pleuropneumonia

Summary

Summary: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with PLEURISY, inflammation of the PLEURA.

Top Publications

  1. Tumamao J, Bowles R, van den Bosch H, Klaasen H, Fenwick B, Blackall P. An evaluation of the role of antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 1 and 15 in the protection provided by sub-unit and live streptomycin-dependent pleuropneumonia vaccines. Aust Vet J. 2004;82:773-80 pubmed
  2. Nicholas R, Churchward C. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia: new aspects of an old disease. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2012;59:189-96 pubmed publisher
    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, is a serious OIE-listed disease affecting goats in the Middle East, north and east Africa and Asia...
  3. Van Overbeke I, Chiers K, Charlier G, Vandenberghe I, Van Beeumen J, Ducatelle R, et al. Characterization of the in vitro adhesion of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to swine alveolar epithelial cells. Vet Microbiol. 2002;88:59-74 pubmed
    ..pleuropneumoniae to alveolar epithelial cells. The finding that inhibition of adhesion was very high when bacteria were treated with a combination of sodium metaperiodate and pronase also suggests that more than one adhesin is involved...
  4. Morrison D, Murtaugh M. Adenovirus-mediated expression of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in swine cells in vitro and in vivo. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2001;78:71-81 pubmed
  5. Cho W, Chae C. Evidence of nitric oxide synthase 2 activity in swine naturally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Vet Pathol. 2003;40:276-82 pubmed
    ..NOS2 expression in pleuropneumonic areas associated with protein nitrosation and PARS suggests that NOS2 is functionally active during infections caused by A. pleuropneumoniae. ..
  6. Koyama T, To H, Nagai S. Isolation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 15-like strain from a field case of porcine pleuropneumonia in Japan. J Vet Med Sci. 2007;69:961-4 pubmed
    An Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strain isolated from a field case of porcine pleuropneumonia in Japan, was closely related to a reference strain of serovar 15, which is a newly proposed serovar according to an analysis of field ..
  7. Prideaux C, Lenghaus C, Krywult J, Hodgson A. Vaccination and protection of pigs against pleuropneumonia with a vaccine strain of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae produced by site-specific mutagenesis of the ApxII operon. Infect Immun. 1999;67:1962-6 pubmed
    ..pleuropneumoniae. This is the first reported vaccine strain of A. pleuropneumoniae which can be delivered live to pigs and offers cross-serovar protection against porcine pleuropneumonia.
  8. Sadilkova L, Nepereny J, Vrzal V, Sebo P, Osicka R. Type IV fimbrial subunit protein ApfA contributes to protection against porcine pleuropneumonia. Vet Res. 2012;43:2 pubmed publisher
    Porcine pleuropneumonia caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae accounts for serious economic losses in the pig farming industry worldwide...
  9. Myers M, Farrell D, Snider T, Post L. Inflammatory cytokines, pleuropneumonia infection and the effect of dexamethasone. Pathobiology. 2004;71:35-42 pubmed
    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes an often fatal infection of swine due to pleuropneumonia. To determine if inflammatory cytokines are associated with A...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Subashchandrabose S, Leveque R, Kirkwood R, Kiupel M, Mulks M. The RNA chaperone Hfq promotes fitness of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae during porcine pleuropneumonia. Infect Immun. 2013;81:2952-61 pubmed publisher
    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, an economically important disease of pigs. The hfq gene in A...
  2. Dubreuil J, Jacques M, Mittal K, Gottschalk M. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae surface polysaccharides: their role in diagnosis and immunogenicity. Anim Health Res Rev. 2000;1:73-93 pubmed
    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an important pig pathogen that is responsible for swine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious respiratory infection...
  3. Xu F, Chen X, Shi A, Yang B, Wang J, Li Y, et al. Characterization and immunogenicity of an apxIA mutant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Vet Microbiol. 2006;118:230-9 pubmed
    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the aetiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious and often fatal disease...
  4. Tumamao J, Bowles R, van den Bosch H, Klaasen H, Fenwick B, Storie G, et al. Comparison of the efficacy of a subunit and a live streptomycin-dependent porcine pleuropneumonia vaccine. Aust Vet J. 2004;82:370-4 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy of two new-generation porcine pleuropneumonia vaccines when challenged with Australian isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae of serovars 1 and 15.
