Summary: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of iron in the mining dust or welding fumes.

Top Publications

  1. Levy M, Turtzo C, Llinas R. Superficial siderosis: a case report and review of the literature. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2007;3:54-8; quiz 59 pubmed
    ..Neurological examination, brain MRI scan, lumbar puncture, four-vessel cerebral angiogram and spinal angiogram. Superficial siderosis; a complete review of the current literature on the condition is provided. Iron chelating agents.
  2. Lee D, Romero R, Kim J, Tarca A, Montenegro D, Pineles B, et al. miR-210 targets iron-sulfur cluster scaffold homologue in human trophoblast cell lines: siderosis of interstitial trophoblasts as a novel pathology of preterm preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age pregnancies. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:590-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Perls' reaction (n = 229) and electron microscopy (n = 3) were conducted to verify siderosis of trophoblasts...
  3. Wang K, Xu Z, Xiong G, Benyan L. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system manifested with seizures. J Clin Neurosci. 2010;17:277-8 pubmed publisher
    Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is caused by repeated hemorrhage into the subarachnoid space with resultant hemosiderin deposition in the subpial layers of the brain and spinal cord...
  4. Feldman H, Maia L, Mackenzie I, Forster B, Martzke J, Woolfenden A. Superficial siderosis: a potential diagnostic marker of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Alzheimer disease. Stroke. 2008;39:2894-7 pubmed publisher
    Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system results from chronic bleeding in the superficial layers of the cortex and spinal cord...
  5. Linn J, Halpin A, Demaerel P, Ruhland J, Giese A, Dichgans M, et al. Prevalence of superficial siderosis in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Neurology. 2010;74:1346-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Several case reports also found superficial siderosis (SS) in patients with CAA...
  6. Wu T, Kung Y, Sheu S, Yang C. Lens siderosis resulting from a tiny missed intralenticular foreign body. J Chin Med Assoc. 2009;72:42-4 pubmed publisher
    We report a patient with clinical ocular siderosis at the time of presentation but undetectable intraocular foreign body on computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography...
  7. Spengos K, Vassilopoulou S, Tsivgoulis G, Karachalios G, Vassilopoulos D. Superficial siderosis due to a lumbar ependymoma mimicking adult-onset spinocerebellar ataxia. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2007;109:705-7 pubmed
    Superficial siderosis (SS), as a result of chronic subarachnoid haemorrhage and haemosiderin deposition on the leptomeninges and subpial layers of the brain, cerebellum and spinal cord, can cause ataxia, pyramidal tract lesions and ..
  8. Kumar N, Lindell E, Wilden J, Davis D. Role of dynamic CT myelography in identifying the etiology of superficial siderosis. Neurology. 2005;65:486-8 pubmed
    The authors report three cases of superficial siderosis with a fluid-filled spinal canal cavity communicating with the subarachnoid space...
  9. Vernooij M, Ikram M, Hofman A, Krestin G, Breteler M, van der Lugt A. Superficial siderosis in the general population. Neurology. 2009;73:202-5 pubmed publisher
    Superficial siderosis is a rare radiologic diagnosis of hemosiderin deposition in subpial brain layers. In case studies, an association between superficial siderosis and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) has been described...

More Information


  1. Charidimou A, Jäger R, Fox Z, Peeters A, Vandermeeren Y, Laloux P, et al. Prevalence and mechanisms of cortical superficial siderosis in cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Neurology. 2013;81:626-32 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the prevalence and clinical-radiologic associations of cortical superficial siderosis (cSS) in patients with probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) compared to those with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) not attributed ..
  2. Pennell D, Berdoukas V, Karagiorga M, Ladis V, Piga A, Aessopos A, et al. Randomized controlled trial of deferiprone or deferoxamine in beta-thalassemia major patients with asymptomatic myocardial siderosis. Blood. 2006;107:3738-44 pubmed
    ..Differential effects on myocardial siderosis may exist between different chelators...
