blood air barrier


Summary: The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.

Top Publications

  1. Ozşahin K, Tugrul A, Mert S, Yuksel M, Tuğrul G. Evaluation of pulmonary alveolo-capillary permeability in Type 2 diabetes mellitus: using technetium 99mTc-DTPA aerosol scintigraphy and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity. J Diabetes Complications. 2006;20:205-9 pubmed
    ..According to our investigation, (99m)Tc-DTPA aerosol scintigraphy method is more sensitive than DLCO method for determining these pathologies. ..
  2. De Pasquale C, Bersten A, Doyle I, Aylward P, Arnolda L. Infarct-induced chronic heart failure increases bidirectional protein movement across the alveolocapillary barrier. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;284:H2136-45 pubmed
    ..05) increased in the large infarct group, consistent with inflammation. Bidirectional protein movement across the alveolocapillary barrier is increased in CHF, and alveolar inflammation may contribute to this pathophysiological defect...
  3. Katritzky A, Kuanar M, Fara D, Karelson M, Acree W. QSPR treatment of rat blood:air, saline:air and olive oil:air partition coefficients using theoretical molecular descriptors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004;12:4735-48 pubmed
    ..791 for rat blood:air, 0.794 for saline:air and 0.846 for olive oil:air. ..
  4. Negrini D, Passi A, Moriondo A. The role of proteoglycans in pulmonary edema development. Intensive Care Med. 2008;34:610-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The loss of the PGs regulatory functions compromises the protective role of the tissue solid matrix progressively leading to interstitial and eventually severe lung edema. ..
  5. Birukova A, Zagranichnaya T, Fu P, Alekseeva E, Chen W, Jacobson J, et al. Prostaglandins PGE(2) and PGI(2) promote endothelial barrier enhancement via PKA- and Epac1/Rap1-dependent Rac activation. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:2504-20 pubmed
    ..These mechanisms may mediate protective effects of PGs against agonist-induced lung vascular barrier dysfunction in vitro and against mechanical stress-induced lung injury in vivo. ..
  6. Folkesson H, Kheradmand F, Matthay M. The effect of salt water on alveolar epithelial barrier function. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1994;150:1555-63 pubmed
    ..In fact, normal alveolar liquid clearance occurred, indicating the resistance of the epithelial barrier to hyperosmolar injury as well as its capacity to rapidly reabsorb excess alveolar fluid...
  7. Weissmann N, Grimminger F, Seeger W. Hypoxia in lung vascular biology and disease. Cardiovasc Res. 2006;71:618-9 pubmed
  8. Tavolzhanova T, Rozova K, Dubova M, Petrenko O. [Correlation between the thickness of air-blood barrier of the lung and main indices of respiration during changes in oxygen concentration]. Fiziol Zh. 2004;50:24-9 pubmed
  9. Singh J, Gross M, Sage B, Davis H, Maibach H. Regional variations in skin barrier function and cutaneous irritation due to iontophoresis in human subjects. Food Chem Toxicol. 2001;39:1079-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, there was regional variation in the function of the skin and irritation due to iontophoresis. Irritation was greater at the chest than at the abdomen or upper arm. ..

More Information

Publications150 found, 100 shown here

  1. Posadas Calleja J, Ugarte Torres A. [Alveolar epithelial barrier in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)]. Rev Invest Clin. 2003;55:465-70 pubmed
    ..More clinic trials are required to demonstrate the paper of the transport of chloride and to clarify the true function of the specialized water channels in the regulation of the alveolar fluid clearance. ..
  2. Schneberger D, Sethi R, Singh B. Comparative View of Lung Vascular Endothelium of Cattle, Horses, and Water Buffalo. Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol. 2018;228:21-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This chapter focuses on the comparative aspects of pulmonary endothelium and highlight unique differences such as the presence of pulmonary intravascular macrophages among select species. ..
  3. Bachofen H. [Why are the lungs dry?]. Pneumologie. 2009;63:346-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether the active pumping mechanism improving reabsorption of edema fluid is also operative under normal conditions has not yet been clarified. ..
