aspiration pneumonia


Summary: A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.

Top Publications

  1. Gomes G, Pisani J, Macedo E, Campos A. The nasogastric feeding tube as a risk factor for aspiration and aspiration pneumonia. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2003;6:327-33 pubmed
    ..important and should also be considered when evaluating a patient suspected of having aspiration and aspiration pneumonia. The mechanisms responsible for aspiration in patients bearing a nasogastric feeding tube are (1)...
  2. Mamun K, Lim J. Role of nasogastric tube in preventing aspiration pneumonia in patients with dysphagia. Singapore Med J. 2005;46:627-31 pubmed
    Every year, a large number of patients with dysphagia are placed on feeding tubes to prevent aspiration pneumonia. This prospective study was planned to compare the incidence of aspiration pneumonia and death in patients with dysphagia ..
  3. Marik P. Aspiration syndromes: aspiration pneumonia and pneumonitis. Hosp Pract (1995). 2010;38:35-42 pubmed
    b>Aspiration pneumonia and pneumonitis are common clinical syndromes that occur in hospitalized patients...
  4. Abe S, Ishihara K, Adachi M, Okuda K. Tongue-coating as risk indicator for aspiration pneumonia in edentate elderly. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2008;47:267-75 pubmed
    Silent aspiration of oral microorganisms is a major cause of aspiration pneumonia. To establish oral hygiene criteria for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia in edentulous elderly persons, we investigated the relationship between ..
  5. Okuda K, Kimizuka R, Abe S, Kato T, Ishihara K. Involvement of periodontopathic anaerobes in aspiration pneumonia. J Periodontol. 2005;76:2154-60 pubmed
    Increasing evidence has linked the anaerobic bacteria forming periodontopathic biofilms with aspiration pneumonia in elderly persons...
  6. Hofer M, Stollberger C, Finsterer J, Kriwanek S. Recurrent aspiration pneumonia after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Obes Surg. 2007;17:565-7 pubmed
    ..We report a 44-year-old female suffering from dysphagia and aspiration pneumonia 2 years after adjustable banding...
  7. Kogan D, Johnson L, Sturges B, Jandrey K, Pollard R. Etiology and clinical outcome in dogs with aspiration pneumonia: 88 cases (2004-2006). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008;233:1748-55 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the number and types of underlying disorders detected in dogs with aspiration pneumonia and determine the survival rate among affected dogs. Retrospective case series. Animals-88 dogs with aspiration pneumonia...
  8. Osborne S, Gardner G, Gardner A, Franklin S, Tuohy E, Fisher A. Using a monitored test to assess risk of aspiration in postoperative patients. AORN J. 2006;83:908-12, 915-22, 925-8 pubmed
    ..5%); however, no identification of patients at risk for aspiration occurred after either the use of the monitored sip test or routine cautious introduction of fluids during the data collection phase of the study. ..
  9. Sue Eisenstadt E. Dysphagia and aspiration pneumonia in older adults. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2010;22:17-22 pubmed publisher
    To review the risks, diagnosis, management, and prevention of aspiration pneumonia in adults over age 65, and discuss the major role of dysphagia as a risk factor in this population.

More Information


  1. Yamamoto T, Ueta E, Kamatani T, Osaki T. DNA identification of the pathogen of candidal aspiration pneumonia induced in the course of oral cancer therapy. J Med Microbiol. 2005;54:493-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the pathogen of the pneumonia, C. albicans, was aspirated from the oral cavity and that oral Candida is easily aspirated and becomes the pathogen of pneumonia. ..
  2. Terpenning M, Taylor G, Lopatin D, Kerr C, Dominguez B, Loesche W. Aspiration pneumonia: dental and oral risk factors in an older veteran population. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001;49:557-63 pubmed
    To investigate the importance of medical and dental factors in aspiration pneumonia in an older veteran population. Prospective enrollment of subjects with retrospective analysis of data...
  3. Akritidis N, Gousis C, Dimos G, Paparounas K. Fever, cough, and bilateral lung infiltrates. Achalasia associated with aspiration pneumonia. Chest. 2003;123:608-12 pubmed
  4. Johanson W, Dever L. Nosocomial pneumonia. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29:23-9 pubmed
    ..Quantitation of such specimens serves as an excellent proxy for direct cultures of the lung and are the current gold standard for diagnosis. ..