  3. Konitsiotis S, Argyropoulou M, Kosta P, Giannopoulou M, Efremidis S, Kyritsis A. CNS siderosis after brachial plexus avulsion. Neurology. 2002;58:505 pubmed
  4. Kakeda S, Korogi Y, Ohnari N, Nishimura J, Moriya J, Yamamoto J, et al. Superficial siderosis associated with a chronic subdural hematoma: T2-weighted MR imaging at 3T. Acad Radiol. 2010;17:871-6 pubmed publisher
    The purposes of this study were to assess the association between superficial siderosis (SS) and subdural hematoma (SDH) and to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MR) characteristics of SS in patients with the presence or histories ..
  5. Marginean E, Bennick M, Cyczk J, Robert M, Jain D. Gastric siderosis: patterns and significance. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30:514-20 pubmed
    ..Gastric mucosal siderosis (GS) has previously been described in hemochromatosis patients, alcoholics, and in association with iron ..
  6. Charidimou A, Peeters A, Jäger R, Fox Z, Vandermeeren Y, Laloux P, et al. Cortical superficial siderosis and intracerebral hemorrhage risk in cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Neurology. 2013;81:1666-73 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether cortical superficial siderosis (cSS) on MRI, especially if disseminated (involving more than 3 sulci), increases the risk of future symptomatic lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (..
  7. Yamawaki T, Sakurai K. [Diagnosis and treatment of superficial siderosis]. Brain Nerve. 2013;65:843-55 pubmed
    Superficial siderosis (SS) is a rare condition in which hemosiderin is deposited on the pial surface of the brain and/or spinal cord...
  8. Cohen Gadol A, Krauss W, Spinner R. Delayed central nervous system superficial siderosis following brachial plexus avulsion injury. Report of three cases. Neurosurg Focus. 2004;16:E10 pubmed
    ..cause deposition of hemosiderin on the leptomeninges and subpial layers of the neuraxis, leading to superficial siderosis (SS). The symptoms and signs of SS are progressive and fatal...
  9. Jin K, Sato S, Takahashi T, Nakazaki H, Date Y, Nakazato M, et al. Familial leptomeningeal amyloidosis with a transthyretin variant Asp18Gly representing repeated subarachnoid haemorrhages with superficial siderosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:1463-6 pubmed
    ..Gradient echo T2* weighted MRI showed superficial siderosis mainly in the cerebellum. A biopsy of the leptomeninges was obtained from the spinal cord of patient 1...
  10. Messori A, Di Bella P, Herber N, Logullo F, Ruggiero M, Salvolini U. The importance of suspecting superficial siderosis of the central nervous system in clinical practice. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:188-90 pubmed
    ..Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system is rare and insidious, but magnetic resonance imaging has turned a previously late,..
  11. Weiss M, Hofeldt A, Behrens M, Fisher K. Ocular siderosis. Diagnosis and management. Retina. 1997;17:105-8 pubmed
    To assist clinicians in the diagnosis and management of ocular siderosis.
  12. Kobayashi T, Watanabe F, Gyo K, Miki H. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system. Otol Neurotol. 2004;25:193-4 pubmed
  13. McCarron M, McKinstry C, Gibson J. Superficial siderosis 20 years after brain tumour. Lancet Neurol. 2002;1:326 pubmed
  14. Salim S, Asad H, Kumar M, Brezin J, Heifets M, Fyfe B. Renal siderosis in donor allograft: pathologic and clinical sequelae. Am J Transplant. 2004;4:1717-9 pubmed
    Transplantation of a cadaver kidney with marked siderosis and its outcome has not been reported...
  15. Spengos K, Koutsis G, Tsivgoulis G, Panas M, Vemmos K, Vassilopoulos D. [Superficial siderosis of the CNS. Case report and literature review]. Nervenarzt. 2004;75:492-5 pubmed
    Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system is caused by destructive deposition of haemosiderin in the leptomeninges and subpial layers of the brain and spinal cord...
  16. Fidan F, Esme H, Unlu M, Acar M, Albayrak R, Dilek F. Welder's lung associated with pneumothorax. J Thorac Imaging. 2005;20:120-2 pubmed
    ..Welder's lung with associated lung lesions has been described, although complicating pneumothorax is unique to the case presented herein. ..
