laryngeal mucosa


Summary: The mucous lining of the LARYNX, consisting of various types of epithelial cells ranging from stratified squamous EPITHELIUM in the upper larynx to ciliated columnar epithelium in the rest of the larynx, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.

Top Publications

  1. Yamamoto Y, Atoji Y, Kuramoto H, Suzuki Y. Calretinin-immunoreactive laminar nerve endings in the laryngeal mucosa of the rat. Cell Tissue Res. 1998;292:613-7 pubmed
    The distribution of laminar nerve endings that contained immunoreactive calretinin was examined in the laryngeal mucosa of the adult rat...
  2. Yamamoto Y, Atoji Y, Suzuki Y. Calbindin D28k-immunoreactive afferent nerve endings in the laryngeal mucosa. Anat Rec. 2000;259:237-47 pubmed
    ..After injection of the fast blue in the laryngeal mucosa, fast blue-labeled cells were mainly observed in the nodose ganglia...
  3. Holcombe S, Derksen F, Berney C, Becker A, Horner N. Effect of topical anesthesia of the laryngeal mucosa on upper airway mechanics in exercising horses. Am J Vet Res. 2001;62:1706-10 pubmed
    ..To determine the effect of desensitization of the laryngeal mucosal mechanoreceptors on upper airway mechanics in exercising horses...
  4. Sivasankar M, Fisher K. Oral breathing increases Pth and vocal effort by superficial drying of vocal fold mucosa. J Voice. 2002;16:172-81 pubmed
    ..The facilitatory role of superficial hydration on vocal fold oscillation should be considered in biomechanical models of phonation and in the clinical prevention of laryngeal dryness...
  5. Bibas A, Podoleanu A, Cucu R, Bonmarin M, Dobre G, Ward V, et al. 3-D optical coherence tomography of the laryngeal mucosa. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 2004;29:713-20 pubmed
    ..Haematoxylin-eosin stained specimens were compared with the OCT images thus collected. Preliminary results showed good correlation between OCT images and histology sections in normal tissue...
  6. Barker E, Haverson K, Stokes C, Birchall M, Bailey M. The larynx as an immunological organ: immunological architecture in the pig as a large animal model. Clin Exp Immunol. 2006;143:6-14 pubmed
    ..The presence of such an immunological structure suggests that the larynx may have important functions in respiratory immunology and that it may trigger strong alloresponses after laryngeal transplantation...
  7. Rees L, Jones P, Ayoub O, Gunasekaran S, Rajkumar K, Stokes C, et al. Smoking influences the immunological architecture of the human larynx. Clin Immunol. 2006;118:342-7 pubmed
    ..Pinch biopsies of laryngeal mucosa were studied from 63 patients without laryngeal disease...
  8. Tateya I, Tateya T, Lim X, Sohn J, Bless D. Cell production in injured vocal folds: a rat study. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2006;115:135-43 pubmed
    ..To reveal the characteristics of vocal fold cell production, we investigated cell proliferation in the acute phase of wound healing...
  9. Sivasankar M, Fisher K. Vocal folds detect ionic perturbations on the luminal surface: an in vitro investigation. J Voice. 2008;22:408-19 pubmed
    ..05). Viable ovine vocal fold epithelia detect ionic perturbations to the luminal surface. This sensitivity to luminal ionic challenge may be necessary to maintain the homeostasis of surface fluid...

More Information

Publications183 found, 100 shown here

  1. Warnecke A, Averbeck T, Leinung M, Soudah B, Wenzel G, Kreipe H, et al. Contact endoscopy for the evaluation of the pharyngeal and laryngeal mucosa. Laryngoscope. 2010;120:253-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Its use for early diagnosis of cancerous lesions of the oropharynx and larynx has not been evaluated. The aim of the study was to validate contact endoscopy for the examination of pharyngeal and laryngeal mucosa.
  2. Sivasankar M, Erickson E, Rosenblatt M, Branski R. Hypertonic challenge to porcine vocal folds: effects on epithelial barrier function. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;142:79-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the effects of hypertonic surface fluid on vocal fold epithelial resistance, paracellular pathway morphology, and tight junction protein integrity...
