pulmonary atelectasis


Summary: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.

Top Publications

  1. Gunnarsson L, Tokics L, Gustavsson H, Hedenstierna G. Influence of age on atelectasis formation and gas exchange impairment during general anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth. 1991;66:423-32 pubmed
  2. Gunnarsson L, Tokics L, Lundquist H, Brismar B, Strandberg A, Berg B, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and anaesthesia: formation of atelectasis and gas exchange impairment. Eur Respir J. 1991;4:1106-16 pubmed
    ..These findings contrast with those seen in patients with healthy lungs in whom atelectasis and shunt regularly develop during anaesthesia. ..
  3. Karki K, Saraiya S, Hugo G, Mukhopadhyay N, Jan N, Schuster J, et al. Variabilities of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-, Computed Tomography-, and Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography-Based Tumor and Lymph Node Delineations for Lung Cancer Radiation Therapy Planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017;99:80-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Multimodality imaging and combining different imaging characteristics might be the best approach to define the tumor volume most accurately. ..
  4. Marvel S, Elliott C, Tocino I, Greenway L, Metcalf S, Chapman R. Positive end-expiratory pressure following coronary artery bypass grafting. Chest. 1986;90:537-41 pubmed
    ..0 +/- 0.9 cm). We conclude that routine PEEP improves pulmonary oxygen transfer but, once discontinued, PEEP offers no sustained beneficial effect upon impaired oxygen transfer or roentgenographic evidence of atelectasis following CABG. ..
  5. Whiteman K, Nachtmann L, Kramer D, Sereika S, Bierman M. Effects of continuous lateral rotation therapy on pulmonary complications in liver transplant patients. Am J Crit Care. 1995;4:133-9 pubmed
  6. Fumagalli J, Berra L, Zhang C, Pirrone M, Santiago R, Gomes S, et al. Transpulmonary Pressure Describes Lung Morphology During Decremental Positive End-Expiratory Pressure Trials in Obesity. Crit Care Med. 2017;45:1374-1381 pubmed publisher
    ..A decremental positive end-expiratory pressure trial preceded by a recruitment maneuver reverses atelectasis, improves lung mechanics, distribution of ventilation and oxygenation, and does not increase pulmonary vascular resistance. ..
  7. Hyde R, Rawson A. Unintentional iatrogenic oxygen pneumonitis--response to therapy. Ann Intern Med. 1969;71:517-31 pubmed
  8. Beckett R, Gray B. Effect of atelectasis and embolization on extravascular thermal volume of the lung. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol. 1982;53:1614-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that microembolization but not atelectasis causes errors in the measurement of lung fluid when the thermodye technique is used. The errors are variable and depend on the degree of embolization. ..
  9. Moradian S, Najafloo M, Mahmoudi H, Ghiasi M. Early mobilization reduces the atelectasis and pleural effusion in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: A randomized clinical trial. J Vasc Nurs. 2017;35:141-145 pubmed publisher
    ..05). EM from bed could be an effective intervention in reducing atelectasis and pleural effusion in patients undergoing CABG. ..