  17. Flors L, Domingo M, Leiva Salinas C, Mazón M, Roselló Sastre E, Vilar J. Uncommon occupational lung diseases: high-resolution CT findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;194:W20-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The diseases studied were siderosis, talcosis, berylliosis, calcicosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (due to wheat flour and isocyanates), and ..
  18. Bhat S, Ladhani S, Joshi J. Lung nodules in a silver polisher. Postgrad Med J. 2002;78:628, 631-2 pubmed
  19. Schümann K, Borch Iohnsen B, Hentze M, Marx J. Tolerable upper intakes for dietary iron set by the US Food and Nutrition Board. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:499-500 pubmed
  20. Conrotto D, Bugianesi E, Chiusa L, Carrozzo M. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and oral lichen planus: a rare occurrence. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;40:553-6 pubmed publisher
    ..needle biopsy showed macrovesicular steatosis with a slight chronic portal inflammatory infiltrate and signs of siderosis. Iron metabolism was slightly altered...
  21. Fischer R, Tiemann C, Engelhardt R, Nielsen P, Dürken M, Gabbe E, et al. Assessment of iron stores in children with transfusion siderosis by biomagnetic liver susceptometry. Am J Hematol. 1999;60:289-99 pubmed
    ..The exponential decline of iron stores allows forecast of steady-state conditions of the final iron load for a particular transfusion and chelation therapy regimen. ..
  22. Lannareix V, Basseka H, Catalaa I, Sevely A, Marson F, Manelfe C. [Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system: a case report]. J Radiol. 2002;83:1850-2 pubmed
    Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system is secondary to chronic subarachnoid bleeding. However, the underlying etiology is not always detected...
  23. Chao H, Chen S, Hsu W, Lee F, Chen K. Siderosis oculi: visual dysfunctions even after iron removal: a role of OCT. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2006;25:131-40 pubmed
    ..Postremoval, iron-impaired retinal functions didn't obviously improve. Early iron removal seems vital. OCT identified iron encapsulation, ameliorating iron toxicity. Consistently, field defect in case 4 was nonprogressive. ..
  24. Liang J, Chou P, Wu R, Lee Y. Corneal iron ring associated with orthokeratology. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2003;29:624-6 pubmed
    ..The location of the corneal iron rings coincided with the fitting curve of the reverse-geometry rigid contact lens, suggesting that the rings might have developed from tear pooling. ..
  25. Coccia M, Cooke K, Stoney G, Pistillo J, Del Castillo J, Duryea D, et al. Novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein (darbepoetin alfa) alleviates anemia associated with chronic inflammatory disease in a rodent model. Exp Hematol. 2001;29:1201-9 pubmed
    ..Histology of anemic rat spleen sections revealed reticuloendothelial siderosis. Total serum iron concentrations were chronically low...
  26. Chandarana H, Do R, Mussi T, Jensen J, Hajdu C, Babb J, et al. The effect of liver iron deposition on hepatic apparent diffusion coefficient values in cirrhosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012;199:803-8 pubmed
    ..95 and -0.92, respectively; p<0.05). Patients with hepatic siderosis had significantly lower SNRest and ADC compared with patients without siderosis (p<0.0001)...
  27. Ting S, Prakash K. A rare cause of cerebellar ataxia syndrome: superficial siderosis of central nervous system. Acta Neurol Taiwan. 2011;20:257-61 pubmed
    To describe and emphasize importance of recognizing superficial siderosis (SS) of the central nervous system (CNS) when assessing cerebellar ataxia syndrome Superficial siderosis (SS) of the central nervous system (CNS) is a rare ..
  28. Moreira N, Nylander R, Briaukaitė I, Vėlyvytė S, Gleizniene R, Monastyreckiene E. Superficial siderosis: a case report. Medicina (Kaunas). 2011;47:320-2 pubmed
    Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system is the result of chronic recurrent hemorrhages (e.g...
