thyroid cartilage

Summary

Summary: The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.

Top Publications

  1. Nadig S, Uppal S, Back G, Coatesworth A, Grace A. Foreign body sensation in the throat due to displacement of the superior cornu of the thyroid cartilage: two cases and a literature review. J Laryngol Otol. 2006;120:608-9 pubmed
    ..case was treated with surgery of the neck and larynx to trim the medially projecting superior cornu of the thyroid cartilage. Surgery was successful in eliminating the symptoms...
  2. Amin M. Thyrohyoid approach for vocal fold augmentation. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2006;115:699-702 pubmed
    ..I performed a retrospective chart review to evaluate the patient tolerance and clinical results of a new technique for office-based vocal fold augmentation...
  3. Perrin J, Zaunbauer W, Haertel M. Brown tumor of the thyroid cartilage: CT findings. Skeletal Radiol. 2003;32:530-2 pubmed
    ..and severe skeletal involvement associated with brown tumors of the axial and appendicular skeleton and of the thyroid cartilage. Ossification of the laryngeal skeleton may explain the presence of this process in this unusual location.
  4. Varvares M, Montgomery W. Repair of chronic subglottic stenosis with autogenous thyroid cartilage. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2004;113:212-7 pubmed
    ..Posterior cartilage graft fixation with our pin technique offers a significant advantage over suture fixation by improving graft stability and decreasing operative time, and has a high rate of decannulation...
  5. Pufe T, Mentlein R, Tsokos M, Steven P, Varoga D, Goldring M, et al. VEGF expression in adult permanent thyroid cartilage: implications for lack of cartilage ossification. Bone. 2004;35:543-52 pubmed
    ..b>Thyroid cartilage undergoes only partial ossification beginning at the age of about 20...
  6. Kao C, Wang H, Lee J, Chin S. Pseudotumor of the hypopharynx-displaced superior cornu of the thyroid cartilage. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;132:167-8 pubmed
  7. Lin D, Fischbein N, Eisele D. Odynophagia secondary to variant thyroid cartilage anatomy. Dysphagia. 2005;20:232-4 pubmed
    We present a case of a displaced superior cornu of the thyroid cartilage causing odynophagia and a foreign body sensation of the pharynx. Diagnosis was made by computed tomography (CT) scan and confirmed by direct endoscopic examination...
  8. Hartl D, Landry G, Bidault F, Hans S, Julieron M, Mamelle G, et al. CT-scan prediction of thyroid cartilage invasion for early laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;270:287-91 pubmed publisher
    Treatment choice for laryngeal cancer may be influenced by the diagnosis of thyroid cartilage invasion on preoperative computed tomography (CT)...
  9. Mupparapu M, Vuppalapati A. Detection of an early ossification of thyroid cartilage in an adolescent on a lateral cephalometric radiograph. Angle Orthod. 2002;72:576-8 pubmed
    We report ossification of the thyroid cartilage detected on a routine lateral cephalometric film and discuss the clinical implications of this finding...

More Information

Publications103 found, 100 shown here

  1. Fikkers B, van Vugt S, van der Hoeven J, van den Hoogen F, Marres H. Emergency cricothyrotomy: a randomised crossover trial comparing the wire-guided and catheter-over-needle techniques. Anaesthesia. 2004;59:1008-11 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the wire-guided minitracheotomy kit is unsuitable for emergency cricothyrotomies performed by inexperienced practitioners. On the other hand, the catheter-over-needle technique appears to be quick, safe and reliable...
  2. Su C, Tsai S, Chuang H, Chiu J. Functional significance of arytenoid adduction with the suture attaching to cricoid cartilage versus to thyroid cartilage for unilateral paralytic dysphonia. Laryngoscope. 2005;115:1752-9 pubmed
    ..This study investigated the influence of these changes in suture direction on the vocal fold level as well as the vocal outcomes in these two techniques of arytenoid adduction...
