava...
  34. Zabala L, Ahmed M, Denman W. Bispectral index in a 3-year old undergoing deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest. Paediatr Anaesth. 2003;13:355-9 pubmed
    We report a 3-year-old girl who presented with Scimitar syndrome and underwent hypothermic circulatory arrest for correction of anomalous pulmonary veins and an atrial septal defect...
  35. Gavali S, Phadke M, Kerkar P. Supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection with bilateral (right and left) vertical veins and bilateral obstruction. Pediatr Cardiol. 2013;34:1751-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This facilitates emergency surgical repair without delay, which is crucial to improvement of the outcome. ..
  36. Jujo T, Tanabe N, Sugiura T, Naito A, Shigeta A, Kitazono Saitoh M, et al. Importance of carefully interpreting computed tomography images to detect partial anomalous pulmonary venous return. Respir Investig. 2016;54:69-74 pubmed publisher
    ..929, p=0.002). There is a potential risk of CT scan misinterpretation when looking for anomalous PVs. Careful interpretation of CT findings that focus on PVs may be useful for detecting PAPVR and obtaining a PH differential diagnosis. ..
  37. Suri D, Sodhi K, Muralidharan J, Manoj R, Singhi S. Scimitar syndrome: an uncommon cause of wheezing. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2008;24:164-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Scimitar syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by total or partial anomalous venous drainage of the right lung to the inferior vena cava...
  38. Muñoz Castellanos L, Kuri Nivon M. [Scimitar syndrome. Correlation anatomo-embryological]. Arch Cardiol Mex. 2016;86:103-9 pubmed publisher
  39. Azakie A, Lavrsen M, Johnson N, Sapru A. Early outcomes of primary sutureless repair of the pulmonary veins. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;92:666-71; discussion 671-2 pubmed publisher
    ..0011). Primary sutureless repair is a feasible, safe, and relatively effective method of addressing congenital PV stenosis and (or) high-risk PVs, particularly in infants with single ventricle anatomy and (or) heterotaxy syndrome. ..
  40. Hazelzet T, Durand I, David N. [Total isolated anomalous pulmonary venous return: Are there any clues for prenatal screening?]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2015;43:541-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Looking at data of missed TAPVC, we describe how to identify TAPVC during routine cardiac screening. Since 2010, our isolated TAPVC prenatal diagnosis rate is more than 40%. ..
  41. Hu Z, Wang S, Yang Y. [Diagnosis of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection using multi-slice spiral CT]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2009;29:1922-4 pubmed
    ..MSCT combined with 3-dimensional reconstruction provides a noninvasive and accurate means for the diagnosis of TAPVC. ..
  42. Espinola Zavaleta N, Muñoz Castellanos L, Játiva Chávez S, Zamora Gonzalez C. [Anatomo-echocardiographic correlation of scimitar syndrome in adults]. Arch Cardiol Mex. 2005;75:165-9 pubmed
    ..The correlation shows agreement between the echocardiographic image and the anatomic specimen. Scimitar syndrome is a rare entity, which diagnosis and follow up can be performed by echocardiography in a great percentage (..
  43. Yamashita K, Hoashi T, Kagisaki K, Kurosaki K, Shiraishi I, Yagihara T, et al. Midterm outcomes of sutureless technique for postoperative pulmonary venous stenosis. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014;62:48-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Further follow-up may demonstrate therapeutic advantages. ..
  44. Wawrzynska L, Radomyski A, Burakowska B, Mojkowski W, Torbicki A. [Scimitar syndrome--case report]. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2004;111:489-93 pubmed
    b>Scimitar syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly. This syndrome is characterized by partial or complete anomalous pulmonary venous drainage of the right lung to the inferior vena cava...
  45. Buz S, Alexi Meskishvili V, Villavicencio Lorini F, Yigitbasi M, Hubler M, Weng Y, et al. Analysis of arrhythmias after correction of partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Ann Thorac Surg. 2009;87:580-3 pubmed publisher
    ..25% in group 1 versus 18.1% in group 2. Extended incision through the cavoatrial junction increases atrial dysrhythmias, especially early postoperatively, but the incidence of such sinus node dysfunction decreased with time. ..
  46. Legras A, Guinet C, Alifano M, Lepilliez A, Regnard J. A case of variant scimitar syndrome. Chest. 2012;142:1039-1041 pubmed publisher
    b>Scimitar syndrome is one of the large congenital pulmonary venolobar syndromes and is defined as hypogenetic lung associated with partial anomalous pulmonary venous return...
  47. Karaci A, Harmandar B, Aydemir N, Sasmazel A, Balci A, Saritas T, et al. Early and intermediate term results for surgical correction of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection. J Card Surg. 2012;27:376-80 pubmed publisher
    ..However, patients having FUH (especially with concomitant palliative surgery), heterotaxy syndrome, low weight, early age, and long CPB time still have an increased operative mortality. ..