  5. Adachi M, Ishihara K, Abe S, Okuda K, Ishikawa T. Effect of professional oral health care on the elderly living in nursing homes. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002;94:191-5 pubmed
    ..8 degrees C or more and the prevalence of fatal aspiration pneumonia. The numbers of Staphylococcus species and Candida albicans in swab samples from oral cavities were ..
  6. Marik P, Careau P. The role of anaerobes in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia: a prospective study. Chest. 1999;115:178-83 pubmed of patients; Veillonella paravula was isolated from a blind PSB specimen in a patient with suspected aspiration pneumonia. Despite painstaking effort, we were able to isolate only one anaerobic organism (nonpathogenic) from this ..
  7. Mylotte J, Goodnough S, Naughton B. Pneumonia versus aspiration pneumonitis in nursing home residents: diagnosis and management. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51:17-23 pubmed
    ..The findings of this study have implications for the diagnosis and management of suspected pneumonia in nursing home residents but require prospective validation. ..
  8. Metheny N, Chang Y, Ye J, Edwards S, Defer J, Dahms T, et al. Pepsin as a marker for pulmonary aspiration. Am J Crit Care. 2002;11:150-4 pubmed
    ..If pepsin in tracheal secretions is considered an indicator of aspiration of gastric contents, aspiration occurred in 5 of the 30 subjects. A flat position is strongly associated with the presence of pepsin in tracheal secretions. ..
  9. Keeling W, Hernandez J, Lewis V, Czapla M, Zhu W, Garrett J, et al. Increased age is an independent risk factor for radiographic aspiration and laryngeal penetration after thoracotomy for pulmonary resection. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;140:573-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We recommend routine videofluoroscopic swallowing studies for all patients older than 67 years before the initiation of oral intake to diminish the incidence of postoperative aspiration. ..
  10. Ninomiya H, Yasuoka Y, Inoue Y, Toyoda M, Takahashi K, Miyashita M, et al. Simple and new surgical procedure for laryngotracheal separation in pediatrics. Laryngoscope. 2008;118:958-61 pubmed publisher
    In children with severe physical and mental disabilities who repeatedly develop aspiration pneumonia due to intractable aspiration, laryngotracheal separation/tracheoesophageal anastomosis or laryngotracheal separation has been performed ..
  11. Kuronuma K, Ootake S, Ikeda K, Taniguchi M, Takezawa C, Takahashi H. Chronic expanding hematoma in the chest. Intern Med. 2008;47:1411-4 pubmed
    ..The disease was recognized as a cause of aspiration pneumonia and was successfully treated by surgical resection...
  12. Hoffmann T, Sommer P, Bier H. [Collagen injection for augmentation of periprosthetic leakage after tracheo-esophageal voice restoration]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2006;85:556-8 pubmed
    ..However, alternative fillers without pre-testing necessity and longer augmentation intervals should be considered. ..
  13. Pawlik M, Lubnow M, Gruber M, Taeger K, Riegger G, Pfeifer M, et al. Hydrochloric acid aspiration increases right ventricular systolic pressure in rats. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2009;26:285-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Acid aspiration induces a significant increase in right ventricular systolic pressure and endothelin levels, and causes metabolic acidosis in this animal model. ..
  14. Chung M, Jeong H, Ahn K, Park S, Cho J, Son Y, et al. Pulmonary recovery after rigid bronchoscopic retrieval of airway foreign body. Laryngoscope. 2007;117:303-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, long-term pulmonary care is required for this group of patients. ..
  15. Li K, Gurrera R, DeLisi L. Potentially fatal outcomes associated with clozapine. Schizophr Res. 2018;199:386-389 pubmed publisher
    ..There is significant morbidity and mortality associated with clozapine including risk of agranulocytosis, aspiration pneumonia, bowel ischemia, myocarditis, seizures, and weight gain...
  16. Berry M, Atkins B, Tong B, Harpole D, D Amico T, Onaitis M. A comprehensive evaluation for aspiration after esophagectomy reduces the incidence of postoperative pneumonia. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;140:1266-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Esophagectomy is often associated with occult aspiration. A comprehensive swallowing evaluation for aspiration before initiating oral feedings significantly decreases the occurrence of pneumonia. ..