  4. Elahi M, Worner M, Khan J, Matata B. Inspired nitric oxide and modulation of oxidative stress during cardiac surgery. Curr Drug Saf. 2009;4:188-98 pubmed
    ..The results suggested that inspired NO gas has an antioxidant property that reduces the levels of cell death, and is not associated with significantly worse-off physiological outcomes. ..
  5. Bellows C, Brain J. Role of fibronectin in pancreatitis-associated lung injury. Dig Dis Sci. 2003;48:1445-52 pubmed
  6. Guazzi M. Alveolar-capillary membrane dysfunction in chronic heart failure: pathophysiology and therapeutic implications. Clin Sci (Lond). 2000;98:633-41 pubmed
    ..This review examines the pathophysiological and clinical significance of assessing lung diffusion capacity in patients with CHF. ..
  7. Rodriguez C, Mahle D, Gearhart J, Mattie D, Lipscomb J, Cook R, et al. Predicting age-appropriate pharmacokinetics of six volatile organic compounds in the rat utilizing physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling. Toxicol Sci. 2007;98:43-56 pubmed
    ..This study highlights the pharmacokinetic differences and the relevant parameters that may contribute to differential susceptibility to the toxic effects of VOCs across life stages of the rat. ..
  8. West J. Vulnerability of pulmonary capillaries during exercise. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2004;32:24-30 pubmed
    ..Elite human athletes at maximal exercise develop changes in the structure of the capillary wall as evidenced by red blood cells in their alveoli. Racehorses routinely break their pulmonary capillaries while galloping. ..
  9. Bogatcheva N, Adyshev D, Mambetsariev B, Moldobaeva N, Verin A. Involvement of microtubules, p38, and Rho kinases pathway in 2-methoxyestradiol-induced lung vascular barrier dysfunction. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007;292:L487-99 pubmed
    ..The fact that certain concentrations of 2ME induce endothelial hyperpermeability suggests that the issue of the maximum-tolerated dose of 2ME for cancer treatment should be addressed with caution. ..
  10. Manohar M, Goetz T, Hassan A. Effect of prior high-intensity exercise on exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia in Thoroughbred horses. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;90:2371-7 pubmed
    ..Thus our data do not support a role for structural changes in the blood-gas barrier related to the stress failure of pulmonary capillaries in causing the exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia in horses...
  11. Schmiedl A, Hoymann H, Ochs M, Menke A, Fehrenbach A, Krug N, et al. Increase of inactive intra-alveolar surfactant subtypes in lungs of asthmatic Brown Norway rats. Virchows Arch. 2003;442:56-65 pubmed
    ..Thus, the inflammatory process after allergen challenge of sensitized Brown Norway rats causes intra-alveolar surfactant alterations. These surfactant alterations might contribute to small airway dysfunction. ..
  12. Papritz M, Pohl C, Wübbeke C, Moisch M, Hofmann H, Hermanns M, et al. Side-specific effects by cadmium exposure: apical and basolateral treatment in a coculture model of the blood-air barrier. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010;245:361-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our results suggest that intact epithelial TJs may play a major role in protecting the air-blood barrier from inhaled Cd(2+). ..
  13. Cutillo A, Ailion D. Modeling the nuclear magnetic resonance behavior of lung: from electrical engineering to critical care medicine. Bioelectromagnetics. 1999;Suppl 4:110-9 pubmed
    ..g., pulmonary edema) and the management of critically ill patients. ..
  14. Ahdieh M, Vandenbos T, Youakim A. Lung epithelial barrier function and wound healing are decreased by IL-4 and IL-13 and enhanced by IFN-gamma. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001;281:C2029-38 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that IL-4 and IL-13 diminish the capacity of Calu-3 cells to maintain barrier function and repair wounds, whereas IFN-gamma promotes epithelial restitution by enhancing barrier function and wound healing...
  15. Runciman S, Seymour R, Baudinette R, Pearson J. An allometric study of lung morphology during development in the Australian pelican, Pelicanus conspicillatus, from embryo to adult. J Anat. 2005;207:365-80 pubmed
    ..Exchange characteristics of growing pelican lungs were inferior to those of adult birds of 26 other species, but converged with them at maturity. ..