  48. Puvaneswary M, Leitch J, Chard R. MRI of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (scimitar syndrome). Australas Radiol. 2003;47:92-3 pubmed
    We report a case of anomalous pulmonary venous drainage into the inferior vena cava (scimitar syndrome)...
  49. Elder R, Kogon B, Sahu A. "Double whammy": anomalous pulmonary and systemic venous drainage in a patient with scimitar syndrome. Cardiol Young. 2013;23:738-9 pubmed publisher
    Anomalously draining right pulmonary veins are expected with scimitar syndrome, but systemic venous abnormalities are rare. We present an unusual case of a female patient with scimitar and an interrupted inferior vena cava.
  50. Vanderheyden M, Goethals M, Van Hoe L. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection or scimitar syndrome. Heart. 2003;89:761 pubmed
  51. Goudarzi M, Sabouri S, Fayazi N, Shabestari A, Karam M, Kahkouee S. Anomalous unilateral single pulmonary vein mimicking pulmonary nodules on HRCT of the lungs and scimitar syndrome on chest radiograph: multidetector CT findings. J Thorac Imaging. 2009;24:142-6 pubmed publisher
    ..multidetector computerized tomography in a case of anomalous unilateral single pulmonary vein mimicking pulmonary nodules on high-resolution computed tomography of the lungs and scimitar syndrome on chest radiograph in an asthmatic girl.
  52. Sparks J, Das B, Eid N, Austin E, Recto M. Atypical mycobacterial infection in sequestrated lung in an infant presenting with chronic pneumonitis and recurrent wheezing. Congenit Heart Dis. 2008;3:284-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Angiography confirmed the CT scan findings. Pulmonary sequestration associated with scimitar syndrome was subsequently diagnosed...
  53. Shim H, Yang J, Jun T. Two-stage correction of type IV total anomalous pulmonary venous connection. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2017;12:54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that leaving the isolated LSPV uncorrected during infancy and performing a second operation when the LSPV has grown adequately is a viable treatment option for patients with type IV TAPVC. ..
  54. Sridhar A, Tofeig M. A 4-yr-old presenting with chronic cough and asymmetrical chest. Eur Respir J. 2003;22:862-4 pubmed
  55. Wu C, Zhao J, Jiang T, Huang X. Noncompaction cardiomyopathy associated with hypogenetic lung. Chin Med J (Engl). 2007;120:174-6 pubmed
  56. Haest R, van den Berg C, Goei R, Baur L. Scimitar syndrome; an unusual congenital abnormality occasionally seen in adults. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2006;22:565-8 pubmed
    b>Scimitar syndrome a very rare and variable congenital disorder characterized by an anomalous connection of the pulmonary vein with the IVC...
  57. Dähnert I, Riede F, Kostelka M. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage of the left upper pulmonary vein -- catheter interventional treatment is sometimes possible. Clin Res Cardiol. 2007;96:511-3 pubmed
  58. Park H, Heinle J, Morales D. Williams syndrome and obstructed total anomalous pulmonary venous return: a previously unreported association. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012;94:289-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Cardiovascular abnormalities are frequently associated with Williams syndrome. This is a report of a rare patient with both Williams syndrome and obstructed TAPVR...
  59. Saiki H, Kakei H, Ishido H, Masuoka A, Suzuki T, Katogi T, et al. Unilateral pulmonary artery banding to promote contralateral pulmonary artery growth. Heart Vessels. 2012;27:532-4 pubmed
    ..Under appropriate patient selection, unilateral PA banding for patients with unbalanced peripheral PA size could serve as an effective and less invasive strategy to simultaneously promote PA growth and control PA flow...
  60. Arcieri L, Margaryan R, Murzi M, Cantinotti M, Murzi B. Repair of partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection in the Scimitar syndrome using vacuum-assisted venous drainage. J Card Surg. 2012;27:618-20 pubmed publisher
    Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection with drainage into the inferior vena cava (Scimitar syndrome, SS) is rare in adults. Surgical procedures to correct SS often require circulatory arrest...
  61. Greenberg S. Combined Scimitar syndrome and interruption of the inferior vena cava causing mega-azygous and hemiazygous veins. Pediatr Cardiol. 2008;29:243-4 pubmed
    Computed tomography angiography detected scimitar syndrome with venous drainage to the inferior vena cava caudal to an interruption of the inferior vena cava in a 48-year-old woman...