  5. Becker P, van Wikselaar P, Mul M, Pol A, Engel B, Wijdenes J, et al. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is impaired by the garlic volatile allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) in vitro and in-feed garlic alleviates pleuropneumonia in a pig model. Vet Microbiol. 2012;154:316-24 pubmed publisher
    ..pleuropneumoniae infection in pigs was indicated by the reduced occurrence of characteristic pleuropneumonia lesions (27% of the lungs affected in the garlic-fed group vs...
  6. Blackall P, Klaasen H, van den Bosch H, Kuhnert P, Frey J. Proposal of a new serovar of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae: serovar 15. Vet Microbiol. 2002;84:47-52 pubmed
    ..On the basis of the serological characterisation results and the toxin gene profiles, we propose that these isolates represent a new serovar of A. pleuropneumoniae--serovar 15--with HS143 being the reference strain for the new serovar...
  7. Ingham A, Zhang Y, Prideaux C. Attenuation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by inactivation of aroQ. Vet Microbiol. 2002;84:263-73 pubmed
    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the aetiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a disease resulting in morbidity and mortality of pigs and accordingly economic losses within the swine industry...
  8. Kaplan J, Mulks M. Biofilm formation is prevalent among field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Vet Microbiol. 2005;108:89-94 pubmed
    ..Biofilm formation may have relevance to the colonization, pathogenesis and transmission of this bacterium...
  9. Pascual A, Perez M, Jaton K, Hafen G, Di Bernardo S, Cotting J, et al. Mycoplasma hominis necrotizing pleuropneumonia in a previously healthy adolescent. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:335 pubmed publisher
    ..Mycoplasma hominis could be an underestimated cause of severe pneumonia in immunocompetent patients and should be particularly suspected in those not responding to standard therapy. ..
  10. Zahn M, Hesson M, Morton R, Wheat L. Granulomatous pleuritis caused by histoplasmosis in a healthy child. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2011;46:729-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Pneumonia with pleuritis is a rare presentation of histoplasmosis infection. We present a 12-year old previously healthy boy in whom histoplasmosis presented with pleuritis, confirmed by detection of antigen in empyema fluid. ..
  11. Li B, Fang J, Zuo Z, Yin S, He T, Yang M, et al. Activation of Porcine Alveolar Macrophages by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Lipopolysaccharide via the Toll-Like Receptor 4/NF-?B-Mediated Pathway. Infect Immun. 2018;86: pubmed publisher
    i>Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia. Overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and resistin, in the lung ..
  12. Zhou Y, Wang Y, Li Y, Nick N, Zou X, Bai F, et al. P19 contributes to Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides adhesion to EBL cells. Microb Pathog. 2016;93:13-21 pubmed publisher
    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). The virulent Mmm Ben-1 strain was isolated from the lung of a CBPP-infected cow in China in the 1950s...
  13. Guthmiller J, Lally E, Korostoff J. Beyond the specific plaque hypothesis: are highly leukotoxic strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans a paradigm for periodontal pathogenesis?. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2001;12:116-24 pubmed
    ..Future investigations should continue to evaluate pathogenic variations of additional virulence factors expressed in vivo, not only of A. actinomycetemcomitans, but also of other periodontal bacteria and infectious disease pathogens. ..
  14. Liu J, Ma Q, Yang F, Zhu R, Gu J, Sun C, et al. B cell cross-epitope of Propionibacterium acnes and Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia selected by phage display library can efficiently protect from Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia infection. Vet Microbiol. 2017;205:14-21 pubmed publisher
    Contagious porcine pleuropneumonia (CPP), caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP), is a highly transmissible and fatal respiratory illness that causes tremendous economic losses for the pig breeding industry worldwide...
  15. Alhaji N, Babalobi O. Sero-positivity and associated risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia under two cattle production systems in North Central Nigeria. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2016;48:311-20 pubmed publisher
    ..cattle in 125 sedentary herds was conducted to investigate prevalence and risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the two production systems of Niger State in North Central Nigeria, between January and August 2013...