  16. Low B, Liang M, Fu J. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates sidestream cigarette smoke-induced endothelial permeability. J Pharmacol Sci. 2007;104:225-31 pubmed
    ..Thus, p38 MAPK mediates SCS-induced endothelial permeability. Inhibition of p38 MAPK may have therapeutic potential for second-hand smoke-induced vascular injury. ..
  17. West J. Comparative physiology of the pulmonary blood-gas barrier: the unique avian solution. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R1625-34 pubmed publisher
  18. Obertacke U, Joka T, Kreuzfelder E. [Alveolo-capillary permeability following multiple trauma--monitoring by bronchoalveolar lavage]. Pneumologie. 1991;45:610-5 pubmed
    ..It is of value for the prediction of ARDS within 24 hours and for monitoring of pulmonary damage in posttraumatic course.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  19. Lynde C. Moisturizers for the treatment of inflammatory skin conditions. J Drugs Dermatol. 2008;7:1038-43 pubmed
  20. Seymour R, Runciman S, Baudinette R, Pearson J. Developmental allometry of pulmonary structure and function in the altricial Australian pelican Pelecanus conspicillatus. J Exp Biol. 2004;207:2663-9 pubmed
    ..The capacity of the oxygen delivery system is theoretically sufficient for powered flight well in advance of the bird's need to use it. ..
  21. Maina J, West J. Thin and strong! The bioengineering dilemma in the structural and functional design of the blood-gas barrier. Physiol Rev. 2005;85:811-44 pubmed
    ..Under extreme conditions of operation and in some disease states, the barrier fails with serious consequences. The lamina densa which in many parts of the blood-gas barrier is <50 nm thin is a lifeline in the true sense of the word. ..
  22. Grinnell K, Casserly B, Harrington E. Role of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 in barrier function of pulmonary endothelium. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010;298:L361-70 pubmed publisher
  23. Borland C, Mist B, Zammit M, Vuylsteke A. Steady-state measurement of NO and CO lung diffusing capacity on moderate exercise in men. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;90:538-44 pubmed
    ..min(-1). Torr(-1) for NO and CO, respectively, and pulmonary capillary blood volume was 140 ml. Inhalation of repeated breaths of NO over 80 s did not alter DL(NO) at the concentrations used...
  24. Hennig B, Meerarani P, Slim R, Toborek M, Daugherty A, Silverstone A, et al. Proinflammatory properties of coplanar PCBs: in vitro and in vivo evidence. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2002;181:174-83 pubmed
    ..An intact AhR may be necessary for the observed PCB-induced responses. These findings suggest that activation of the AhR can be an underlying mechanism of atherosclerosis mediated by certain environmental contaminants. ..
  25. Fritsche C, Simsch O, Weinberg E, Orrick B, Stamm C, Kaazempur Mofrad M, et al. Pulmonary tissue engineering using dual-compartment polymer scaffolds with integrated vascular tree. Int J Artif Organs. 2009;32:701-10 pubmed
    ..Pulmonary tissue engineering aims at developing viable hybrid tissue for patients with chronic respiratory failure...
  26. Guazzi M, Agostoni P. Decrease by ACE-inhibition of the excessive alveolar-capillary membrane resistance to gas transfer in chronic heart failure. Cardiologia. 1998;43:625-30 pubmed
  27. Kumagai S, Matsunaga I. A lung model describing uptake of organic solvents and roles of mucosal blood flow and metabolism in the bronchioles. Inhal Toxicol. 2000;12:491-510 pubmed
    ..The model also shows that U is significantly increased by the mucosal metabolism at lambda(B) between 50 and 5000. Especially, U in the case of CL(Mu) = 100 ml/min is higher by 0.3 than that in the nonmucosal metabolism. ..
  28. Maina J, West J, Orgeig S, Foot N, Daniels C, Kiama S, et al. Recent advances into understanding some aspects of the structure and function of mammalian and avian lungs. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2010;83:792-807 pubmed publisher
    ..quot; ..