  17. Shorr A, Combes A, Kollef M, Chastre J. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prolongs intensive care unit stay in ventilator-associated pneumonia, despite initially appropriate antibiotic therapy. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:700-6 pubmed
    ..Confronting the adverse impact of MRSA will require efforts that address more than the initial antibiotic prescription. ..
  18. Lin S, Wu T. Medical image. Advanced oesophageal cancer complicated with tracheoesophageal fistula and aspiration pneumonia. N Z Med J. 2007;120:U2513 pubmed
  19. Adachi K, Umezaki T, Kikuchi Y. Videoendoscopy worsens swallowing function: a videofluoroscopic study. A randomized controlled trial. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;274:3729-3734 pubmed publisher
    b>Aspiration pneumonia is a cause of mortality in the elderly. Evaluating swallowing function is important...
  20. Alstrøm H, Belhage B. [Cricoid pressure a.m. Sellick in rapid sequence intubation?]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2007;169:2305-8 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that it may have harmful effects in connection with intubation, laryngeal mask placement and ventilation. In conclusion, it is suggested that cricoid pressure is released in the case of intubation difficulties. ..
  21. Hines S, Kynoch K, Munday J. Nursing Interventions for Identifying and Managing Acute Dysphagia are Effective for Improving Patient Outcomes: A Systematic Review Update. J Neurosci Nurs. 2016;48:215-23 pubmed publisher
    ..a major cause of mortality; however, the complications that result from this medical condition, namely, aspiration pneumonia and malnutrition, are among the most common causes of death in the older adults...
  22. Okumura T, Shimada Y, Watanabe T, Nakamichi N, Nagata T, Tsukada K. Functional outcome assessment of swallowing (FOAMS) scoring and videofluoroscopic evaluation of perioperative swallowing rehabilitation in radical esophagectomy. Surg Today. 2016;46:543-51 pubmed publisher
    ..046). However, perioperative SR did not reduce the incidence of postoperative aspiration pneumonia or the duration of hospital stay...
  23. Schulz M, Wild L, Konig C, Kiess W, Siekmeyer W. An esophagobronchial fistula caused by an unusual foreign body in the esophagus leading to mediastinitis with fatal outcome. Klin Padiatr. 2006;218:85-7 pubmed
    ..Final diagnosis was esophagobronchial fistula caused by a foreign body in the esophagus provoking aspiration pneumonia, mediastinitis and respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
  24. Bretan O, De Souza L, Lastoria J. Laryngeal lesion in leprosy and the risk of aspiration. Lepr Rev. 2007;78:80-1 pubmed
    ..Post-mortem studies showed bronchopneumonia that could have originated from aspiration. In patients with laryngeal symptoms, dysphagia or aspiration pneumonia loss of laryngeal sensation should be looked for.
  25. Rizk H, Nassar M, Rohayem Z, Rassi S. Hypoplastic epiglottis in a non-syndromic child: a rare anomaly with serious consequences. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;74:952-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The presentation and the evolution in cases of epiglottic anomalies vary a lot to deduce a trend. Close specialized follow-up is needed to answer these questions and to optimize these patients' prognosis. ..
  26. Metheny N, Davis Jackson J, Stewart B. Effectiveness of an aspiration risk-reduction protocol. Nurs Res. 2010;59:18-25 pubmed publisher
  27. Deng J, Liu Z, Guo Z. [Early bronchoscopic sputum suction in elderly patients with aspiration pneumonia-induced acute heart and lung failure]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2009;29:1259-60 pubmed
    ..effect of early bronchoscopic sputum suction in elderly patients with acute heart and lung failure due to aspiration pneumonia. Comprehensive treatments were administered for 52 elderly patients with acute heart and lung failure ..
  28. Metheny N. Preventing respiratory complications of tube feedings: evidence-based practice. Am J Crit Care. 2006;15:360-9 pubmed
    ..A review of current research-based information to support modification of these risk factors is provided. ..