  3. Ling C, Yamashita M, Zhang J, Bless D, Welham N. Reactive response of fibrocytes to vocal fold mucosal injury in rat. Wound Repair Regen. 2010;18:514-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our newly reported antigen panel facilitating the direct characterization of fibrocytes via flow cytometry is a useful tool with the potential to facilitate improved study of this cell population. ..
  4. Lajtman Z, Manestar D. A comparison of surgery and radiotherapy in the management of advanced pyriform fossa carcinoma. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 2001;26:59-61 pubmed
    ..But, however, despite the therapy, the outcome is poor. ..
  5. Hemler R, Wieneke G, Lebacq J, Dejonckere P. Laryngeal mucosa elasticity and viscosity in high and low relative air humidity. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2001;258:125-9 pubmed
    ..01). Dry dehydrating air resulted in a stiffer and more viscous cover than humid air (P < 0.001). These changes in mechanical characteristics may contribute to the effects on voice parameters described in earlier work. ..
  6. Chandra R, Gerber M, Holinger L. Histological insight into the pathogenesis of severe laryngomalacia. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2001;61:31-8 pubmed
    ..Further study is needed to investigate comorbidities that may contribute to the need for intervention in children with laryngomalacia. ..
  7. Sivasankar M, Fisher K. Oral breathing challenge in participants with vocal attrition. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2003;46:1416-27 pubmed
    ..That sol layer depletion by obligatory oral breathing increased Pth and vocal effort provides support for the role of superficial hydration in maintaining ease of phonation. ..
  8. Kruschinski C, Welkoborsky H. Tuberculosis of the larynx associated with orofacial granulomatosis in childhood. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;132:967-9 pubmed
  9. Tsunoda K, Ishimoto S, Suzuki M, Hara M, Yamaguchi H, Sugimoto M, et al. An effective management regimen for laryngeal granuloma caused by gastro-esophageal reflux: combination therapy with suggestions for lifestyle modifications. Acta Otolaryngol. 2007;127:88-92 pubmed
  10. Chuard C, Fracheboud D, Regamey C. Effect of sputum induction by hypertonic saline on specimen quality. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2001;39:211-4 pubmed
    ..37). In conclusion, sputum induction by hypertonic saline inhalation does not improve specimen quality as judged by the PMNs/SECs ratio on Gram stain. ..
  11. Groblewski J, Shah R, Zalzal G. Microdebrider-assisted supraglottoplasty for laryngomalacia. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2009;118:592-7 pubmed
    ..This procedure is relatively safe, with minimal pain, and effective in patients with laryngomalacia. Microdebrider-assisted supraglottoplasty is the method of choice for supraglottoplasty in our institution. ..
  12. Zhang Q, Sun Y, Song X, Zhang H, Wang Q, Wang X, et al. [Dynamic observation of applying repairing laryngeal mucosal defect with heterogeneous acellular dermal matrix]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2009;44:561-4 pubmed
    ..Heterogeneity acellular dunal matrix can be easily obtained and it is a new method to repair mucosa defect. The operative procedure is easy to perform and worthwhile to use clinically. ..
  13. Imaizumi M, Okano W, Tada Y, Omori K. Surgical treatment of laryngeal papillomatosis using narrow band imaging. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;147:522-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Further treatment on the lesions has been carried out several times to date using NBI. The lesions have now been eradicated without further recurrence. ..
  14. İlhan E, Yaman H, Dost B, Köse G, Yaman H. Unusual foreign body in the larynx: a bee. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg. 2015;25:237-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The bee was detected on the laryngeal mucosa in indirect laryngoscopic examination and removed immediately under general anesthesia in apneic period...
  15. Onerci Celebi O, Tezel G, Hoşal A, Cengiz M, Gullu I, Hayran M. Detection of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene promoter region methylation pattern using pyrosequencing and the effect of methylation pattern on survival, recurrence, and chemotherapy sensitivity in patients with laryngeal cancer. Pathol Res Pract. 2016;212:456-62 pubmed publisher
    ..the promoter region of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene in laryngeal cancer and normal laryngeal mucosa samples using pyrosequencing, and to determine the relationship between the methylation pattern of MGMT, and ..