  29. Parker J, Ivey C, Tucker J. Gadolinium prevents high airway pressure-induced permeability increases in isolated rat lungs. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1998;84:1113-8 pubmed
  30. Jiang J, Song Y, Bai C, Koller B, Matthay M, Verkman A. Pleural surface fluorescence measurement of Na+ and Cl- transport across the air space-capillary barrier. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003;94:343-52 pubmed
    ..Our results establish a pleural surface fluorescence method to measure unidirectional Cl(-) and Na(+) flux in intact lung and provide evidence for cAMP-stimulated transcellular Cl(-) and Na(+) transport. ..
  31. De Vita S, Guazzi M, Oreglia J, Guazzi M. [Alveolar-capillary dysfunction in heart failure]. Ital Heart J Suppl. 2002;3:1022-6 pubmed
    ..This review examines the current knowledge on this topic. ..
  32. Maris N, de Vos A, Dessing M, Spek C, Lutter R, Jansen H, et al. Antiinflammatory effects of salmeterol after inhalation of lipopolysaccharide by healthy volunteers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;172:878-84 pubmed
    ..05 vs. placebo/LPS), while not significantly influencing other responses. Salmeterol exerts antiinflammatory effects in the pulmonary compartment of humans exposed to LPS. ..
  33. Tankersley C, Shank J, Flanders S, Soutiere S, Rabold R, Mitzner W, et al. Changes in lung permeability and lung mechanics accompany homeostatic instability in senescent mice. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003;95:1681-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, this senescent-dependent increase in lung permeability may be a contributing factor for increased PM susceptibility in the elderly and patients with lung disease. ..
  34. Hermanns M, Fuchs S, Bock M, Wenzel K, Mayer E, Kehe K, et al. Primary human coculture model of alveolo-capillary unit to study mechanisms of injury to peripheral lung. Cell Tissue Res. 2009;336:91-105 pubmed publisher
    ..The compartmentalization of the barrier-forming bilayer also allows mechanisms of lung injury to be studied in both the epithelial (intra-alveolar) and the endothelial (intravascular) compartments. ..
  35. Mukundan C, Gurish M, Austen K, Hechtman H, Friend D. The presence of v-abl-transformed V3 mast cells in the lungs augments pulmonary vascular permeability to acid aspiration. J Histochem Cytochem. 2001;49:793-4 pubmed
    ..By increasing pulmonary mast cells through adoptive transfer of v-abl-transformed mast cells (V3MCs) into BALB/c mice, we now show that the greater mast cell number in the lung is associated with increased pulmonary injury. ..
  36. Watson R, Fu Z, West J. Morphometry of the extremely thin pulmonary blood-gas barrier in the chicken lung. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007;292:L769-77 pubmed
    ..The net result is to improve gas exchanging efficiency. ..
  37. Mühlfeld C, Müller K, Pallesen L, Sandhaus T, Madershahian N, Richter J, et al. Impact of preservation solution on the extent of blood-air barrier damage and edema formation in experimental lung transplantation. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2007;290:491-500 pubmed
    ..Celsior was not effective in preserving the lung from morphological I/R injury. ..
  38. Schnapper A, Christmann A, Knudsen L, Rahmanian P, Choi Y, Zeriouh M, et al. Stereological assessment of the blood-air barrier and the surfactant system after mesenchymal stem cell pretreatment in a porcine non-heart-beating donor model for lung transplantation. J Anat. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..No significant differences were encountered comparing ischaemia alone (group 2) or ischaemia plus application of MSCs (groups 3 and 4) in this short-term model...
  39. Ehrhardt C, Fiegel J, Fuchs S, Abu Dahab R, Schaefer U, Hanes J, et al. Drug absorption by the respiratory mucosa: cell culture models and particulate drug carriers. J Aerosol Med. 2002;15:131-9 pubmed
    ..With such in vitro models, transport of drugs into pulmonary epithelial cells and/or across the air-blood barrier, as well as the effect and efficacy of novel drug carrier systems can be systematically studied. ..
  40. Fang X, Yang B, Matthay M, Verkman A. Evidence against aquaporin-1-dependent CO2 permeability in lung and kidney. J Physiol. 2002;542:63-9 pubmed
    ..The results provide direct evidence against physiologically significant transport of CO2 by AQP1 in mammalian lung and kidney. ..