  29. Krychniak Soszka A, Lewandowska K, Skorupa W, Bartosiewicz M, Langfort R, Bestry I, et al. [Exogenous lipid pneumonia--a report of four cases]. Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2005;73:182-8 pubmed
    ..We present four patients with ELP. The clinical picture was very heterogenous. We described these cases to show that the use of the mineral oils may increase the risk of lipoid pnemonia. ..
  30. Wang S, Chang C, Lee P. [Exploration of Eating Difficulties of Patients With Dementia]. Hu Li Za Zhi. 2016;63:128-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The etiology of these difficulties is often complicated. Weight loss, poor nutrition, aspiration pneumonia, and associated medical admissions or even mortality may occur as soon as an eating difficulty develops...
  31. Heigener D, Lotz P, Akkan R, Fraedrich J, Welker L, Gatzemeier U. [Foreign body aspiration mimicking lung cancer]. Med Klin (Munich). 2007;102:859-60 pubmed
  32. Yin S, Ferdman R, Wang L, Markert M, Tam J. Disseminated Mycobacterium kansasii disease in complete DiGeorge syndrome. J Clin Immunol. 2015;35:435-8 pubmed publisher
    ..He presented with fever and cough, and was treated for chronic aspiration pneumonia as well as Pneumocystis jirovecii infection without significant improvement...
  33. Sonoi M, Kayashita J, Yamagata Y, Tanimoto K, Miyamoto K, Sakurama K. Suitable Food Textures for Videofluoroscopic Studies of Swallowing in Esophageal Cancer Cases to Prevent Aspiration Pneumonia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17:3259-63 pubmed textures for videofluoroscopic study of swallowing (VFSS), in order to predict and prevent subsequent aspiration pneumonia in esophageal cancer patients with dysphagia after surgery...
  34. Fehder W. Nursing care & management of pathological oral conditions among women and children. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2008;33:38-44 pubmed
    ..The roles of xerostomia and periodontal disease as sources of pathological bacteria involved in aspiration pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and chronic inflammation are described...
  35. Miyagawa T, Mochizuki Y, Nakahara Y, Kawamura T, Sasaki S, Tsukamoto H, et al. [A case of chronic aspiration pneumonia caused by juvenile brain stem tumor]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi. 2009;47:222-6 pubmed
    ..A diagnosis of chronic aspiration pneumonia was made pathologically...
  36. Tillie Leblond I, Cadranel J. [Respiratory injuries of inflammatory myopathies]. Rev Mal Respir. 2006;23:764-6 pubmed
  37. Davis D, Stern J, Sise M, Hoyt D. A follow-up analysis of factors associated with head-injury mortality after paramedic rapid sequence intubation. J Trauma. 2005;59:486-90 pubmed
    ..The reported incidence of aspiration pneumonia was higher for the RSI patients...
  38. Knight P, Kurek C, Davidson B, Nader N, Patel A, Sokolowski J, et al. Acid aspiration increases sensitivity to increased ambient oxygen concentrations. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2000;278:L1240-7 pubmed
    ..This pathogenic mechanism may contribute to the progression of aspiration pneumonia to ARDS.
  39. Nguyen N, Moltz C, Frank C, Vos P, Smith H, Nguyen P, et al. Impact of swallowing therapy on aspiration rate following treatment for locally advanced head and neck cancer. Oral Oncol. 2007;43:352-7 pubmed
    ..However, a significant number of patients still suffered from chronic severe aspiration. New strategies must be devised to improve their outcome...
  40. Weijs T, Berkelmans G, Nieuwenhuijzen G, Dolmans A, Kouwenhoven E, Rosman C, et al. Immediate Postoperative Oral Nutrition Following Esophagectomy: A Multicenter Clinical Trial. Ann Thorac Surg. 2016;102:1141-8 pubmed publisher
    ..202). The aspiration pneumonia rate was 4% in both groups...
  41. Barreiro López B, Tricas J, Mauri E, Quintana S, Garau J. [Risk factors and prognostic factors in nosocomial pneumonia outside the intensive care units setting]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2005;23:519-24 pubmed
    ..The incidence of NP outside the ICU setting is low. Measures to reduce bronchoaspiration and judicial steroid use are necessary to decrease the risk of acquiring NP and to improve the prognosis. ..