  29. Kato K, Hirano K, Takashima Y, Sakamoto S, Kondo M. Histopathologic findings of perforated corneas due to ferric ion infiltration. Can J Ophthalmol. 2015;50:322-7 pubmed publisher
    ..incised from 2 patients during penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) because of corneal perforation due to corneal siderosis. Three eyes of 2 patients had accidental trauma to the corneas caused by iron fragments; the injuries were ..
  30. Lauer A, van Veluw S, William C, Charidimou A, Roongpiboonsopit D, Vashkevich A, et al. Microbleeds on MRI are associated with microinfarcts on autopsy in cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Neurology. 2016;87:1488-1492 pubmed
    ..disease were recorded, including white matter hyperintensities, cerebral microbleeds, cortical superficial siderosis, and centrum semiovale perivascular spaces...
  31. Yoshida S, Shidoh M, Matsumura S, Ohyama H. Superficial siderosis from spinal teratoma. Lancet. 2002;360:1539 pubmed
  32. Finsterer J, Prainer C, Jankovic M, Stollberger C, Kopsa W. Continuation of oral anticoagulation despite superficial siderosis. Thromb Res. 2003;111:193-6 pubmed
  33. Savoiardo M, Maccagnano E, Pareyson D, Grisoli M. Superficial siderosis. Neurology. 2007;68:623; author reply 623-4 pubmed
  34. Levy M, Llinas R. Deferiprone reduces hemosiderin deposits in the brain of a patient with superficial siderosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011;32:E1-2 pubmed publisher
    A man with superficial siderosis showed improvement in symptoms and reduction in hemosiderin by MR imaging following treatment with deferiprone, a lipid-soluble iron chelator.
  35. Ziskin J, Greicius M, Zhu W, Okumu A, Adams C, Plowey E. Neuropathologic analysis of Tyr69His TTR variant meningovascular amyloidosis with dementia. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2015;3:43 pubmed publisher
    ..Subpial TTR amyloid deposits were associated with brisk superficial reactive gliosis and siderosis in the neocortex and cerebellar cortex...
  36. Passos J, Nzwalo H, Marques J, Azevedo A, Netto E, Nunes S, et al. Late Cerebrovascular Complications After Radiotherapy for Childhood Primary Central Nervous System Tumors. Pediatr Neurol. 2015;53:211-5 pubmed publisher
    ..the occurrence of late cerebrovascular complications, such as cavernoma, moyamoya, microbleeds, superficial siderosis, and stroke are sparse...
  37. Hellerbrand C, Pöppl A, Hartmann A, Scholmerich J, Lock G. HFE C282Y heterozygosity in hepatocellular carcinoma: evidence for an increased prevalence. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003;1:279-84 pubmed
    ..These findings may have implications for HCC screening and prevention strategies. ..
  38. Mokhtar G, Sherif E, Habeeb N, Abdelmaksoud A, El Ghoroury E, Ibrahim A, et al. Glutathione S-transferase gene polymorphism: Relation to cardiac iron overload in Egyptian patients with Beta Thalassemia Major. Hematology. 2016;21:46-53 pubmed publisher
    ..with beta thalassemia major (β-TM) in relation to myocardial status assessed by tissue Doppler and cardiac siderosis assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2*...
  39. Stoopen Rometti M, Encinas Escobar E, Ramirez Carmona C, Wolpert Barraza E, Kimura Hayama E, Sosa Lozano L, et al. Diagnosis and quantification of fibrosis, steatosis, and hepatic siderosis through multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. Rev Gastroenterol Mex. 2017;82:32-45 pubmed publisher
  40. Charidimou A, Boulouis G, Roongpiboonsopit D, Auriel E, Pasi M, Haley K, et al. Cortical superficial siderosis multifocality in cerebral amyloid angiopathy: A prospective study. Neurology. 2017;89:2128-2135 pubmed publisher
    In order to explore the mechanisms of cortical superficial siderosis (cSS) multifocality and its clinical implications for recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) risk in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), we used a new ..