  41. Ramirez M, Millien G, Hinds A, Cao Y, Seldin D, Williams M. T1alpha, a lung type I cell differentiation gene, is required for normal lung cell proliferation and alveolus formation at birth. Dev Biol. 2003;256:61-72 pubmed
  42. Chen Y, Chang Y, Kao E, Chuang H, Dai Z, Chou S, et al. Mechanical injuries to the ipsilateral non-diseased lobes(s) during pulmonary resection--another factor causing postoperative complications. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007;55:450-3 pubmed
    ..The mechanical injuries during the pulmonary surgical procedure alter the permeability, which could be a possible factor causing postoperative pulmonary complications. ..
  43. Guy R, Delgado Charro M, Kalia Y. Iontophoretic transport across the skin. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2001;14 Suppl 1:35-40 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the analysis reveals useful paths for further investigation. ..
  44. Ponec M, Gibbs S, Pilgram G, Boelsma E, Koerten H, Bouwstra J, et al. Barrier function in reconstructed epidermis and its resemblance to native human skin. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2001;14 Suppl 1:63-71 pubmed
  45. Sanders J, Pou N, Roselli R. Neutral and DEAE dextrans as tracers for assessing lung microvascular barrier permeability and integrity. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002;93:251-62 pubmed
  46. Galambos C, Demello D. Regulation of alveologenesis: clinical implications of impaired growth. Pathology. 2008;40:124-40 pubmed publisher
  47. Wirbelauer J, Speer C. The role of surfactant treatment in preterm infants and term newborns with acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Perinatol. 2009;29 Suppl 2:S18-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Newborns with MAS will definitely benefit from a reduced need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Clinical experience seems to justify surfactant treatment in neonates with ARDS. ..
  48. West J, Fu Z, Deerinck T, Mackey M, Obayashi J, Ellisman M. Structure-function studies of blood and air capillaries in chicken lung using 3D electron microscopy. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2010;170:202-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These EM studies show the supporting structures in greater detail than has previously been possible, particularly in 3D, and they allow a more complete analysis of the mechanical forces affecting avian pulmonary capillaries. ..
  49. Ochs M, Nenadic I, Fehrenbach A, Albes J, Wahlers T, Richter J, et al. Ultrastructural alterations in intraalveolar surfactant subtypes after experimental ischemia and reperfusion. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;160:718-24 pubmed
  50. Maina J. Development, structure, and function of a novel respiratory organ, the lung-air sac system of birds: to go where no other vertebrate has gone. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2006;81:545-79 pubmed
    ..However, many fundamental aspects of the evolution, development, and even the structure and function of the avian respiratory system still remain uncertain. ..
  51. Townsley M, King J, Alvarez D. Ca2+ channels and pulmonary endothelial permeability: insights from study of intact lung and chronic pulmonary hypertension. Microcirculation. 2006;13:725-39 pubmed
  52. Birukova A, Zagranichnaya T, Alekseeva E, Bokoch G, Birukov K. Epac/Rap and PKA are novel mechanisms of ANP-induced Rac-mediated pulmonary endothelial barrier protection. J Cell Physiol. 2008;215:715-24 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a novel mechanism of ANP protective effects against agonist-induced pulmonary EC barrier dysfunction via inhibition of Rho signaling by Epac/Rap1-Rac and PKA signaling cascades. ..
  53. Kuebler W. Hitting new barriers in ventilator-induced lung injury. Intensive Care Med. 2008;34:592-4 pubmed
  54. Kreyling W, Semmler Behnke M, Seitz J, Scymczak W, Wenk A, Mayer P, et al. Size dependence of the translocation of inhaled iridium and carbon nanoparticle aggregates from the lung of rats to the blood and secondary target organs. Inhal Toxicol. 2009;21 Suppl 1:55-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies show that both NP characteristics--the material and the size of the chain-type aggregates--determine translocation and accumulation in STOs, skeleton, and soft tissue. ..
