Summary: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.

Top Publications

  1. Foster H, Estrada Girona G, Themis M, Garimberti E, Hill M, Bridger J, et al. Relative proximity of chromosome territories influences chromosome exchange partners in radiation-induced chromosome rearrangements in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Mutat Res. 2013;756:66-77 pubmed publisher
  2. Grassin Delyle S, Abrial C, Fayad Kobeissi S, Brollo M, Faisy C, Alvarez J, et al. The expression and relaxant effect of bitter taste receptors in human bronchi. Respir Res. 2013;14:134 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to identify and characterize the TAS2Rs expressed in isolated human bronchi and the subtypes involved in relaxation.
  3. Cao J, Zhang L, Li D, Xu F, Huang S, Xiang Y, et al. IL-27 is elevated in patients with COPD and patients with pulmonary TB and induces human bronchial epithelial cells to produce CXCL10. Chest. 2012;141:121-130 pubmed publisher
    ..We, therefore, have studied its concentrations in the sputum and plasma of patients with COPD and patients with pulmonary TB (PTB), and further investigated the mechanism-of-action effects of IL-27 on bronchial epithelial cells in vitro...
  4. Berdon W, Muensterer O, Zong Y, Backer C. The triad of bridging bronchus malformation associated with left pulmonary artery sling and narrowing of the airway: the legacy of Wells and Landing. Pediatr Radiol. 2012;42:215-9 pubmed publisher
  5. James A, Elliot J, Jones R, Carroll M, Mauad T, Bai T, et al. Airway smooth muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia in asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;185:1058-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased thickness of the airway smooth muscle (ASM) layer in asthma may result from hyperplasia or hypertrophy of muscle cells or increased extracellular matrix (ECM)...
  6. Villenave R, Thavagnanam S, Sarlang S, Parker J, Douglas I, Skibinski G, et al. In vitro modeling of respiratory syncytial virus infection of pediatric bronchial epithelium, the primary target of infection in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:5040-5 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, this model may provide insights into RSV pathogenesis in humans that ultimately lead to successful RSV vaccines or therapeutics...
  7. Hodge G, Reynolds P, Holmes M, Hodge S. Differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in intra-epithelial T cells between trachea and bronchi distinguishes severity of COPD. Cytokine. 2012;60:843-8 pubmed publisher
    ..brushings of trachea may serve as an ideal intra-patient control compared with cells obtained from left and right bronchi. Production of intracellular cytokines by intraepithelial T-cells obtained from trachea and right and left ..
  8. Pennino D, Bhavsar P, Effner R, Avitabile S, Venn P, Quaranta M, et al. IL-22 suppresses IFN-?-mediated lung inflammation in asthmatic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;131:562-70 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-22 controls tissue homeostasis by both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of IL-22 remain poorly investigated...
  9. Zhang C, Lifshitz L, Uy K, Ikebe M, Fogarty K, Zhuge R. The cellular and molecular basis of bitter tastant-induced bronchodilation. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001501 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the large decrease in [Ca(2+)]i caused by effective tastant bronchodilators provides an efficient cell-based screening method for identifying potent dilators from among the many thousands of available bitter tastants...

More Information

Publications113 found, 100 shown here

  1. Gregory L, Lloyd C. Orchestrating house dust mite-associated allergy in the lung. Trends Immunol. 2011;32:402-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We review the myriad ways in which HDM allergic responses are orchestrated. Understanding the molecular pathways that elicit HDM-associated pathology is likely to reveal novel targets for therapeutic intervention...
  2. Nguyen P, Bashirzadeh F, Hundloe J, Salvado O, Dowson N, Ware R, et al. Optical differentiation between malignant and benign lymphadenopathy by grey scale texture analysis of endobronchial ultrasound convex probe images. Chest. 2012;141:709-715 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine if this methodology could differentiate between benign and malignant lymphadenopathy of EBUS images...
  3. Faisy C, Pinto F, Le Guen M, Naline E, Grassin Delyle S, Sage E, et al. Airway response to acute mechanical stress in a human bronchial model of stretch. Crit Care. 2011;15:R208 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the consequences of stretch during excessive lung inflation on basal tone and responsiveness of human bronchi are unknown...