  3. Maranillo E, Vazquez T, Mirapeix R, Leon X, McHanwell S, Quer M, et al. Ceratocricoid muscle: an embryological and anatomical study. Clin Anat. 2009;22:463-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The ceratocricoid muscle is attached between the cricoid lamina and the inferior horn of the thyroid cartilage and also into the capsule of the cricothyroid joint...
  4. Dang Tran K, Dedouit F, Joffre F, Rouge D, Rousseau H, Telmon N. Thyroid cartilage ossification and multislice computed tomography examination: a useful tool for age assessment?. J Forensic Sci. 2010;55:677-83 pubmed publisher
    Many authors have studied the thyroid cartilage ossification process using radiographic features for age estimation of individuals...
  5. Hartl D, Landry G, Hans S, Marandas P, Casiraghi O, Janot F, et al. Thyroid cartilage invasion in early-stage squamous cell carcinoma involving the anterior commissure. Head Neck. 2012;34:1476-9 pubmed publisher
    Anterior commissure (AC) carcinoma is in close proximity to the thyroid cartilage. Our objective was to evaluate risk factors for thyroid cartilage invasion.
  6. Kats S, Muller S, Aiken A, Hudgins P, Wadsworth J, Shin D, et al. Laryngeal tumor volume as a predictor for thyroid cartilage penetration. Head Neck. 2013;35:426-30 pubmed publisher
    Review of laryngectomy specimens demonstrated that preoperative CT scanning is suboptimal in predicting both thyroid cartilage penetration and extralaryngeal spread...
  7. Browning S, Whittet H. A new and clinically symptomatic variant of thyroid cartilage anatomy. Clin Anat. 2000;13:294-7 pubmed
    We present a previously undescribed variation in the anatomy of the superior cornu of the thyroid cartilage. In the five cases described, the tip of the cornu turned medially and caused an indentation into the pharynx...
  8. Hartl D, Landry G, Hans S, Marandas P, Brasnu D. Organ preservation surgery for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma: low incidence of thyroid cartilage invasion. Laryngoscope. 2010;120:1173-6 pubmed publisher
    Determine the incidence and risk factors for thyroid cartilage invasion in early and midstage laryngeal cancer.
  9. Elliott D, Baker P, Scott M, Birch C, Thompson J. Accuracy of surface landmark identification for cannula cricothyroidotomy. Anaesthesia. 2010;65:889-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Accuracy of percutaneously identifying the cricothyroid membrane was poor. Ultrasound may assist in identifying anatomical landmarks for cricothyroidotomy...
  10. Zak A, Gul E. [Contribution to surgical treatment of voice disorders]. Otolaryngol Pol. 1991;45:459-62 pubmed
    ..Long-lasting observation brought to our mind an original idea the appliance of which gave us rapid and fruitful effect. ..
  11. Chiu A, Newkirk K, Davidson B, Burningham A, Krowiak E, Deeb Z. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema: a multicenter review and an algorithm for airway management. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2001;110:834-40 pubmed
    ..An algorithm based on the initial presentation is essential for proper airway and patient management. Once treatment has begun, angioedema is nonprogressive and often resolves within 24 to 48 hours. ..
  12. Rinaggio J, Duffey D, McGuff H. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of the larynx. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004;97:369-75 pubmed
    ..We report a case of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma arising in the thyroid cartilage. This, to our knowledge, is the eleventh fully documented case of this neoplasm arising in the larynx.
  13. Yonemoto N, Nagahata T, Nishimura T, Kato H, Kitaguchi K, Furuya H. [Difficult airway management during emergency tracheostomy in a patient with severe rheumatoid arthritis]. Masui. 2005;54:39-41 pubmed
    ..Assisting the ventilation in this way finally, a spiral endtracheal tube was inserted and her oxygenation became stable. ..