  41. Argyropoulou M, Kiortsis D, Efremidis S. MRI of the liver and the pituitary gland in patients with beta-thalassemia major: does hepatic siderosis predict pituitary iron deposition?. Eur Radiol. 2003;13:12-6 pubmed
    Our objective was to study, in thalassemic patients, if hepatic siderosis evaluated by MRI could predict the pituitary iron overload. In 36 thalassemic patients (age range 6-44 years, mean age 21...
  42. Sato J. [Superficial siderosis in a patient with prolactinoma]. No To Shinkei. 2003;55:716-7 pubmed
  43. De la Torre C, Feal C, Rodriguez T. Patterned localized siderosis mimicking pigmented tumour. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006;20:101-2 pubmed
  44. Rodriguez F, Srinivasan A. Superficial siderosis of the CNS. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011;197:W149-52 pubmed publisher
    ..and describe the cause, physiopathology, natural history, and clinical and imaging presentations of superficial siderosis as a cause of progressive cerebellar ataxia with sensorineural hearing loss and to discuss the therapeutic ..
  45. Shams S, Martola J, Charidimou A, Cavallin L, Granberg T, Shams M, et al. Cortical superficial siderosis: Prevalence and biomarker profile in a memory clinic population. Neurology. 2016;87:1110-7 pubmed publisher
    To gain further insight into cortical superficial siderosis (cSS), a new hemorrhagic neuroimaging marker of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and to investigate the clinical, neuroimaging, genetic, and CSF biomarker profile of cSS in a ..
  46. Krous H, Wixom C, Chadwick A, Haas E, Silva P, Stanley C. Pulmonary intra-alveolar siderophages in SIDS and suffocation: a San Diego SIDS/SUDC Research Project report. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2006;9:103-14 pubmed
    ..The number of PS varies widely in cases of sudden infant death caused by SIDS and accidental or inflicted suffocation and cannot be used as an independent variable to ascertain past attempts at suffocation. ..
  47. Lim F, Dooley J, Roques A, Grellier L, Dhillon A, Walker A. Hepatic iron concentration, fibrosis and response to venesection associated with the A77D and V162del "loss of function" mutations in ferroportin disease. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2008;40:328-33 pubmed
    Ferroportin disease is an autosomal dominant form of hemochromatosis associated with siderosis in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system and, to varying degrees, in hepatocytes...
  48. van Harskamp N, Rudge P, Cipolotti L. Cognitive and social impairments in patients with superficial siderosis. Brain. 2005;128:1082-92 pubmed
    Superficial siderosis of the CNS is a rare condition, caused by deposition of haemosiderin in the superficial layers of the CNS due to repeated chronic subarachnoid or intraventricular haemorrhage...
  49. Smith C, Thevenod F. Iron transport and the kidney. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1790:724-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these data, a hypothetical model of renal iron handling will be presented. ..
  50. Salerno M, Sharif B, Arheden H, Kumar A, Axel L, Li D, et al. Recent Advances in Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance: Techniques and Applications. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2017;10: pubmed publisher unique in its comprehensive tissue characterization, including assessment of myocardial edema, myocardial siderosis, myocardial perfusion, and diffuse myocardial fibrosis...
  51. Pichler M, Vemuri P, Rabinstein A, Aakre J, Flemming K, Brown R, et al. Prevalence and Natural History of Superficial Siderosis: A Population-Based Study. Stroke. 2017;48:3210-3214 pubmed publisher
    Superficial siderosis (SS) is characterized by hemosiderin deposition in the superficial layers of the central nervous system and can be seen during postmortem examination or with iron-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging techniques...
  52. Fyfe A, Soutar R. Multiple Pappenheimer bodies. Br J Haematol. 2005;130:651 pubmed
  53. Uttner I, Tumani H, Arnim C, Brettschneider J. Cognitive impairment in superficial siderosis of the central nervous system: a case report. Cerebellum. 2009;8:61-3 pubmed publisher
    Superficial siderosis is a rare disease characterized by cerebellar ataxia and sensorineural deafness. So far, there are only few reports on cognitive dysfunctions associated with superficial siderosis...