  4. Cormet Boyaka E, Jolivette K, Bonnegarde Bernard A, Rennolds J, Hassan F, Mehta P, et al. An NF-?B-independent and Erk1/2-dependent mechanism controls CXCL8/IL-8 responses of airway epithelial cells to cadmium. Toxicol Sci. 2012;125:418-29 pubmed publisher
  5. Benyahia C, Gomez I, Kanyinda L, Boukais K, Danel C, Leseche G, et al. PGE(2) receptor (EP(4)) agonists: potent dilators of human bronchi and future asthma therapy?. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2012;25:115-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was thus to characterize the PGE(2) receptor subtypes (EP(2) or EP(4)) involved in the relaxation of human bronchial preparations...
  6. MarIn A, Garcia Aymerich J, Sauleda J, Belda J, Millares L, García Núñez M, et al. Effect of bronchial colonisation on airway and systemic inflammation in stable COPD. COPD. 2012;9:121-30 pubmed publisher
  7. Van Ly D, Burgess J, Brock T, Lee T, Black J, Oliver B. Prostaglandins but not leukotrienes alter extracellular matrix protein deposition and cytokine release in primary human airway smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012;303:L239-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that, collectively, these results provide evidence that PGs may contribute to ECM remodeling to a greater extent than leukotrienes in airway cells...
  8. Chang Y, Al Alwan L, Risse P, Halayko A, Martin J, Baglole C, et al. Th17-associated cytokines promote human airway smooth muscle cell proliferation. FASEB J. 2012;26:5152-60 pubmed publisher
  9. Solberg O, Ostrin E, Love M, Peng J, Bhakta N, Hou L, et al. Airway epithelial miRNA expression is altered in asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;186:965-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in airway epithelial cell differentiation, driven in part by IL-13, are important in asthma. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell differentiation in many systems and could contribute to epithelial abnormalities in asthma...
  10. Raemdonck K, De Alba J, Birrell M, Grace M, Maher S, Irvin C, et al. A role for sensory nerves in the late asthmatic response. Thorax. 2012;67:19-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Although many subjects with asthma consider LAR to be one of the defining symptoms of their disease, and despite its widespread use in the clinical assessment of new therapeutic entities, the mechanism underlying the LAR remains unclear...
  11. Silva V, Pazetti R, Soto S, Siqueira M, Correia A, Jatene F, et al. Effects of mycophenolate sodium on mucociliary clearance using a bronchial section and anastomosis rodent model. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2011;66:1451-6 pubmed
    ..To study the effects of mycophenolate sodium on mucociliary clearance...
  12. Prytherch Z, Job C, Marshall H, Oreffo V, Foster M, Berube K. Tissue-Specific stem cell differentiation in an in vitro airway model. Macromol Biosci. 2011;11:1467-77 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that the basal/progenitor cells create a pseudo-stratified, mucociliary NHBE model containing basal, serous, Clara, goblet and ciliated cells, reflective of the normal human bronchial epithelium (days 24-33 ALI culture)...
  13. Cheng W, Currier J, Bromberg P, Silbajoris R, Simmons S, Samet J. Linking oxidative events to inflammatory and adaptive gene expression induced by exposure to an organic particulate matter component. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:267-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Toxicological studies have correlated inflammatory effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) with its organic constituents, such as the organic electrophile 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ)...
  14. Bobic S, Seys S, De Vooght V, Callebaut I, Hox V, Dooms C, et al. Placental growth factor contributes to bronchial neutrophilic inflammation and edema in allergic asthma. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2012;46:781-9 pubmed publisher
    ..PlGF was increased in the bronchi of ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged mice compared with control mice (65 ± 17 pg/mg versus 18 ± 1 pg/mg, respectively; ..
  15. Milara J, Armengot M, Bañuls P, Tenor H, Beume R, Artigues E, et al. Roflumilast N-oxide, a PDE4 inhibitor, improves cilia motility and ciliated human bronchial epithelial cells compromised by cigarette smoke in vitro. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;166:2243-62 pubmed publisher
  16. Kain J, Karlsson H, Moller L. DNA damage induced by micro- and nanoparticles--interaction with FPG influences the detection of DNA oxidation in the comet assay. Mutagenesis. 2012;27:491-500 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that measurement of oxidatively damaged DNA in cells exposed to nanoparticles may be underestimated in the comet assay due to interactions with FPG...