More Information


  1. Rothen H, Sporre B, Engberg G, Wegenius G, Reber A, Hedenstierna G. Atelectasis and pulmonary shunting during induction of general anaesthesia--can they be avoided?. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1996;40:524-9 pubmed
    ..By using a mixture containing 30% oxygen in nitrogen, the early formation of atelectasis and pulmonary shunt may, at least in part, be avoided. ..
  2. Sutherasan Y, Vargas M, Pelosi P. Protective mechanical ventilation in the non-injured lung: review and meta-analysis. Crit Care. 2014;18:211 pubmed publisher
  3. Retamal J, Bergamini B, Carvalho A, Bozza F, Borzone G, Borges J, et al. Non-lobar atelectasis generates inflammation and structural alveolar injury in the surrounding healthy tissue during mechanical ventilation. Crit Care. 2014;18:505 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings suggest that a local non-lobar atelectasis acts as a stress concentrator, generating structural alveolar injury and inflammation in the surrounding lung tissue. ..
  4. Brooks Brunn J. Postoperative atelectasis and pneumonia: risk factors. Am J Crit Care. 1995;4:340-9; quiz 350-1 pubmed
    ..Early identification of patients at risk for postoperative pulmonary complications can guide our respiratory care to prevent or minimize these complications. ..
  5. Baumgardner J, Otto C, Markstaller K. Large changes in PaO2 oscillation amplitude with respiratory rate are not measurement artifact. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2014;195:59 pubmed publisher
  6. Farneti P, Sciarretta V, Macrì G, Piccin O, Pasquini E. Silent sinus syndrome and maxillary sinus atelectasis in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;98:150-157 pubmed publisher
    ..Chronic maxillary atelectasis or SSS should be considered as a possible cause of persistent headache of unknown origin in pediatric patients. ..
  7. Baraka A, Moghrabi R, Yazigi A. Unilateral pulmonary oedema/atelectasis in the lateral decubitus position. Anaesthesia. 1987;42:171-4 pubmed
    ..This appears to have been due to ventilation-perfusion mismatch, although other factors were considered. The patient recovered following 36 hours of intermittent positive pressure ventilation of the lungs. ..
  8. Strandberg A, Tokics L, Brismar B, Lundquist H, Hedenstierna G. Constitutional factors promoting development of atelectasis during anaesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1987;31:21-4 pubmed
    ..This finding might partly explain why overweight patients develop postoperative pulmonary complications more often than non-obese patients. ..
  9. Dolovich M, Rushbrook J, Churchill E, Mazza M, Powles A. Effect of continuous lateral rotational therapy on lung mucus transport in mechanically ventilated patients. J Crit Care. 1998;13:119-25 pubmed
    ..Positional drainage effected by short duration CLRT did not appear to stimulate significant mucous removal from the lung in critically ill patients but also did not cause any adverse effects. ..
  10. Kimmoun A, Guerci P, Bridey C, Ducrocq N, Vanhuyse F, Levy B. Prone positioning use to hasten veno-venous ECMO weaning in ARDS. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39:1877-9 pubmed publisher
  11. Schmölzer G, Te Pas A, Davis P, Morley C. Reducing lung injury during neonatal resuscitation of preterm infants. J Pediatr. 2008;153:741-5 pubmed publisher
  12. Chang S, Chang H, Shiao G, Perng R. Effect of body position on gas exchange in patients with unilateral central airway lesions. Down with the good lung?. Chest. 1993;103:787-91 pubmed
  13. Hedenstierna G, Tokics L, Lundquist H, Andersson T, Strandberg A, Brismar B. Phrenic nerve stimulation during halothane anesthesia. Effects of atelectasis. Anesthesiology. 1994;80:751-60 pubmed
    ..5 and 5.2 cm2, respectively. The findings indicate that contracting the diaphragm in the anesthetized subject reduces the size of atelectasis. ..
  14. Scelsi C, Khasnavis T, Patel N, Keshavamurthy J, Davis W. Persistent Lobar Atelectasis in a Patient With Chronic Hoarseness. Chest. 2017;151:e107-e113 pubmed publisher
    ..She denied any worsening hoarseness or any other vocal changes. She did report a positive family history of squamous cell lung cancer in her father. ..
  15. Ozturk E, Tanıdır I, Yildiz O, Ergul Y, Guzeltas A. The Efficacy of Thoracic Ultrasonography in Postoperative Newborn Patients after Cardiac Surgery. Braz J Cardiovasc Surg. 2017;32:283-287 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the efficacy of thoracic ultrasonography during echocardiography was evaluated in newborns...
  16. Liu J, Chen S, Liu F, Li Q, Kong X, Feng Z. The diagnosis of neonatal pulmonary atelectasis using lung ultrasonography. Chest. 2015;147:1013-1019 pubmed publisher
    ..many kinds of lung conditions, but few studies have investigated ultrasound for the diagnosis of neonatal pulmonary atelectasis (NAP). In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of lung ultrasonography for the diagnosis of NPA...
  17. Neumann P, Berglund J, Fernandez Mondejar E, Magnusson A, Hedenstierna G. Dynamics of lung collapse and recruitment during prolonged breathing in porcine lung injury. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1998;85:1533-43 pubmed
    ..In this experimental setting, expiration times <0.6 s are required to avoid cyclic alveolar collapse during mechanical ventilation without extrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure. ..