  62. Siddiqui T, Ul Haq I, Rehman B, Arooj S. Bronchial atresia with partial anomalous pulmonary venous return. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2011;21:362-3 pubmed publisher
  63. Chen H, Xu Z. Outcome of primary repair of infracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection using a right-sided approach to the left atrium. J Card Surg. 2011;26:102-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report our experience using a right-sided approach to the left atrium to repair this anomaly variant...
  64. Mason D, Mihaljevic T, Mazzone P, Murthy S, Rice T. Extrapleural pneumonectomy for scimitar syndrome. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006;132:704-5 pubmed
  65. Khan M, Torres A, Printz B, Prakash A. Usefulness of magnetic resonance angiography for diagnosis of scimitar syndrome in early infancy. Am J Cardiol. 2005;96:1313-6 pubmed
    This study evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of the magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) evaluation of scimitar syndrome in early infancy in 4 subjects...
  66. Georghiou G, Vidne B, Hirsch R. Images in cardiology: scimitar syndrome. Heart. 2005;91:1589 pubmed
  67. Michailidis G, Simpson J, Tulloh R, Economides D. Retrospective prenatal diagnosis of scimitar syndrome aided by three-dimensional power Doppler imaging. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2001;17:449-52 pubmed
    b>Scimitar syndrome is a rare malformation of the arterial supply and venous drainage of the lung. We report the case of a fetus that presented with cardiac asymmetry and malposition of the fetal heart...
  68. Onan B, Aydin U, Turkvatan A, Bakir I. Robot-Assisted Repair of Right Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return. J Card Surg. 2016;31:394-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A complex repair was successfully done through a right atriotomy approach using a robotic surgical system. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12753 (J Card Surg 2016;31:394-397). ..
  69. Ishibashi N, Takahashi Y, Kikuchi T, Kobayashi N, Suzuki R, Mizutani S. [Case report of scimitar syndrome in infancy: intracardiac repair after coil embolization of systemic arterial supply to sequestered lung]. Kyobu Geka. 2001;54:875-9 pubmed
    A 10-month-old girl was diagnosed with atrial septal defect and pulmonary sequestration and scimitar syndrome. Cardiac catheterization revealed severe pulmonary hypertension, with systemic pulmonary artery pressure 97 mmHg, pulmonary ..
  70. Hasegawa T, Oshima Y, Sato Y, Tanaka A. Surgical Repair of Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection in a Neonate With Mosaic Trisomy 8. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2016;7:231-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The entire dialog with parents and family, including the process of informed consent, is of great importance. ..
  71. Jung H, Bang J, Park C, Park J, Im Y, Yun T. Individual Pulmonary Veins Outgrow Somatic Growth After Primary Sutureless Repair for Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Drainage. Pediatr Cardiol. 2016;37:290-4 pubmed publisher
    ..005). IPVs outgrew somatic growth after primary SR of TAPVD. Primary SR may be a useful measure in TAPVD patients whose IPVs are small. ..
  72. Madan N, Moore J. Images in cardiovascular medicine. Unusual angiographic appearance of scimitar syndrome associated with primitive hepatic venous plexus. Circulation. 2002;105:E78-8 pubmed
  73. Agnoletti G, Bonnet D, de Blic J. Scimitar syndrome associated with absence of the right pulmonary artery and a persistent primitive hepatic venous plexus. Cardiol Young. 2005;15:216-8 pubmed
    ..The benign association of this unusual variant of the scimitar syndrome and persistence of the hepatic venous plexus needs to be recognised in order to avoid extensive ..
  74. Ielasi A, Latib A, Agricola E, Montorfano M, Colombo A. Scimitar syndrome. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2011;12:176-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Selective angiography confirmed drainage of an anomalous pulmonary vein to the IVC-atrial junction. Scimitar syndrome is a rare vascular anomaly that can manifest in childhood with signs of right heart failure and/or recurrent ..
  75. Perri G, Filippelli S, Kirk R, Hasan A, Griselli M. Surgical repair of an unusual type of supra-cardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the superior vena cava. J Card Surg. 2012;27:384-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The continuity between distal SVC and right atrium was re-established by re-implanting the SVC to the right atrial appendage (Warden Procedure)...
  76. Devendran V, Wilson N, Jesudian V. Percutaneous closure of a large unligated vertical vein using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug II after supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) repair. Pediatr Cardiol. 2013;34:1976-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The case report describes a child who had a large patent VV after repair of supracardiac TAPVC and its closure using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug II device...
  77. Camacho Castro A, Calderón Colmenero J, Razo Pinete A, Patiño Bahena E, García Montes J, Ramirez Marroquin S, et al. [Scimitar syndrome in infancy]. Rev Invest Clin. 2012;64:52-8 pubmed
    To expose our 26 year experience in clinical management, interventional catheterization and surgical treatment of patients younger than 18 years with scimitar syndrome at the National Cardiology Institute.