  17. Xu X, Bai L, Chen W, Padilla M, Liu Y, Kim K, et al. MUC1 contributes to BPDE-induced human bronchial epithelial cell transformation through facilitating EGFR activation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33846 pubmed publisher
  18. He W, Han B, Liu M, Zhang P, Fan J, Song N, et al. Tracheobronchial reconstructions with bronchoplastic closure: an alternative method in treatment of bronchogenic carcinoma involving the carina or tracheobronchial angle. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012;144:418-24 pubmed publisher
  19. Trebbien R, Larsen L, Viuff B. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A virus of avian and swine origin in experimentally infected pigs. Virol J. 2011;8:434 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, experimental and natural infections in pigs have been reported with influenza A virus from avian and human sources...
  20. Van Goor F, Hadida S, Grootenhuis P, Burton B, Stack J, Straley K, et al. Correction of the F508del-CFTR protein processing defect in vitro by the investigational drug VX-809. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:18843-8 pubmed publisher
    ..VX-809 was more efficacious and selective for CFTR than previously reported CFTR correctors. VX-809 represents a class of CFTR corrector that specifically addresses the underlying processing defect in F508del-CFTR...
  21. Jing Y, Liu L, Jiang Y, Zhu Y, Guo N, Barnett J, et al. Cadmium increases HIF-1 and VEGF expression through ROS, ERK, and AKT signaling pathways and induces malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells. Toxicol Sci. 2012;125:10-9 pubmed publisher
  22. Morioka M, Parameswaran H, Naruse K, Kondo M, Sokabe M, Hasegawa Y, et al. Microtubule dynamics regulate cyclic stretch-induced cell alignment in human airway smooth muscle cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26384 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism of stretch-induced alignment we uncovered is likely involved in various airway functions as well as in the pathophysiology of airway remodeling in asthma...
  23. Kumar P, Hu Y, Yamamoto Y, Hoe N, Wei T, Mu D, et al. Distal airway stem cells yield alveoli in vitro and during lung regeneration following H1N1 influenza infection. Cell. 2011;147:525-38 pubmed publisher
  24. Cappello F, Caramori G, Campanella C, Vicari C, Gnemmi I, Zanini A, et al. Convergent sets of data from in vivo and in vitro methods point to an active role of Hsp60 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pathogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28200 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report results showing participation of Hsp60 in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), as indicated by data from both in vivo and in vitro analyses...
  25. Zeng G, Zhang P, Deng X, Yu F, Li C, Xu Y, et al. Identification of candidate biomarkers for early detection of human lung squamous cell cancer by quantitative proteomics. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012;11:M111.013946 pubmed publisher
    ..The present data first time show that GSTP1, HSPB1 and CKB are novel potential biomarkers for early detection of LSCC, and GSTP1 down-regulation is involved in human bronchial epithelial carcinogenesis...
  26. Gundavarapu S, Wilder J, Mishra N, Rir Sima Ah J, Langley R, Singh S, et al. Role of nicotinic receptors and acetylcholine in mucous cell metaplasia, hyperplasia, and airway mucus formation in vitro and in vivo. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130:770-780.e11 pubmed publisher
    ..Airway mucus hypersecretion is a key pathophysiologic feature in a number of lung diseases. Cigarette smoke/nicotine and allergens are strong stimulators of airway mucus; however, the mechanism of mucus modulation is unclear...
  27. Nagarkar D, Poposki J, Comeau M, Biyasheva A, Avila P, Schleimer R, et al. Airway epithelial cells activate TH2 cytokine production in mast cells through IL-1 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130:225-32.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..Although mast cells are known to play a central role in manifestations of allergic inflammation and are found in the epithelium in patients with T(H)2-related diseases, their role is incompletely understood...