  16. Akdogan O, Selcuk A, Ozcan I, Ozcan K, Giray S, Dere H, et al. Activation of vocal fold healing with topical vitamin A in rabbits. Acta Otolaryngol. 2009;129:220-4 pubmed publisher
    ..There was a significant difference between the two groups according to the percentage of collagen and fibroblasts in the lamina propria (p<0.01). ..
  17. Koo H, Burns J, Kobler J, Heaton J, Zeitels S. Novel device for tissue cooling during endoscopic laryngeal laser surgery: thermal damage study in an ex vivo calf model. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2012;121:485-9 pubmed
    ..01) and 9% smaller than that created with room-air cooling (p < 0.01). Vortex cooling reduces thermal damage more effectively than room-air cooling or no cooling during both time-constant and depth-constant thulium laser cuts. ..
  18. Renne R, Gideon K. Types and patterns of response in the larynx following inhalation. Toxicol Pathol. 2006;34:281-5 pubmed
    The laryngeal mucosa responds to insult similarly to other epithelial tissues but the response depends on location within the larynx since important anatomic differences exist, even within rodent species...
  19. Bracko M. Evaluation of DNA content in epithelial hyperplastic lesions of the larynx. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 1997;527:62-5 pubmed
  20. Dedo H, Catten M. Idiopathic progressive subglottic stenosis: findings and treatment in 52 patients. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2001;110:305-11 pubmed
    ..Thus, treatment helps, but does not cure, the patient. The characteristic pathological finding is of submucosal dense fibrotic tissue with evidence of chronic inflammation. The clinical findings and treatment are here discussed. ..
  21. Yang J, Maronian N, Reyes V, Waugh P, Brentnall T, Hillel A. Laryngeal and other otolaryngologic manifestations of Crohn's disease. J Voice. 2002;16:278-82 pubmed
    ..Findings are nonspecific, primarily edema and ulcerations, and may be confused with a multitude of other disease processes. Awareness of these manifestations in the head and neck will prevent misdiagnosis or a delay in diagnosis. ..
  22. Mouadeb D, Belafsky P, Birchall M, Hood C, Konia T, Pinkerton K. The effects of allergens and tobacco smoke on the laryngeal mucosa of guinea pigs. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;140:493-7 pubmed publisher investigate the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and house dust mite allergen (HDMA) on the laryngeal mucosa of guinea pigs. Prospective, controlled animal study...
  23. Wiikmann C, da Silva M, Arêas E, Tsuji D, Sennes L. Measurement of the viscoelastic properties of the vocal folds. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2009;118:461-4 pubmed
    ..0396) and 0.5 and 10 N (p = 0.0442). The study demonstrated that the level of compression influences the DV measure and suggests that a defined compression level should be used in rheometric studies of biological tissues. ..
  24. Bussu F, Ranelletti F, Gessi M, Graziani C, Lanza P, Lauriola L, et al. Immunohistochemical expression patterns of the HER4 receptors in normal mucosa and in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas: antioncogenic significance of the HER4 protein in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Laryngoscope. 2012;122:1724-33 pubmed publisher
    ..As promising data regarding HER1/EGFR have been published, the purpose of the present study was to elucidate the role of the other receptors of the HER family...
  25. Arkuszewski P, Meissner E, Szram S. Death due to obstruction of the upper airways caused by edema of the laryngeal mucosa in the course of hereditary angioedema. Forensic Sci Int. 2015;254:e22-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The information concerning the man's health state was given in the Public Prosecutor's decision ordering medico legal autopsy, which was extremely helpful in recognizing the cause of death. ..
  26. Chan R, Titze I. Viscoelastic shear properties of human vocal fold mucosa: measurement methodology and empirical results. J Acoust Soc Am. 1999;106:2008-21 pubmed
    ..Intersubject differences in mu and eta as large as an order of magnitude were observed, part of which may reflect age-related and gender-related differences. Some molecular interpretations of the findings are discussed. ..
  27. Granqvist S, Lindestad P. A method of applying Fourier analysis to high-speed laryngoscopy. J Acoust Soc Am. 2001;110:3193-7 pubmed
    ..Among these examples, covibrations in the ventricular folds and in the mucosa covering the arytenoid cartilages were found. In some cases the covibrations occurred at other frequencies than those of the glottis. ..