  14. Heard A, Green R, Eakins P. The formulation and introduction of a 'can't intubate, can't ventilate' algorithm into clinical practice. Anaesthesia. 2009;64:601-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This article discusses our training programme, the evaluation of emergency airway techniques and subsequent development of a 'can't intubate, can't ventilate' algorithm. ..
  15. Isshiki N, Haji T, Yamamoto Y, Mahieu H. Thyroplasty for adductor spasmodic dysphonia: further experiences. Laryngoscope. 2001;111:615-21 pubmed
    ..No recurrence has been noted so far over postoperative periods ranging from 6 months to more than 3 years. The results suggest that thyroplasty is an effective therapeutic approach for SD. ..
  16. Medda B, Kern M, Ren J, Xie P, Ulualp S, Lang I, et al. Relative contribution of various airway protective mechanisms to prevention of aspiration during swallowing. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003;284:G933-9 pubmed
    ..Bolus pulsion without laryngeal distraction can open the UES, but at risk of aspiration due to decreased pharyngeal clearance. The epiglottis provides no apparent airway protection during any phase of swallowing. ..
  17. Kwa S, Al mamgani A, Osman S, Gangsaas A, Levendag P, Heijmen B. Inter- and Intrafraction Target Motion in Highly Focused Single Vocal Cord Irradiation of T1a Larynx Cancer Patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015;93:190-5 pubmed publisher
    ..63 Gy). A daily cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan was performed to online correct the setup of the thyroid cartilage after patient positioning with in-room lasers (interfraction motion correction)...
  18. Abraham M, Gonen M, Kraus D. Complications of type I thyroplasty and arytenoid adduction. Laryngoscope. 2001;111:1322-9 pubmed
    ..Using the appropriate technique, the potential benefits of improved glottic function following type I thyroplasty with arytenoid adduction outweigh the small risk of significant complications observed. ..
  19. Garrel R, Jouzdani E, Costes V, Makeieff M, Crampette L, Guerrier B. About the existence of a foraminal laryngeal cyst. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;133:641 pubmed
  20. Thompson C, Halder S, Wimbush S. Effective ventilation following emergency needle cricothyroidotomy. Resuscitation. 2007;72:164-6; author reply 166 pubmed
  21. Sanuki T, Isshiki N. Outcomes of type II thyroplasty for adductor spasmodic dysphonia: analysis of revision and unsatisfactory cases. Acta Otolaryngol. 2009;129:1287-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In three patients, the material used for fixation was inadequate. In two other patients, the method of application of the fixative material was found to be insufficient as it did not include both the upper and lower sides. ..
  22. Amatoury J, Cheng S, Kairaitis K, Wheatley J, Amis T, Bilston L. Development and validation of a computational finite element model of the rabbit upper airway: simulations of mandibular advancement and tracheal displacement. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2016;120:743-57 pubmed publisher
    ..rabbit, which included major soft (tongue, soft palate, constrictor muscles), cartilaginous (epiglottis, thyroid cartilage), and bony pharyngeal tissues (mandible, hard palate, hyoid bone)...
  23. Nohara T, Kawashima A, Takahashi T, Kitamura M, Akai H, Oka T, et al. [Prostate cancer metastasized to thyroid cartilage: a case report]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi. 2005;96:697-700 pubmed
    ..Computed tomography of the neck showed a tumor in the thyroid cartilage. Biopsy of the neck tumor revealed metastasis of prostate cancer by positive PSA staining...
  24. Rzepakowska A, Osuch Wójcikiewicz E, Sielska Badurek E, Niemczyk K. Medialization thyroplasty in glottis insufficiency due to unilateral vocal fold paralysis and after laser cordectomies - preliminary report. Otolaryngol Pol. 2017;71:22-29 pubmed publisher
    Medialization thyroplasty (type I) is surgical procedure performed on the thyroid cartilage. The major indication for this surgery is significant glottis insufficiency due to unilateral vocal fold paresis...