  28. Wyatt T, Sisson J, Allen Gipson D, McCaskill M, Boten J, Devasure J, et al. Co-exposure to cigarette smoke and alcohol decreases airway epithelial cell cilia beating in a protein kinase C?-dependent manner. Am J Pathol. 2012;181:431-40 pubmed publisher
    ..No decreases in CBF were observed in PKC? knockout mice co-exposed to smoke and alcohol. These data identify PKC? as a key regulator of cilia slowing in response to combined smoke and alcohol-induced lung injury...
  29. Proud D, Hudy M, Wiehler S, Zaheer R, Amin M, Pelikan J, et al. Cigarette smoke modulates expression of human rhinovirus-induced airway epithelial host defense genes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40762 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes were not associated with altered expression of type I or type III interferons. Thus, CSE alters epithelial responses to HRV infection in a manner that may negatively impact antiviral and host defense outcomes. ..
  30. Moretto N, Bertolini S, Iadicicco C, Marchini G, Kaur M, Volpi G, et al. Cigarette smoke and its component acrolein augment IL-8/CXCL8 mRNA stability via p38 MAPK/MK2 signaling in human pulmonary cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012;303:L929-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the pivotal role of IL-8 in neutrophil chemotaxis and activation, our results shed light on the mechanisms through which cigarette smoke can initiate inflammation in the lung...
  31. Mata M, Sarrión I, Armengot M, Carda C, Martinez I, Melero J, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus inhibits ciliagenesis in differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells: effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48037 pubmed publisher
    ..The results presented in this study support the therapeutic use of NAC for the management of chronic respiratory diseases, including COPD...
  32. Benediktsdóttir B, Arason A, Halldorsson S, Gudjonsson T, Másson M, Baldursson O. Drug delivery characteristics of the progenitor bronchial epithelial cell line VA10. Pharm Res. 2013;30:781-91 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the integrity and permeability properties of the immortalized human VA10 bronchial epithelial cell line for its suitability as an in vitro drug permeation model...
  33. Van Ly D, Faiz A, Jenkins C, Crossett B, Black J, McParland B, et al. Characterising the mechanism of airway smooth muscle ?2 adrenoceptor desensitization by rhinovirus infected bronchial epithelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56058 pubmed publisher
    ..It was deduced that the mechanism by which ?2 adrenoceptor desensitization occurs was by pattern recognition receptor activation of COX-2 induced prostaglandins...
  34. Yang Q, Xie B, Hu M, Sun X, Huang X, Guo M. Thoracoscopic anatomic pulmonary segmentectomy: a 3-dimensional guided imaging system for lung operations. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2016;23:183-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The anatomically adjacent relationship of the nodules among the arteries, veins and bronchi in the target pulmonary segments could be displayed in any view...
  35. Darquenne C, Zeman K, Sá R, Cooper T, Fine J, Bennett W, et al. Removal of sedimentation decreases relative deposition of coarse particles in the lung periphery. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2013;115:546-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, gravity has a significant effect on deposition patterns of coarse particles, with most of deposition occurring in the alveolar region in 1G but in the large airways in ?G. ..
  36. Profita M, Albano G, Montalbano A, Di Sano C, Anzalone G, Gagliardo R, et al. Acetylcholine leads to signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1) mediated oxidative/nitrosative stress in human bronchial epithelial cell line. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1832:1949-58 pubmed publisher
    ..2-Long acting and antimuscarinic drugs, normally used in the treatment of COPD as bronchodilator, might be able to control these cellular events. ..
  37. Wiedemann K, Männle C. Anesthesia and gas exchange in tracheal surgery. Thorac Surg Clin. 2014;24:13-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutual understanding is essential to prevent, rapidly identify, and correct imminent loss of airway viability. ..
  38. Bernasconi L, Ramenzoni L, Al Majid A, Tini G, Graber S, Schmidlin P, et al. Elevated Matrix Metalloproteinase Levels in Bronchi Infected with Periodontopathogenic Bacteria. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0144461 pubmed publisher
    ..Bronchial colonisation/infection with Treponema denticola and smoking are independently associated with elevated MMPs (MMP9/MMP12 and MMP8/MMP9, respectively) in the bronchial fluid. ..
  39. Cortés Julián G, Mier J, Iñiguez M, Guzmán de Alba E. Right main bronchial fracture resolution by digital thoracic drainage system. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2016;24:283-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We employed a pleural drain connected to a digital thoracic drainage system. The drain was removed 2 days after successful resolution of the air leak. ..