  18. Brismar B, Hedenstierna G, Lundquist H, Strandberg A, Svensson L, Tokics L. Pulmonary densities during anesthesia with muscular relaxation--a proposal of atelectasis. Anesthesiology. 1985;62:422-8 pubmed
    ..The four awake subjects showed no lung densities after 90 min in the supine position. It is suggested that these crest-shaped densities represent atelectases, which develop by compression of lung tissue rather than by resorption of gas. ..
  19. Neumann P, Rothen H, Berglund J, Valtysson J, Magnusson A, Hedenstierna G. Positive end-expiratory pressure prevents atelectasis during general anaesthesia even in the presence of a high inspired oxygen concentration. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1999;43:295-301 pubmed
    ..PEEP = 10 cmH2O reduced atelectasis formation after a VCM, when FiO2 = 1.0 was used. Thus, a VCM followed by PEEP = 10 cmH2O should be considered when patients are ventilated with a high FiO2 and gas exchange is impaired. ..
  20. Domino K, Wetstein L, Glasser S, Lindgren L, Marshall C, Harken A, et al. Influence of mixed venous oxygen tension (PVO2) on blood flow to atelectatic lung. Anesthesiology. 1983;59:428-34 pubmed
    ..A 40% reduction in cardiac output significantly decreased transmural pulmonary artery pressure but did not affect PaO2, QS/QT%, or QL%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  21. Guimarães M, El Dib R, Smith A, Matos D. Incentive spirometry for prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications in upper abdominal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;:CD006058 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a case for large randomized trials of high methodological rigour in order to define any benefit from the use of incentive spirometry regarding mortality. ..
  22. Gentilello L, Thompson D, Tonnesen A, Hernandez D, Kapadia A, Allen S, et al. Effect of a rotating bed on the incidence of pulmonary complications in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 1988;16:783-6 pubmed
    ..50 were not significantly different, but tended to be higher in the control group. Survival and the incidence of decubitus ulcers were similar. ..
  23. . Haemolytic disease of the newborn with pulmonary atelectasis. Bristol Med Chir J. 1967;82:46-53 pubmed
  24. Hasan F, Beller T, Sobonya R, Heller N, Brown G. Effect of positive end-expiratory pressure and body position in unilateral lung injury. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol. 1982;52:147-54 pubmed
  25. Rothen H, Sporre B, Engberg G, Wegenius G, Reber A, Hedenstierna G. Prevention of atelectasis during general anaesthesia. Lancet. 1995;345:1387-91 pubmed
    ..Use of a lower oxygen concentration than is now standard practice might prevent the early formation of atelectasis. ..
  26. Suki B, Alencar A, Sujeer M, Lutchen K, Collins J, Andrade J, et al. Life-support system benefits from noise. Nature. 1998;393:127-8 pubmed
  27. Pelosi P, Gama de Abreu M. Lung injury prediction models to improve perioperative management: let's hit the bull's-eye!. Anesthesiology. 2011;115:10-1 pubmed publisher
  28. Patterson J, Graham D, George A, Will M, Sutter D. Right Middle Lobe Collapse and Pleural Effusion in an 18-Year-Old Man. Chest. 2017;152:e33-e38 pubmed publisher
    ..He denied any other recent travel or contact with persons with pulmonary TB or other respiratory illnesses. His medical history was significant for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and sickle cell trait. ..
  29. McCulloch P, Forkert P, Froese A. Lung volume maintenance prevents lung injury during high frequency oscillatory ventilation in surfactant-deficient rabbits. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1988;137:1185-92 pubmed
    ..For optimal outcome using high frequency oscillatory ventilation, alveoli must be actively reexpanded and then kept expanded using appropriate mean airway pressures. ..
  30. Pieczkoski S, Margarites A, Sbruzzi G. Noninvasive Ventilation During Immediate Postoperative Period in Cardiac Surgery Patients: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Braz J Cardiovasc Surg. 2017;32:301-311 pubmed publisher
  31. Formenti F, Farmery A, Hahn C. Response to Baumgardner et al. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2014;196:38 pubmed publisher
  32. Maddali M, Kandachar P, Al Hanshi S, Al Ghafri M, Valliattu J. Mechanical cause for acute left lung atelectasis after neonatal aortic arch repair with arterial switch operation: Conservative management. Ann Card Anaesth. 2017;20:252-255 pubmed publisher
    ..Fiber-optic bronchoscopy revealed vascular compression as the real culprit. The child was successfully managed conservatively. ..
  33. Reber A, Nylund U, Hedenstierna G. Position and shape of the diaphragm: implications for atelectasis formation. Anaesthesia. 1998;53:1054-61 pubmed
    ..This minor movement of the diaphragm may play an additional role in atelectasis formation. ..
  35. Klingstedt C, Hedenstierna G, Baehrendtz S, Lundqvist H, Strandberg A, Tokics L, et al. Ventilation-perfusion relationships and atelectasis formation in the supine and lateral positions during conventional mechanical and differential ventilation. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1990;34:421-9 pubmed
    ..DV + SPEEP was more effective than CV + PEEP in decreasing shunt flow and increasing PaO2 in the lateral position; in addition to this, cardiac output was not affected. ..
  36. Reper P, Van Looy K. Chest physiotherapy using intrapulmonary percussive ventilation to treat persistent atelectasis in hypoxic patients after smoke inhalation. Burns. 2013;39:192-3 pubmed publisher