  25. de Bakker B, de Bakker H, Soerdjbalie Maikoe V, Dikkers F. The development of the human hyoid-larynx complex revisited. Laryngoscope. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..state that the hyoid bone body develops from the second and third pharyngeal arch cartilages, and that thyroid cartilage derives from the fourth and sixth arch cartilages...
  26. Pickuth D, Brandt S, Neumann K, Berghaus A, Spielmann R, Heywang Köbrunner S. Spiral computed tomography before and after cricothyroid approximation. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 2000;25:311-4 pubmed
    ..In addition, CT provides important data as to the most appropriate extent and site of intracordal intervention to be done for a desired pitch elevation. ..
  27. Wieneke J, Gannon F, Heffner D, Thompson L. Giant cell tumor of the larynx: a clinicopathologic series of eight cases and a review of the literature. Mod Pathol. 2001;14:1209-15 pubmed
    ..All tumors involved the thyroid cartilage, a few with local extension. The mean tumor size was 4.1 cm...
  28. Cheng J, Zhao X, Su X. [Age determination by radiographic feature of thyroid cartilage in male Chinese Han popullation]. Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2003;19:16-7, 21 pubmed
    ..The standard deviation of male thyroid cartilage is 1.854 and the multiple correctation coefficient is 0.9971...
  29. Price R. Surgical cricothyroidotomy technique. Anesthesiology. 2005;103:667-8; author reply 668 pubmed
  30. Suehiro A, Hirano S, Kishimoto Y, Tanaka S, Ford C. Comparative study of vocal outcomes with silicone versus Gore-Tex thyroplasty. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2009;118:405-8 pubmed
    ..Gore-Tex thyroplasty enables a less invasive procedure with a shorter surgical duration and easier adjustment of medialization due to its flexibility. ..
  31. Chen S, Wang H, Fong A, Zhang M. Micro-CT visualization of the cricothyroid joint cavity in cadavers. Laryngoscope. 2012;122:614-21 pubmed publisher
    ..the general view that the cricoid cartilage rotates in a visor-like fashion on the inferior cornu of the thyroid cartilage. However, the pivot for the CTJ rotation appears wobbly...
  32. Mangussi Gomes J, Danelon Leonhardt F, Moussalem G, Ahumada N, Oliveira C, Hojaij F. Thyroid gland invasion in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;83:269-275 pubmed publisher
    ..Adjuvant therapy was indicated when tumor or neck conditions required. Frequency of thyroid cartilage invasion was calculated; univariate and multivariate analysis of demographic, clinical and pathological ..
  33. Sharma B, Harish D, Sharma A, Sharma S, Singh H. Injuries to neck structures in deaths due to constriction of neck, with a special reference to hanging. J Forensic Leg Med. 2008;15:298-305 pubmed publisher
    ..The hyoid bone was fractured in 21% cases, while the thyroid cartilage was fractured in 17% cases. Complete hanging was noted in 68% of cases while the hanging was atypical in 88%...
  34. Sagiv D, Eyal A, Mansour J, Nakache G, Wolf M, Primov Fever A. Novel Anatomic Characteristics of the Laryngeal Framework: A Computed Tomography Evaluation. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016;154:674-8 pubmed publisher
    The thyroid cartilage (TC) in men has a more prominent thyroid notch and a narrower interlaminae angle (ILA) as compared with women. Anatomy textbooks classically stipulate that the ILA is 90° in men and 120° in women...
  35. Inui K, Chen C, Pauli J, Kuroki C, Tashiro S, Kanmura Y, et al. Nasal TRPA1 mediates irritant-induced bradypnea in mice. Physiol Rep. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    ..lower airways separately, two cannulas were inserted through a hole made in the trachea just caudal to the thyroid cartilage, one into the nasal cavity and the second into the lower trachea...
  36. Morris A, Lockey D, Coats T. Fat necks: modification of a standard surgical airway protocol in the pre-hospital environmental. Resuscitation. 1997;35:253-4 pubmed
    ..Slight departure from standard techniques may be required in difficult circumstances to achieve a definitive airway. ..