  28. Johnston N, Bulmer D, Gill G, Panetti M, Ross P, Pearson J, et al. Cell biology of laryngeal epithelial defenses in health and disease: further studies. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2003;112:481-91 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the laryngeal epithelium lacks defenses comparable to those in esophageal epithelium, and these differences may contribute to the increased susceptibility of laryngeal epithelium to reflux-related injury. ..
  29. Postma G, McGuirt W, Butler S, Rees C, Crandall H, Tansavatdi K. Laryngopharyngeal abnormalities in hospitalized patients with dysphagia. Laryngoscope. 2007;117:1720-2 pubmed
  30. Branski R, Saltman B, Sulica L, Szeto H, Duflo S, Felsen D, et al. Cigarette smoke and reactive oxygen species metabolism: implications for the pathophysiology of Reinke's edema. Laryngoscope. 2009;119:2014-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, CSC does not appear to induce a hypermetabolic fibroblast phenotype as expected. ..
  31. Pabst R. [Lymphatic tissue of the nose (NALT) and larynx (LALT) in species comparison: human, rat, mouse]. Pneumologie. 2010;64:445-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The term common mucosal immune system should replaced by the term "integrated" MALT and the immunological differences between respiratory and digestive tract should always be considered. ..
  32. Ptok M, Schroeter S. [Deliberate release of the laryngeal adductor reflex via microdroplet impulses: Development of a device]. HNO. 2016;64:149-55 pubmed publisher
    ..knowledge of the droplet size, the shooting speed and the estimation of the distance between the valve and laryngeal mucosa or airspeed can be determined the muzzle energy...
  33. Wang E, Damrose E, Mendelsohn A, Nelson S, Shintaku I, Ye M, et al. Distribution of class I and II human leukocyte antigens in the larynx. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;134:280-7 pubmed
    ..The relevance of these findings to the initiation and detection of laryngeal allograft graft rejection is discussed. ..
  34. Czerwonka L, Jiang J, Tao C. Vocal nodules and edema may be due to vibration-induced rises in capillary pressure. Laryngoscope. 2008;118:748-52 pubmed publisher
    ..More vibratory amplitude measurements need to be performed in a wider range of subjects before the full range of human vocal fold vascular pressures can be estimated. ..
  35. Sbarbati A, Merigo F, Benati D, Tizzano M, Bernardi P, Crescimanno C, et al. Identification and characterization of a specific sensory epithelium in the rat larynx. J Comp Neurol. 2004;475:188-201 pubmed
    ..The immunocytochemical and ultrastructural data suggested that SLSE is a chemoreceptor located in an optimal position for detecting substances entering the larynx from the pharynx or the trachea. ..
  36. Bhutta M, Rance M, Gillett D, Weighill J. Alendronate-induced chemical laryngitis. J Laryngol Otol. 2005;119:46-7 pubmed
    ..The authors describe a case of laryngitis induced by transient contact of this medication with the laryngeal mucosa. Successful management of this case is also detailed.
  37. Hitchings A, Crampsey D, Kubba H. A variant of laryngomalacia in the neurologically normal older child. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;71:571-4 pubmed
    ..It resolves by the age of 4 years in the majority of children. We present three cases in which laryngomalacia persisted and actually worsened in later childhood and postulate a possible mechanism for this. ..
  38. Mucida D, Salek Ardakani S. Regulation of TH17 cells in the mucosal surfaces. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123:997-1003 pubmed publisher
    ..This review addresses the protective and pathogenic roles of T(H)17 cells in the mucosal surfaces and potential regulatory mechanisms that control their development. ..
  39. Sato K, Umeno H, Nakashima T. Functional histology of the macula flava in the human vocal fold--Part 2: Its role in the growth and development of the vocal fold. Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2010;62:263-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Human MFe including VFSCs were inferred to be involved in the metabolism of EM, essential for the viscoelasticity of the human VFM, and are considered to be an important structure in the growth and development of the human VFM. ..
  40. Kirkeby S, Moe D. Expression of the carcinoma markers: the sialylated Lewis A and X carbohydrate antigens in normal laryngeal surface epithelium and submucosal glands from old humans. APMIS. 2013;121:182-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, visualization of Lewis tumor markers in the larynx should be interpreted with great care, as they may be present in normal laryngeal epithelial cells from old humans. ..