  42. Ibrahim S, Gulab S, Ishaque S, Saleem T. Clinical profile and treatment of infantile spasms using vigabatrin and ACTH--a developing country perspective. BMC Pediatr. 2010;10:1 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that Vigabatrin should be the initial drug of choice in patients presenting with infantile spasms. However, larger studies from developing countries are required to validate the therapeutic trends observed in this study. ..
  43. Saeki H, Shirasawa Y, Nagamizo D, Morimoto Y, Matsumoto M, Sakabe T. [Anesthetic management for a patient with Huntington disease]. Masui. 2007;56:1358-61 pubmed
    ..Whether Huntington disease is responsible for the abnormally low bispectral index remains uncertain. But, anesthesiologists should be aware of this phenomenon to avoid an inappropriate adjustment of the anesthetic depth. ..
  44. Morita M, Egashira A, Nakaji Y, Kagawa M, Sugiyama M, Yoshida D, et al. Treatment of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus Synchronously Associated with Head and Neck Cancer. In Vivo. 2017;31:909-916 pubmed
    ..CRT, adverse events (grade 3-5) were recognized in 14 patients (40%), including one case of death due to aspiration pneumonia. Complete response was observed in 22 patients with ESCC (58%) and 19 patients with HNC (50%)...
  45. Barkov V, Nechaev V, Vinogradova V. [Mechanism of development and diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia in patients with risk factors]. Ter Arkh. 2008;80:54-9 pubmed
    ..A total of 235 patients with destructive aspiration pneumonia (AP) aged 32-70 years (207 males and 28 females) were examined (fibrobronchoscopy, esophagogastroscopy, 24-..
  46. Janda M, Scheeren T, Nöldge Schomburg G. Management of pulmonary aspiration. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2006;20:409-27 pubmed
    ..For the management of aspiration, differentiation between acid-associated aspiration pneumonitis and aspiration pneumonia as a consequence of a secondary bacterial contamination is of crucial importance...
  47. Nader N, McQuiller P, Raghavendran K, Spengler R, Knight P. The role of alveolar macrophages in the pathogenesis of aspiration pneumonitis. Immunol Invest. 2007;36:457-71 pubmed
    ..Although there is a synergy between acid and gastric particulate in producing an acute lung injury, the modulatory effects of these injuries on the alveolar macrophages are averse. ..
  48. Allen M. Invited commentary. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;83:196 pubmed
  49. Nishiwaki S, Araki H, Shirakami Y, Kawaguchi J, Kawade N, Iwashita M, et al. Inhibition of gastroesophageal reflux by semi-solid nutrients in patients with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2009;33:513-9 pubmed publisher
    ..semi-solid nutrients by means of gastrostomy tube has recently been reported to be effective in preventing aspiration pneumonia. The effects of semi-solid nutrients on gastroesophageal reflux, intragastric distribution, and gastric ..
  50. Abiramalatha T, Thomas N, Gupta V, Viswanathan A, McGuire W. High versus standard volume enteral feeds to promote growth in preterm or low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;9:CD012413 pubmed publisher
    ..but concerns include that high-volume enteral feeds may cause feed intolerance, gastro-oesophageal reflux, aspiration pneumonia, necrotising enterocolitis, or complications related to fluid overload, including patent ductus arteriosus ..
  51. Horiuchi A, Nakayama Y, Tanaka N, Fujii H, Kajiyama M. Prospective randomized trial comparing the direct method using a 24 Fr bumper-button-type device with the pull method for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. Endoscopy. 2008;40:722-6 pubmed publisher
    ..0019). The direct method using a 24 Fr bumper-button-type device was associated with reduced peristomal infections in the early phase and reduced catheter changes compared with a 20 Fr catheter placed using the standard pull method. ..
  52. Gillman A, Winkler R, Taylor N. Implementing the Free Water Protocol does not Result in Aspiration Pneumonia in Carefully Selected Patients with Dysphagia: A Systematic Review. Dysphagia. 2017;32:345-361 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is required to determine if the Free Water Protocol can be implemented in settings other than inpatient rehabilitation. ..
  53. Asai T, Goy R, Liu E. Cricoid pressure prevents placement of the laryngeal tube and laryngeal tube-suction II. Br J Anaesth. 2007;99:282-5 pubmed
    ..The effect of cricoid pressure on ventilation via these devices, after correct placement, remains unknown. ..