  16. Mortensen S, Skovgaard K, Hedegaard J, Bendixen C, Heegaard P. Transcriptional profiling at different sites in lungs of pigs during acute bacterial respiratory infection. Innate Immun. 2011;17:41-53 pubmed publisher
  17. Bertone J. Fever of unknown origin secondary to occult pleuropneumonia. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2006;22:e71-5 pubmed
  18. Antenucci F, Fougeroux C, Deeney A, Ørskov C, Rycroft A, Holst P, et al. In vivo testing of novel vaccine prototypes against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Vet Res. 2018;49:4 pubmed publisher
    ..pleuropneumoniae) is a Gram-negative bacterium that represents the main cause of porcine pleuropneumonia in pigs, causing significant economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. A...
  19. Dugo L, Marzocco S, Mazzon E, Di Paola R, Genovese T, Caputi A, et al. Effects of GW274150, a novel and selective inhibitor of iNOS activity, in acute lung inflammation. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;141:979-87 pubmed
    ..6. GW274150 may offer a novel therapeutic approach for the management of various inflammatory diseases where NO and related radicals have been postulated to play a role. ..
  20. Kristensen C, Angen Ø, Andreasen M, Takai H, Nielsen J, Jorsal S. Demonstration of airborne transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 between simulated pig units located at close range. Vet Microbiol. 2004;98:243-9 pubmed
    ..pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 between closely located pig units is rare. ..
  21. García González O, García R, de la Garza M, Vaca S, Paniagua G, Mejia R, et al. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae metalloprotease: cloning and in vivo expression. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;234:81-6 pubmed
    ..Expression of the protease was observed in lung tissue from pigs that died of porcine pleuropneumonia suggesting a role in pathogenesis.
  22. Ben Amar J, Saloua S, Dhahri B, Abada D, Kilani T, Baccar M, et al. [Persistent pleuropneumopathy in a young woman]. Rev Pneumol Clin. 2010;66:355-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Computed tomography was used in the diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration. The most common and recommended treatment is the surgical removal of the pulmonary sequestration. ..
  23. Fodor L, Varga J, Molnar E, Hajtós I. Biochemical and serological properties of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 2 strains isolated from swine. Vet Microbiol. 1989;20:173-80 pubmed
    ..properties of 21 strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 2 isolated from haemorrhagic necrotic pleuropneumonia of swine were examined...
  24. Chang C, Yeh T, Chou C, Chang Y, Chiang T. Antimicrobial susceptibility and plasmid analysis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated in Taiwan. Vet Microbiol. 2002;84:169-77 pubmed
    ..2 kb) encoded only ROB-1 beta-lactamase. The 4.3 kb plasmid was sequenced and consisted of 4242 bp with 42.9% GC content. The 4.3 kb plasmid DNA sequence was 98% homologous to a plasmid previously isolated from Pasteurella haemolytica...
  25. Zhou Y, Li L, Chen Z, Yuan H, Chen H, Zhou R. Adhesion protein ApfA of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is required for pathogenesis and is a potential target for vaccine development. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013;20:287-94 pubmed publisher
    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, which causes serious economic losses in the pig farming industry worldwide...
  26. Ohba T, Shibahara T, Kobayashi H, Takashima A, Nagoshi M, Araki M, et al. Prevalence of granulomatous pleuropneumonia associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in slaughter pigs. J Vet Med Sci. 2009;71:1089-92 pubmed
    A total of 14,818 slaughtered pigs were examined macroscopically. Of these, 25 pigs with porcine pleuropneumonia were collected and the relations among Actinobacillus spp...
  27. Hathroubi S, Fontaine Gosselin S, Tremblay Y, Labrie J, Jacques M. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of penicillin G induce biofilm formation by field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Vet Microbiol. 2015;179:277-86 pubmed publisher
    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. This is a highly contagious disease that causes important economic losses to the swine industry worldwide...
  28. Rampp T, Michalsen A. [Complementary treatment of pneumonia with pleural effusion]. Forsch Komplementmed. 2006;13:116-8 pubmed
    A 43-year-old male patient was diagnosed with acute sinistral pleuropneumonia and a pronounced thoracic pain syndrome. Despite of his painful ailments the patient refused antibiotic treatment...