  37. Battefort F, Bounes V, Pulcini M, Houze Cerfon C, Ducasse J. [Prehospital cricothyrotomy: a case report]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2007;26:171-3 pubmed
    ..We recommend having wire-guided cricothyrotomy technique or catheter-over-needle technique in all prehospital emergency unit and having emergency physician trained to the cricothyrotomy technique. ..
  38. Uzun I, Buyuk Y, Gurpinar K. Suicidal hanging: fatalities in Istanbul retrospective analysis of 761 autopsy cases. J Forensic Leg Med. 2007;14:406-9 pubmed
    ..In fracture-determined cases, fracture in hyoid bone was seen in 177, in thyroid cartilage in 163, in both hyoid and thyroid in 106...
  39. Park J, Oh J, Lee H, Park S, Yoon T, Kwon B. Effortful swallowing training coupled with electrical stimulation leads to an increase in hyoid elevation during swallowing. Dysphagia. 2009;24:296-301 pubmed publisher
    ..It needs to be evaluated for its long-term effectiveness in increasing the elevation of hyolaryngeal complex. ..
  40. von Büren T, Peter B, Oehlschlegel C, Grossenbacher R. [Deglutition problems and dyspnea with stridor. Cervical high-grade type osteosarcoma, apparently of extraskeletal origin]. HNO. 2003;51:912-4 pubmed
  41. Krobbuaban B, Diregpoke S, Kumkeaw S. An assessment of the ratio of height to thyromental distance compared to thyromental distance as a predictive test for prediction of difficult tracheal intubation in Thai patients. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006;89:638-42 pubmed
    ..The AUC of RHTMD was significantly greater than the AUC of TMD (p = 0.00). The authors concluded that RHTMD had better accuracy in predicting difficult intubation than TMD. ..
  42. Ishida H, Suehiro T, Kurozumi C, Ono K, Watanabe S. Ultrasound imaging of the diagonal dimension of the deep cervical flexor muscles: A reliability study on healthy subjects. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2015;19:417-20 pubmed publisher
    ..5 fingerbreadths below the laryngeal prominence of the thyroid cartilage in a relaxed state, were taken on separate days with a 1-week interval...
  43. Hamilton D, Sachidananda R, Carding P, Wilson J. Bioplastique injection laryngoplasty: voice performance outcome. J Laryngol Otol. 2007;121:472-5 pubmed
    ..Bioplastique injection is a quicker procedure associated with fewer complications, and thus appears superior to framework surgery in patients with limited life expectancy. ..
  44. Sun G, Tang H, Sprecher A, MacCallum J, Sun N, Fang Q, et al. Transoral laser surgery for anterior commissure involvement: a study in canines. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2010;37:601-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In group B cauterization was extended to the thyroid cartilage and a 5 mm x 5 mm area of the anterior commissural to half the cartilage thickness...
  45. Tubbs R, Dixon J, Loukas M, Shoja M, Cohen Gadol A. Relationship between the internal laryngeal nerve and the triticeal cartilage: a potentially unrecognized compression site during anterior cervical spine and carotid endarterectomy operations. Neurosurgery. 2010;66:187-90; discussion 190 pubmed publisher
    ..Compression of the internal laryngeal nerve against the solid triticeal cartilage can cause laryngeal nerve palsy and increase the risk of resultant postoperative aspiration. ..
  46. Owada G, Inagawa G, Nakamura K, Kariya T, Goto T. [Usefulness of ultrasound pre-scanning for cricothyroid membrane puncture in a patient with rupture of a pseudoaneurysm]. Masui. 2014;63:77-80 pubmed
    ..We recommend ultrasound pre-scanning for cricothyroid membrane puncture in a patient with suspected tracheal displacement. ..
  47. Balli R, Vincenzi A. [Surgical treatment of androphonia]. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 1991;11:587-94 pubmed
    ..No substantial changes in aerodynamic indices or vocal range were detected. ..