  40. Butenhoff J, Olsen G, Chang S. Toxicological response of Sprague Dawley rats from inhalation exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (POSF). Toxicol Lett. 2017;271:38-49 pubmed publisher 300ppm was associated with reduction in body weight-gain, necrosis of laryngeal cartilage, increased lung and bronchi weight with septal thickening, and changes in alveolar macrophages...
  41. Semple T, Calder A, Owens C, Padley S. Current and future approaches to large airways imaging in adults and children. Clin Radiol. 2017;72:356-374 pubmed publisher
    ..a wide variety of pathology affecting the trachea, main, lobar, segmental, and proximal sub-segmental bronchi. Relevant pathologies can be divided into focal or diffuse processes and many conditions have classic appearances ..
  42. Koćwin M, Jonakowski M, Przemęcka M, Panek M, Kuna P. Selected bone morphogenetic proteins - the possibility of their use in the diagnostics and therapy of severe asthma. Adv Respir Med. 2017;85:109-115 pubmed publisher
    ..of the extracellular matrix, which is one of the elements involved in the reconstruction of the structure of the bronchi in severe asthma...
  43. Mehdiratta N, Archer M, Stewart M, Dennis B, Grogan E. Novel Airway and Ventilator Management of Tracheobronchial Disruption After Blunt Trauma. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017;104:e359-e361 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a novel airway and ventilation strategy in the setting of concomitant tracheobronchial injury after severe blunt chest trauma in which extracorporeal support is contraindicated...
  44. Glanville A. The role of surveillance bronchoscopy post-lung transplantation. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;34:414-20 pubmed publisher
  45. Nassani N, Khayat G, Raad I, Jiang Y, Alaaeddine N, Hilal G. Telomerase as a potential marker for inflammation and cancer detection in bronchial washing: a prospective study. Clin Biochem. 2013;46:1701-4 pubmed publisher
    ..03, and for inflammation vs. normal, AUC=0.76 (95% CI: 0.62-0.88), se=79%, sp=77%, NPV=59%, at cut-off >0. Telomerase activity in bronchial aspirates is a promising diagnostic marker for lung cancer and inflammation detection. ..
  46. Uddin M, Lau L, Seumois G, Vijayanand P, Staples K, Bagmane D, et al. EGF-induced bronchial epithelial cells drive neutrophil chemotactic and anti-apoptotic activity in asthma. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72502 pubmed publisher
  47. Kalchiem Dekel O, Maimon N, Shack A, Smoliakov A, Shaco Levy R, Fruchter O, et al. An unusual presentation of malignant melanoma metastatic to the lungs and bronchi. Bilateral ground-glass opacities with a "crazy paving" component. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;191:954-5 pubmed publisher
  48. Erginel B, Ozkan B, Gun Soysal F, Celik A, Salman T, Toker A. Sleeve resection for bronchial carcinoid tumour in two children under six years old. World J Surg Oncol. 2016;14:108 pubmed publisher
    ..Bronchoplastic techniques preserving lung parenchyma allow the resection and reconstruction of the main bronchi and carina...
  49. Khataby K, Kichou F, Loutfi C, Ennaji M. Assessment of pathogenicity and tissue distribution of infectious bronchitis virus strains (Italy 02 genotype) isolated from moroccan broiler chickens. BMC Vet Res. 2016;12:94 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary and secondary bronchi, epithelial hyperplasia and mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate of the lamina propria were also observed...
  50. Shen D, Yuan F, Hou J. [Effect of annexin A2 on EGFR/NF-?B signal transduction and mucin expression in human airway epithelial cells treated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2017;19:820-825 pubmed
    ..05). AnxA2 is involved in the airway lesion induced by MP antigen via mediating EGFR/NF-?B signaling activation and mucin expression in human airway epithelial cells. ..
  51. Shiobara T, Chibana K, Watanabe T, Arai R, Horigane Y, Nakamura Y, et al. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 is highly expressed in bronchial epithelial cells of untreated asthma and it increases cell proliferation along with fibronectin production in airway constitutive cells. Respir Res. 2016;17:28 pubmed publisher
    ..DPP4 may be involved in the pathologic features of asthmatic airway inflammation and cell proliferation and FN production. ..