  55. Sammani S, Moreno Vinasco L, Mirzapoiazova T, Singleton P, Chiang E, Evenoski C, et al. Differential effects of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors on airway and vascular barrier function in the murine lung. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;43:394-402 pubmed publisher
  56. Podkowa D, Goniakowska Witalińska L. Morphology of the air-breathing stomach of the catfish Hypostomus plecostomus. J Morphol. 2003;257:147-63 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the thin-walled stomach of Hypostomus plecostomus, with its rich network of capillaries, has a morphology suggesting it is an efficient organ for air breathing. ..
  57. Norman P. The Challenges of CNS Drug Discovery. 4 March 2003, GlaxoSmithKline plc, Harlow, UK. IDrugs. 2003;6:297-301 pubmed
  58. Geyer A, Taschauer A, Alioglu F, Anton M, Maier J, Drothler E, et al. Multimodal Fluorescence and Bioluminescence Imaging Reveals Transfection Potential of Intratracheally Administered Polyplexes for Breast Cancer Lung Metastases. Hum Gene Ther. 2017;28:1202-1213 pubmed publisher
    ..In 4T1-iRFP720 tumor-bearing mice, intratracheal administration of luciferase-encoding plasmid DNA by LPEI polyplexes resulted in successful tumor transfection, as revealed by bioluminescence imaging. ..
  59. Fluhr J, Pelosi A, Lazzerini S, Dikstein S, Berardesca E. Differences in corneocyte surface area in pre- and post-menopausal women. Assessment with the noninvasive videomicroscopic imaging of corneocytes method (VIC) under basal conditions. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2001;14 Suppl 1:10-6 pubmed
    ..The detected differences support the hypothesis that sexual hormones have an impact on corneocyte surface area, because sex hormone levels are higher in premenopausal women than in non-hormone-substituted postmenopausal women or men. ..
  60. Kim K, Malik A. Protein transport across the lung epithelial barrier. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2003;284:L247-59 pubmed
    ..g., 60-kDa albumin binding protein and IgG binding FcRn) expressed in alveolar epithelium need to be elucidated. ..
  61. de Prost N, Dreyfuss D, Ricard J, Saumon G. Terbutaline lessens protein fluxes across the alveolo-capillary barrier during high-volume ventilation. Intensive Care Med. 2008;34:763-70 pubmed
    ..To evaluate whether a beta2-adrenergic agonist may reduce acute alveolo-capillary barrier alterations during high-volume ventilation...
  62. Holtzman M, Morton J, Shornick L, Tyner J, O Sullivan M, Antao A, et al. Immunity, inflammation, and remodeling in the airway epithelial barrier: epithelial-viral-allergic paradigm. Physiol Rev. 2002;82:19-46 pubmed
  63. Li H, Ge Y, Zhang L, Zheng X. Astragaloside IV improved barrier dysfunction induced by acute high glucose in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Life Sci. 2006;79:1186-93 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that astragaloside IV protected endothelial cells from high glucose-induced barrier impairment by inhibiting PKC activation, as well as improving cytoskeleton remodeling. ..
  64. Mühlfeld C, Liakopoulos O, Schaefer I, Schöndube F, Richter J, Dorge H. Methylprednisolone fails to preserve pulmonary surfactant and blood-air barrier integrity in a porcine cardiopulmonary bypass model. J Surg Res. 2008;146:57-65 pubmed
  65. Kolosova I, Mirzapoiazova T, Moreno Vinasco L, Sammani S, Garcia J, Verin A. Protective effect of purinergic agonist ATPgammaS against acute lung injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008;294:L319-24 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that purinergic receptor stimulation exerts a protective role against ALI by preserving integrity of endothelial cell-cell junctions. ..
  66. Li Y, Li J, Yin J, Li W, Kang C, Huang Q, et al. Systematic influence induced by 3 nm titanium dioxide following intratracheal instillation of mice. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2010;10:8544-9 pubmed
    ..Our results also indicated that TiO2 NPs might pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and induce the brain injury through oxidative stress response. ..
  67. Mathieu Costello O, Willford D, Fu Z, Garden R, West J. Pulmonary capillaries are more resistant to stress failure in dogs than in rabbits. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1995;79:908-17 pubmed
    ..5 cmH2O, and unlike in rabbits, neither total nor interstitial thickness increased significantly with increasing pressure. These results indicate that pulmonary capillaries are more resistant to stress failure in dogs than rabbits. ..