  48. Aneeshkumar M, Jones T, Birchall M. A new indicator-guided percutaneous emergency cricothyrotomy device: in vivo study in man. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;266:105-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study supports the use of the new cricothyrotomy device by trained staff, but prospective audit of its application in real trauma settings is required. ..
  49. Kawamoto Hirano A, Honkura Y, Yamamoto M, Abe S, Murakami G, Katori Y. Submucosal Elastic Laminae of the Middle and Lower Pharynx: A Histological Study Using Elderly Cadaveric Specimens. Dysphagia. 2016;31:635-43 pubmed publisher
    ..restricted to the level from the upper part of the arytenoid to the lower end of the inferior cornu of the thyroid cartilage. It originated from the pharyngeal submucosa, extended laterally along the inner aspect of the ..
  50. Shiozawa T, Epe P, Herlan S, Muller M, Tropitzsch A, Tsiflikas I, et al. Clinically relevant variations of the superior thyroid cornu. Surg Radiol Anat. 2017;39:299-306 pubmed publisher
    The superior thyroid cornu (STC) of the thyroid cartilage is a variable structure that maybe associated with different clinical symptoms. This study evaluates the three-dimensional anatomy of the STC...
  51. Hsiao T, Wang C, Chen C, Hsieh F, Shau Y. Elasticity of human vocal folds measured in vivo using color Doppler imaging. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2002;28:1145-52 pubmed
    ..However, in the range of lower pitch, the VF stress was relatively linear with respect to the strains and the Young's moduli were about 30 to 120 kPa in men and 120 to 300 kPa in women. ..
  52. Metterlein T, Frommer M, Ginzkey C, Becher J, Schuster F, Roewer N, et al. A randomized trial comparing two cuffed emergency cricothyrotomy devices using a wire-guided and a catheter-over-needle technique. J Emerg Med. 2011;41:326-32 pubmed publisher
  53. Saternus K, Maxeiner H, Kernbach Wighton G, Koebke J. Traumatology of the superior thyroid horns in suicidal hanging--an injury analysis. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2013;15:134-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The placement of the ligature was above the larynx in 109 cases and in the remaining nine cases across the thyroid cartilage. As a secondary parameter the degree of ossification of thyroid cartilages and superior horns was used...
  54. Neumann K, Welzel C, Berghaus A. [Operative voice pitch raising in male-to-female transsexuals. A survey of our technique and results]. HNO. 2003;51:30-7 pubmed
    ..In order to adapt the voice as an essential aspect of human identity to the external female appearance,a variety of phonosurgical operation techniques have been developed since the seventies...
  55. Strandvik G, Mayall M. Emergency airway equipment and training. Anaesthesia. 2005;60:291-2; author reply 292 pubmed
  56. Libert N, Leclerc T, De Rudnicki S. Cricothyroidotomy. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:1073-4 pubmed
  57. Chang R, Hamilton R, Carter W. Declining rate of cricothyrotomy in trauma patients with an emergency medicine residency: implications for skills training. Acad Emerg Med. 1998;5:247-51 pubmed
    ..To report the change in cricothyrotomy rate with emergency medicine (EM) residency development and to address the implications for training in this skill...
  58. Cinar U, Yigit O, Vural C, Alkan S, Kayaoglu S, Dadas B. Level of vocal folds as projected on the exterior thyroid cartilage. Laryngoscope. 2003;113:1813-6 pubmed
    This study aims to identify the level of the vocal folds as projected on the exterior thyroid cartilage.
  59. Biswas B, Bhattacharyya P, Joshi S, Tuladhar U, Baniwal S. Fluoroscope-aided retrograde placement of guide wire for tracheal intubation in patients with limited mouth opening. Br J Anaesth. 2005;94:128-31 pubmed
    ..In the absence of a flexible fibre-optic bronchoscope, this technique is a very useful aid to intubation in patients with limited mouth opening...