  52. Xu X, Ni S, Fu M, Zheng X, Luo N, Weng W. Numerical investigation of airflow, heat transfer and particle deposition for oral breathing in a realistic human upper airway model. J Therm Biol. 2017;70:53-63 pubmed publisher
    ..of the first generation of the tracheobronchial tree, as well as a tissue region from the pharynx to the upper bronchi. The Transition Shear Stress Transport (SST-transition) turbulence model, Pennes bioheat transfer equation, ..
  53. Zhao Y, Xu Y, Luo F, Xu W, Wang B, Pang Y, et al. Angiogenesis, mediated by miR-21, is involved arsenite-induced carcinogenesis. Toxicol Lett. 2013;223:35-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Down-regulation of miR-21 in these cells inhibited the arsenite-induced increases of VEGF levels. Thus, we conclude that arsenite induces tumor angiogenesis through processes mediated by miR-21. ..
  54. Zhao Y, Xu Y, Li Y, Xu W, Luo F, Wang B, et al. NF-?B-mediated inflammation leading to EMT via miR-200c is involved in cell transformation induced by cigarette smoke extract. Toxicol Sci. 2013;135:265-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we have defined a link between inflammation and EMT, processes involved in the malignant transformation of cells caused by CSE. This link, mediated through miRNAs, establishes a mechanism for CSE-induced lung carcinogenesis. ..
  55. Poole A, Urbanek C, Eng C, Schageman J, Jacobson S, O Connor B, et al. Dissecting childhood asthma with nasal transcriptomics distinguishes subphenotypes of disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133:670-8.e12 pubmed publisher
    ..Nasal airway gene expression profiles largely recapitulate expression profiles in the lung airways. Nasal expression profiling can be used to identify subjects with IL13-driven asthma and a TH2-skewed systemic immune response. ..
  56. Yi E, Chang J, Leem C, Kim S, Jheon S. Clinical results of photodynamic therapy in tracheobronchial malignancy. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2016;156:56-60 pubmed publisher
    ..3 months. Photodynamic therapy was safe and feasible for palliative therapy in tracheobronchial cancer with acceptable complication rates. Also, it could be a treatment option for double primary lung cancer in inoperable patients. ..
  57. Woloski J, Heston S, Escobedo Calderon S. Respiratory Allergic Disorders. Prim Care. 2016;43:401-15 pubmed publisher a complex hypersensitivity reaction, often in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis, occurring when bronchi become colonized by Aspergillus species...
  58. Valenzuela C, Wagner W, Bennett R, Ysasi A, Belle J, Molter K, et al. Extracellular Assembly of the Elastin Cable Line Element in the Developing Lung. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2017;300:1670-1679 pubmed publisher
    In the normal lung, a dominant structural element is an elastic "line element" that originates in the central bronchi and inserts into the distal airspaces...
  59. Henriquez C, Morán G, Carrasco C, Sarmiento J, Barria M, Folch H, et al. Modulatory role of regulatory T cells in a murine model of severe equine asthma. BMC Vet Res. 2017;13:117 pubmed publisher
    ..before antigenic challenge showed higher cellular infiltration in the lung and deeper remodeling changes in the bronchi, including epithelial and goblet cell hyperplasia as well as airway smooth muscle hypertrophy...
  60. Okami J, Tokunaga T, Kanou T, Kunou H, Ishida D, Fujiwara A, et al. Randomized Study Comparing Equal Height Staples With Graduated Height Staples in Bronchial Closure. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017;104:1012-1019 pubmed publisher
    ..From the clinical point of view, both the equal height staples and the graduated height staples showed acceptable performance in the stapling ability. ..
  61. Che J, Lü Y, Sun K, Feng C, Dong A, Jiao Y. Overexpression of TOB1 confers radioprotection to bronchial epithelial cells through the MAPK/ERK pathway. Oncol Rep. 2013;30:637-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Different from its functions in several lung cancer cell lines, TOB1 demonstrated a radioprotective function in the immortalized normal human bronchial epithelial cell line HBE via the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. ..