  29. Hultén C, Johansson E, Fossum C, Wallgren P. Interleukin 6, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin as markers of treatment efficacy in pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Vet Microbiol. 2003;95:75-89 pubmed
  30. Kolasa T, Gunn D, Bhatia P, Woods K, Gane T, Stewart A, et al. Heteroarylmethoxyphenylalkoxyiminoalkylcarboxylic acids as leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2000;43:690-705 pubmed
    ..13 mg/kg). In a model of lung inflammation, S-(E)-11 blocked LTE(4) biosynthesis (ED(50) of 0.1 mg/kg) and eosinophil influx (ED(50) of 0.2 mg/kg). S-(E)-11 (A-93178) was selected for further preclinical evaluation. ..
  31. Morrison D, Foss D, Murtaugh M. Interleukin-10 gene therapy-mediated amelioration of bacterial pneumonia. Infect Immun. 2000;68:4752-8 pubmed
    Respiratory infection by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes a highly pathogenic necrotizing pleuropneumonia with severe edema, hemorrhage and fever...
  32. Ryu S, Kim J, Bak U, Lee C, Lee Y. A hematogenic pleuropneumonia caused by postoperative septic thrombophlebitis in a Thoroughbred gelding. J Vet Sci. 2004;5:75-7 pubmed
    ..clinicopathological and pathological findings suggest that septic thrombi associated with septic thrombophlebitis metastasized into the pulmonary circulation and were entrapped in the pulmonary parenchyma and provoked pleuropneumonia.
  33. Sumi M, Kagohashi K, Satoh H, Ishikawa H, Funayama Y, Sekizawa K. Endostatin levels in exudative pleural effusions. Lung. 2003;181:329-34 pubmed
    ..0131). However, there was not statistically significant difference between the patients with pleuropneumonia and those with tuberculous pleurisy ( p = 0.2194)...
  34. Vachon A, Fischer A. Thoracoscopy in the horse: diagnostic and therapeutic indications in 28 cases. Equine Vet J. 1998;30:467-75 pubmed
    Thirty-two thoracoscopies were performed in 28 horses. Sixteen horses were affected with pleuropneumonia whereas 12 were affected with various other thoracic conditions...
  35. Suleiman A, Jackson E, Rushton J. Perceptions, circumstances and motivators affecting the implementation of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia control programmes in Nigerian Fulani pastoral herds. Prev Vet Med. 2018;149:67-74 pubmed publisher
    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an infectious disease of cattle which substantially contributes to poor productivity of the sub-Saharan pastoral livestock sector...
  36. Li P, Xu Z, Sun X, Yin Y, Fan Y, Zhao J, et al. Transcript profiling of the immunological interactions between Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 7 and the host by dual RNA-seq. BMC Microbiol. 2017;17:193 pubmed publisher
    The complexity of the pathogenic mechanism underlying the host immune response to Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia (App) makes the use of preventive measures difficult, and a more global view of the host-pathogen interactions and new ..
  37. Tharwat M, Al Sobayil F. Ultrasonographic findings in goats with contagious caprine pleuropneumonia caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. BMC Vet Res. 2017;13:263 pubmed publisher
    In goats, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a cause of major economic losses in Africa, Asia and in the Middle East...
  38. Carvallo F, Uzal F, Diab S, Hill A, Arthur R. Retrospective study of fatal pneumonia in racehorses. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2017;29:450-456 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed autopsy reports from 83 horses with a diagnosis of pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, and/or pleuropneumonia. The most common presentation was pleuropneumonia (71% of cases), with extensive areas of lytic necrosis and ..
  39. Totté P, Puech C, Rodrigues V, Bertin C, Manso Silvan L, Thiaucourt F. Free exopolysaccharide from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides possesses anti-inflammatory properties. Vet Res. 2015;46:122 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, galactan triggered weak recall proliferation of CD4+ T lymphocytes from contagious bovine pleuropneumonia-infected animals despite having a positive effect on the expression of co-stimulatory molecules on ..
  40. Cho W, Chae C. Expression of nitric oxide synthase 2 and cyclooxygenase-2 in swine experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Vet Pathol. 2004;41:666-72 pubmed
    ..925, P <0.01). High levels of PGE2 produced by COX-2 are generated in early infection (6 hpi). However, in later stages of infection (12-36 hpi), there is participation of NO and PGE2 accompanied by coinduction of both NOS2 and COX-2...