  60. Dorges V. Airway management in emergency situations. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2005;19:699-715 pubmed
    ..The algorithm for emergency airway management describing the sequence of various procedures has to be adapted to internal standards and to techniques that are available...
  61. Thevasagayam M, Willson K, Jennings C, Pracy P. Bilateral medialization thyroplasty: an effective approach to severe, chronic aspiration. J Laryngol Otol. 2006;120:698-701 pubmed
    ..To demonstrate the efficacy of bilateral medialization thyroplasty as a treatment for severe, chronic aspiration. To review the literature on surgical options available in the treatment of severe aspiration...
  62. Porter P, Vilensky J. The laryngeal saccule: clinical significance. Clin Anat. 2012;25:647-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We also briefly present some descriptive information on the anatomy and function of the saccule in humans and other higher primates...
  63. Thomas J, Macmillan C. Feminization laryngoplasty: assessment of surgical pitch elevation. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;270:2695-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Feminization laryngoplasty is a procedure removing the anterior thyroid cartilage, collapsing the diameter of the larynx as well as shortening and tensioning the vocal folds to raise the ..
  64. Weinstein G, Laccourreye O, Ruiz C, Dooley P, Chalian A, Mirza N. Larynx preservation with supracricoid partial laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy. Correlation of videostroboscopic findings and voice parameters. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2002;111:1-7 pubmed
    ..technique in which both true vocal folds, both false vocal folds, both paraglottic spaces, and the entire thyroid cartilage are resected. The functional goal is speech and swallowing without a permanent tracheostomy...
  65. Conrad K, Yoskovitch A. Endoscopically facilitated reduction laryngochondroplasty. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2003;5:345-8 pubmed
    Endoscopic verification of the level of excision of the thyroid cartilage in reduction laryngochondroplasty maximizes the aesthetic result of the operation and prevents possible injury to the vocal cords...
  66. Chida M, Minowa M, Eba S, Karube Y. [Uncommon procedure in tracheoplasty; thyrotracheal anastomosis and carinoplasty]. Kyobu Geka. 2008;61:972-5 pubmed
    ..Right upper lobe was end-to-side anastomosed to trachea in 1 case, and right basal segment was to left main bronchus in another. It was important both diameter in bronchus and mobilization of the residual lung for this procedure...
  67. Brisson P, Brisson M. Variable application and misapplication of cricoid pressure. J Trauma. 2010;69:1182-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The objectives of this observational study were to determine how many different techniques of cricoid pressure were being used and to identify the reasons for such variability of technique...
  68. Xia C, Zhu Q, Cheng Y, Zhao H, Jin Z. Sonographic assessment of hypopharyngeal carcinoma: preliminary study. J Ultrasound Med. 2011;30:217-25 pubmed
    ..This study investigated the ability of sonography for diagnosis of hypopharyngeal carcinoma...
  69. Ranga U, Aiyappan S, Veeraiyan S. Computed tomography fistulography demonstrating thyroglossal fistula: a case report. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012;114:e48-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of thyroglossal fistula in a young male that was clearly demonstrated using computed tomography fistulography...
  70. Schmitt H, Kirmse M, Radespiel Tröger M. Ratio of patient's height to thyromental distance improves prediction of difficult laryngoscopy. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2002;30:763-5 pubmed
    ..When the sensitivity of both tests was 0.81, the RHTMD had a significantly greater specificity (0.91) than the TMD (0.73). Based on our results, we recommend that the RHTMD should be used instead of the TMD...
  71. Bhattacharyya N, Batirel H, Swanson S. Improved outcomes with early vocal fold medialization for vocal fold paralysis after thoracic surgery. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2003;30:71-5 pubmed
    ..To determine the clinical impact of early versus late surgical therapy for new onset unilateral vocal cord paralysis (UVCP) after thoracic surgery...