  68. Loden M, Barany E. Skin-identical lipids versus petrolatum in the treatment of tape-stripped and detergent-perturbed human skin. Acta Derm Venereol. 2000;80:412-5 pubmed
    ..This finding may support the hypothesis that different types of skin abnormality should be treated according to the underlying damage. ..
  69. Bechara R, Pelaez A, Palacio A, Joshi P, Hart C, Brown L, et al. Angiotensin II mediates glutathione depletion, transforming growth factor-beta1 expression, and epithelial barrier dysfunction in the alcoholic rat lung. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2005;289:L363-70 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that angiotensin II mediates oxidative stress and the consequent TGF-beta1 expression and alveolar epithelial barrier dysfunction that characterize the alcoholic lung. ..
  70. West J. Vulnerability of pulmonary capillaries during severe exercise. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40:821 pubmed
  71. Curry F, Glass C. TRP channels and the regulation of vascular permeability: new insights from the lung microvasculature. Circ Res. 2006;99:915-7 pubmed
  72. Huh D, Matthews B, Mammoto A, Montoya Zavala M, Hsin H, Ingber D. Reconstituting organ-level lung functions on a chip. Science. 2010;328:1662-8 pubmed publisher
  73. Kotsariev O, Antoniuk S, Lykholat O. [Structural-functional characteristics of the air-blood barrier of lungs upon inhalation of low concentrations of lead salt]. Fiziol Zh. 2001;47:36-41 pubmed
    ..On late stages accumulation of lead in lungs and its injuring action the picture of toxical alveolitis with the subsequent activation of collagen formation and development of interstitial fibrosis followed develops. ..
  74. Chlopicki S, Walski M, Bartus J. Ultrastructure of immediate microvascular lung injury induced by bacterial endotoxin in the isolated, no-deficient lung perfused with full blood. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005;56 Suppl 4:47-64 pubmed
    ..This response is designed for a quick elimination of bacterial endotoxin from the circulation and is safeguarded by endothelial NO. ..
  75. Pauluhn J. Inhalation toxicity of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate homopolymer (HDI-IC) aerosol: results of single inhalation exposure studies. Toxicol Sci. 2000;58:173-81 pubmed
    ..9 mg/m(3). With respect to changes of early markers of pulmonary epithelial barrier dysfunction, approximately 3 mg HDI-IC/m(3) was considered to be the threshold concentration for acute pulmonary irritation. ..
  76. Poliakova V. [Structural reorganization in the lining epithelium of airways and respiratory areas of the lungs following exposure to hydrogen sulfide-containing gas mixture]. Morfologiia. 2003;124:20-3 pubmed
    ..The reversibility of the structural modifications in the pulmonary epithelia was demonstrated by the study of the organ 1 week following the discontinuation of a 1-month-long exposure to gas mixture. ..
  77. Negri E, Omar E, Mori S, Rodrigues N, Barbas C, Saldiva P, et al. A simple method for the differential characterization of alveoli and alveolar ducts in injured lungs. Histol Histopathol. 2005;20:449-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that WRF staining is useful to distinguish alveolar ducts from alveoli in a DAD model, and suggest that it should be routinely used when morphometric studies of lung parenchyma are performed. ..
  78. Alvarez D, King J, Weber D, Addison E, Liedtke W, Townsley M. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4-mediated disruption of the alveolar septal barrier: a novel mechanism of acute lung injury. Circ Res. 2006;99:988-95 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these findings implicate TRPV4 in disruption of the alveolar septal barrier and suggest its participation in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. ..
  79. Ramchandran R, Mehta D, Vogel S, Mirza M, Kouklis P, Malik A. Critical role of Cdc42 in mediating endothelial barrier protection in vivo. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008;295:L363-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Cdc42 activity of microvessel endothelial cells is a critical determinant of junctional barrier restrictiveness and may represent a means of therapeutically modulating increased lung vascular permeability and edema formation. ..