  41. Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Olum M, Attah Poku S, Ochanda H, Berberov E, et al. Capsular polysaccharide from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides shows potential for protection against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2016;178:64-9 pubmed publisher
    Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) which is widespread in Africa...
  42. Alhaji N, Babalobi O. Qualitative and quantitative impacts assessment of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Fulani pastoral herds of North-central Nigeria: The associated socio-cultural factors. Prev Vet Med. 2016;128:124-34 pubmed publisher
    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is one of the most important trans-boundary disease affecting Fulani cattle herds of Nigeria and whose control is urgently needed...
  43. Rosenberger J, Veseliny E, Bena L, Roland R. A renal transplant patient with intractable hiccups and review of the literature. Transpl Infect Dis. 2005;7:86-8 pubmed
    ..different causes: 1) steroid and anesthetics use, 2) severe ulcerose herpetic and mycotic esophagitis, and 3) pleuropneumonia caused by nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis and pulmonary abscess requiring ..
  44. Hennig I, Teutenberg Riedel B, Gerlach G. Downregulation of a protective Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae antigen during the course of infection. Microb Pathog. 1999;26:53-63 pubmed
  45. Riu B, Ruiz J, Mari A, Silva S. [Chest ultrasonography in pediatric critical care practice]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2013;32:e219-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the clinical usefulness of lung ultrasonographic approach in the pediatric critical care medicine still needs to be confirmed by specifically designed studies. ..
  46. Cho W, Jung K, Kim J, Ha Y, Chae C. Expression of mRNA encoding interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 in lungs from pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Vet Res Commun. 2005;29:111-22 pubmed
    ..pleuropneumoniae and these cytokines in pleuropneumonia. The results suggest that the expression of IL-10 and IL-12 play a role in pathogenesis of A...
  47. Wang L, Zhao X, Zhu C, Xia X, Qin W, Li M, et al. Thymol kills bacteria, reduces biofilm formation, and protects mice against a fatal infection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strain L20. Vet Microbiol. 2017;203:202-210 pubmed publisher
    ..pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of the highly contagious and deadly respiratory infection porcine pleuropneumonia, resulting in serious losses to the pig industry worldwide...
  48. March J, Kerr K, Lema B. Rapid detection of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia by a Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC capsular polysaccharide-specific antigen detection latex agglutination test. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003;10:233-40 pubmed
    A latex agglutination test (LAT) has been developed for the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP)...
  49. Hilton H, Aleman M, Madigan J, Nieto J. Standing lateral thoracotomy in horses: indications, complications, and outcomes. Vet Surg. 2010;39:847-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Anaerobic bacteria were frequently isolated from pleural effusion associated with pleuropneumonia (63%)...
  50. Chiers K, Donné E, Van Overbeke I, Ducatelle R, Haesebrouck F. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections in closed swine herds: infection patterns and serological profiles. Vet Microbiol. 2002;85:343-52 pubmed
    ..pleuropneumoniae infection patterns were studied in five farrow-to-finish pig herds (A-E) with a history of pleuropneumonia. A longitudinal study was carried out in herds A and B. In these herds, piglets from sows carrying A...
  51. Neto N, Waldrich L, de Carvalho J, Pereira R. [Adult-onset Still's disease with pulmonary and cardiac involvement and response to intravenous immunoglobulin]. Acta Reumatol Port. 2009;34:628-32 pubmed
  52. Amory J, Mackenzie A, Eckersall P, Stear M, Pearce G. Influence of rearing conditions and respiratory disease on haptoglobin levels in the pig at slaughter. Res Vet Sci. 2007;83:428-35 pubmed
    ..08 mg ml(-1) farm mean haptoglobin concentration. The findings indicate that pathological signs of EP were associated with increased serum haptoglobin at slaughter, which in turn was influenced by components of the farm environment. ..
  53. Fussing V, Barfod K, Nielsen R, Møller K, Nielsen J, Wegener H, et al. Evaluation and application of ribotyping for epidemiological studies of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Denmark. Vet Microbiol. 1998;62:145-62 pubmed
    ..HindIII ribotypes of serotype 2 strains were closely related, though only showing 43% similarity to HindIII ribotypes of remaining serotypes. ..