  72. Rios Zambudio A, Rodriguez J, Martínez Barba E, Parrilla Paricio P. [Cyst of the thyroid cartilage]. Med Clin (Barc). 2003;120:638-9 pubmed
  73. Page C, Laude M, Legars D, Foulon P, Strunski V. The external laryngeal nerve: surgical and anatomic considerations. Report of 50 total thyroidectomies. Surg Radiol Anat. 2004;26:182-5 pubmed
    ..Several precautions when dissecting the superior pole of the thyroid gland seem to be necessary and sufficient to respect the external laryngeal nerve...
  74. Pathak D, Ball D. Choice of cricothyroidotomy equipment. Anaesthesia. 2005;60:203-4 pubmed
  75. van Borsel J, Van Eynde E, De Cuypere G, Bonte K. Feminine after cricothyroid approximation?. J Voice. 2008;22:379-84 pubmed
    ..It can be concluded that a CA approximation is a viable option to raise the voice pitch in MFTs but that this surgery alone may not be sufficient to create a voice that is perceived as a totally female...
  76. Hyodo M, Taguchi A, Yamagata T, Desaki J. A complex muscle fiber network in the cricothyroid muscle: a scanning electron microscopic study. Laryngoscope. 2007;117:600-3 pubmed
    ..To examine the three-dimensional ultrastructure of cricothyroid (CT) muscle fibers to elucidate their morphologic characteristics with regard to the specific functions of the muscle...
  77. Naimo P, O Donnell C, Bassed R, Briggs C. The use of computed tomography in determining developmental changes, anomalies, and trauma of the thyroid cartilage. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2013;9:377-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to its increasing brittleness with age the thyroid cartilage is particularly susceptible to injury following neck trauma, although there is inconsistency in the patterns ..
  78. Maragos N. Revision thyroplasty. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2001;110:1087-92 pubmed
    ..Although most voices are still abnormal on postoperative objective voice analysis, 80% of patients are subjectively improved...
  79. Zhao D, Chen W, Li G, Sun Y, Sun A. [Experimental study on laryngeal cartilage defects repair with differently preserved allogeneic cartilages transplantation]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi. 2002;37:112-4 pubmed
    ..To study the effect of laryngeal cartilage defect repair with differently preserved allogeneic cartilage grafts...
  80. Tang Y, Liu S, Zheng H. [A study of the reconstructed vocal cords in dogs by electron microscopy]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2003;34:313-4 pubmed
    ..To make an assessment of the reconstruction of dog's vocal cord after cordectomy in experimental study...
  81. Zeitler D, Amin M. The thyrohyoid approach to in-office injection augmentation of the vocal fold. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;15:412-6 pubmed
  82. Kim S, Shin J, Chang E, Chang H, Oh J, Han S. Slide thyrocricotracheoplasty for the treatment of high-grade subglottic stenosis in children. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45:2317-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to describe our early experiences with a novel surgical procedure, "slide thyrocricotracheoplasty," for the treatment of high-grade subglottic stenosis in children...
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    ..To evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonography in assessing laryngeal cancer...
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    ..The purposes of this study were to review our program's experience with cricothyrotomies and use this pilot study to guide an industry-wide study...
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    ..Because of its rarity, any established diagnostic and treatment criteria do not exist. In this report, a case of laryngeal multiple myeloma is presented for its extraordinary presentation and also for educational purposes...
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    ..Only extended and de-differentiated CS indicate further radical surgery, the remainder call for conservative surgical management...
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    ..Percutaneous trans-tracheal jet ventilation (PTJV) is an alternative ventilatory approach in airway surgery. We evaluated the effects of body mass index (BMI) on ventilation during low-frequency jet ventilation...
  90. Rees C, Mouadeb D, Belafsky P. Thyrohyoid vocal fold augmentation with calcium hydroxyapatite. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;138:743-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To review the clinical results of the thyrohyoid approach for in-office vocal fold augmentation with calcium hydroxyapatite...
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    ..The aim of this study was to analyze the functional and oncologic results of supracricoid partial laryngectomy...