  62. Loomba R, Pelech A, Shah P, Anderson R. Determining bronchial morphology for the purposes of segregating so-called heterotaxy. Cardiol Young. 2016;26:725-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding of bronchial isomerism correlates well, but not totally, with the presumed isomerism of the atrial appendages as predicted from the identified intra-cardiac morphology. ..
  63. Yuan Z, Ying X, Zhong W, Tian S, Wang Y, Jia Y, et al. Autophagy Attenuates MnCl2-induced Apoptosis in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells. Biomed Environ Sci. 2016;29:494-504 pubmed publisher
    ..MnCl2 dose- and time-dependently inhibits 16HBE cell proliferation and induces MMP loss and apoptosis. Autophagy acts in a protective role against MnCl2-induced apoptosis in 16HBE cells. ..
  64. Gindele J, Mang S, Pairet N, Christ I, Gantner F, Schymeinsky J, et al. Opposing effects of in vitro differentiated macrophages sub-type on epithelial wound healing. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184386 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively these data highlight the complex nature of epithelial wound closure, the differential impact of macrophage sub-types on this process, and the heterogenic and non-delineated function of these macrophages. ..
  65. Agrawal S, Srivastava R, Rahmatpanah F, Madiraju C, BenMohamed L, Agrawal A. Airway epithelial cells enhance the immunogenicity of human myeloid dendritic cells under steady state. Clin Exp Immunol. 2017;189:279-289 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that AECs prime mDCs to enhance their immunogenicity, which could be one of the mechanisms that compensates for the immunosuppressive mucosal environment. ..
  66. Phillips A, Fiorello C, Baden R, Liu J, Burmas N, Ruvalcaba C, et al. Amphotericin B concentrations in healthy mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) following a single intratracheal dose of liposomal amphotericin B using an atomizer. Med Mycol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma concentrations were never above the targeted MIC. Histological examination of the trachea, bronchi, lungs, heart, liver, and kidneys did not reveal any toxic changes...
  67. do Amor Divino P, Marchetti K, Almeida M, Riechelmann R. Functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour causing Cushing's syndrome: the effect of chemotherapy on clinical symptoms. Ecancermedicalscience. 2017;11:773 pubmed publisher
    ..NETs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases that can originate from any part of the gastrointestinal tract, bronchi, thyroid and pancreas...
  68. André Grégoire G, Dilasser F, Chesne J, Braza F, Magnan A, Loirand G, et al. Targeting of Rac1 prevents bronchoconstriction and airway hyperresponsiveness. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;142:824-833.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..To define the role of Rac1 in aSMC, ex and in vitro analyses of bronchial reactivity were performed on bronchi from smooth muscle (SM)-specific Rac1 knockout mice and human individuals...
  69. Chan M, Chan R, Tsao G, Peiris J. Replication and pathogenesis of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in polarised human bronchial and alveolar epithelium. Hong Kong Med J. 2013;19 Suppl 4:24-8 pubmed
    ..These viruses were potent inducers of cytokines and chemokines in primary human alveolar epithelial cells. ..
  70. Zhou J, Wang D, Gao R, Zhao B, Song J, Qi X, et al. Biological features of novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus. Nature. 2013;499:500-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We note that the human population is naive to the H7N9 virus, and current seasonal vaccination could not provide protection. ..
  71. Burcham P, Raso A, Henry P. Airborne acrolein induces keratin-8 (Ser-73) hyperphosphorylation and intermediate filament ubiquitination in bronchiolar lung cell monolayers. Toxicology. 2014;319:44-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings confirm the usefulness of systems allowing delivery of airborne smoke constituents to lung cell monolayers during studies of the molecular basis for acute smoke intoxication injury. ..
  72. Dickinson J, Alevy Y, Malvin N, Patel K, Gunsten S, Holtzman M, et al. IL13 activates autophagy to regulate secretion in airway epithelial cells. Autophagy. 2016;12:397-409 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these observations suggest that the regulation of autophagy by Th2 cytokines is cell-context dependent. ..
  73. Lee K, Kim E. High-resolution CT of alveolar filling disorders. Radiol Clin North Am. 2001;39:1211-30 pubmed
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