  80. Stratmann G, Benumof J. Endobronchial hemorrhage due to pulmonary circulation tear: separating the lungs and the air from the blood. Anesth Analg. 2004;99:1276-9 pubmed
  81. van der Lee I, Zanen P, van den Bosch J, Lammers J. Pattern of diffusion disturbance related to clinical diagnosis: The K(CO) has no diagnostic value next to the DL(CO). Respir Med. 2006;100:101-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of the specific diffusion disturbances, which can be constructed by combining the DL(CO), K(CO) and V(A)/TLC...
  82. Su G, Hodnett M, Wu N, Atakilit A, Kosinski C, Godzich M, et al. Integrin alphavbeta5 regulates lung vascular permeability and pulmonary endothelial barrier function. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2007;36:377-86 pubmed
    ..These results identify integrin alphavbeta5 as a central regulator of increased pulmonary vascular permeability and a potentially attractive therapeutic target in ALI...
  83. Parker J, Townsley M. Physiological determinants of the pulmonary filtration coefficient. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008;295:L235-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A consistent K(f) is dependent on accurately separating the filtration and vascular volume components of lung weight gain, then K(f) is a consistent and repeatable index of lung vascular permeability...
  84. Maes M, Mihaylova I, Kubera M, Leunis J. An IgM-mediated immune response directed against nitro-bovine serum albumin (nitro-BSA) in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and major depression: evidence that nitrosative stress is another factor underpinning the comorbidity between major depression a. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2008;29:313-9 pubmed
  85. Wiener Kronish J, Sakuma T, Kudoh I, Pittet J, Frank D, Dobbs L, et al. Alveolar epithelial injury and pleural empyema in acute P. aeruginosa pneumonia in anesthetized rabbits. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1993;75:1661-9 pubmed
    ..Although other products may be involved, exoenzyme S and phospholipase C are important in mediating injury to the alveolar epithelial barrier in acute P. aeruginosa pneumonia in rabbits...
  86. Younger J, Taqi A, Jost P, Till G, Johnson K, Stern S, et al. The pattern of early lung parenchymal and air space injury following acute blood loss. Acad Emerg Med. 1998;5:659-65 pubmed
    ..Acute lung injury is a frequent clinical occurrence following blood loss and trauma. The nature of this injury remains poorly understood...
  87. Lesur O, Berthiaume Y, Blaise G, Damas P, Deland E, Guimond J, et al. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: 30 years later. Can Respir J. 1999;6:71-86 pubmed
  88. West J. Invited review: pulmonary capillary stress failure. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2000;89:2483-9;discussion 2497 pubmed
    ..The barrier is able to maintain its extreme thickness with sufficient strength as a result of continual regulation of its wall structure. How it does this is a central problem in lung biology...
  89. Burnham E, Brown L, Halls L, Moss M. Effects of chronic alcohol abuse on alveolar epithelial barrier function and glutathione homeostasis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003;27:1167-72 pubmed
    ..We postulated that humans who chronically abuse alcohol will have similar alterations in alveolar-capillary barrier function...
  90. Sun Y, Zhang Q, Wang J, Cui Y. [Effects of sevoflurane on membrane permeability of alveolar capillaries in rats with acute lung injury caused by endotoxin]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2004;42:1014-7 pubmed
    ..To observe the effect of sevoflurane on membrane permeability of alveolar capillaries in rats with acute lung injury and the ratio of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in rats with acute endotoxin lung injury...
  91. Seymour R, Runciman S, Baudinette R. Development of maximum metabolic rate and pulmonary diffusing capacity in the superprecocial Australian Brush Turkey Alectura lathami: an allometric and morphometric study. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2008;150:169-75 pubmed
    ..A parallel allometry between MMR and Dto2 in Brush Turkeys and pelicans is consistent with the concept of symmorphosis during development...
  92. Emmler J, Hermanns M, Steinritz D, Kreppel H, Kirkpatrick C, Bloch W, et al. Assessment of alterations in barrier functionality and induction of proinflammatory and cytotoxic effects after sulfur mustard exposure of an in vitro coculture model of the human alveolo-capillary barrier. Inhal Toxicol. 2007;19:657-65 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the described in vitro model reflects important characteristics of SM-mediated acute lung injury in vivo and thus can be used to explore involved pathophysiological pathways...