  41. Frangez I, Gale N, Luzar B. The interpretation of leukoplakia in laryngeal pathology. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 1997;527:142-4 pubmed
    ..For this very reason, keratinization of the epithelial surface was not included among significant parameters used for the grading of epithelial changes into the particular group according to Kambic-Lenart classification. ..
  42. Ylitalo R, Lindestad P. Laryngeal findings in patients with contact granuloma: a long-term follow-up study. Acta Otolaryngol. 2000;120:655-9 pubmed
    ..About 80% of the patients had no symptoms at follow-up. The findings of the present study indicate that contact granuloma is one of several manifestations of chronic posterior laryngitis and that it may occur without symptoms. ..
  43. Tomidokoro Y, Hayashi R, Yamasaki M, Ishii G, Kamijo T, Ebihara S. Simultaneous squamous cell carcinoma with leiomyosarcoma of the larynx. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2009;36:239-43 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, no previous reports of a simultaneous squamous cell carcinoma and a leiomyosarcoma of the larynx have been reported. Both tumors were not invasive in this case, so conservation surgery was feasible. ..
  44. Wang Q, Xu L, Wang W, Wang H, Yuan H, Ling Y, et al. [Wound healing following laser cordectomy for early glottic carcinoma]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2016;51:289-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The transoral laser surgery could be a better choice for early glottic carcinoma because of good oncologic and functional results and less cost. ..
  45. Starska K, Forma E, Lewy Trenda I, Stasikowska Kanicka O, Skóra M, Brys M. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 and 3 expression is associated with regulatory PI3K/AKT kinase activity, as well as invasion and prognosis, in human laryngeal cancer. Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2018;41:253-268 pubmed publisher
    ..In total 137 surgically removed squamous cell laryngeal cancer (SCLC) and 100 matched non-cancerous laryngeal mucosa (NCLM) samples were assessed for mRNA expression using quantitative real-time PCR...
  46. Jecker P, McWilliam A, Marsh A, Holt P, Mann W, Pabst R, et al. Acute laryngotracheitis in the rat induced by Sendai virus: the influx of six different types of immunocompetent cells into the laryngeal mucosa differs strongly between the subglottic and the glottic compartment. Laryngoscope. 2001;111:1645-51 pubmed
    ..The aims were to study both the influx of immunocompetent cells and the adhesion of the pathogen and to correlate them to the different reactions of the laryngeal areas during pseudocroup...
  47. Weinstein G, Laccourreye O, Ruiz C, Dooley P, Chalian A, Mirza N. Larynx preservation with supracricoid partial laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy. Correlation of videostroboscopic findings and voice parameters. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2002;111:1-7 pubmed
    ..Patients with lower periodicity and symmetry scores tended to have lower jitter and shimmer percentages...
  48. Kosztyła Hojna B, Andrzejewska A, Rogowski M, Pepinski W. [Evaluation of the ultrastructure of the vocal folds mucosa in patients with presbyphonia]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2002;56:239-43 pubmed
    ..An increased number of collagenous fibers, vacuolar degeneration of fibroblasts with enlarged granular endoplasmic reticulum and an increased number of blood vessels in the stroma suggested an atrophic form of presbyphonia. ..
  49. Brozmanova M, Plevkova J, Bartos V, Plank L, Tatar M. Antileukotriene treatment and allergic rhinitis-related cough in guinea pigs. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005;56 Suppl 4:21-30 pubmed
    ..16.5(14-22) vs. 25.5(23-42) vs. 8.5(8-13); P=0.0003]. We conclude that antileukotriene therapy suppresses the stimulating effect of experimental allergic rhinitis on the chemically-induced cough in awake guinea pigs. ..
  50. Madan R, Brandwein Gensler M, Schlecht N, Elias K, Gorbovitsky E, Belbin T, et al. Differential tissue and subcellular expressionof ERM proteins in normal and malignant tissues: cytoplasmic ezrin expression has prognostic signficance for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 2006;28:1018-27 pubmed
    ..82) Both level of expression and subcellular localization of ERM proteins may be important indicators of clinical outcome in SCC. This pilot study justifies the need for an expanded validation study of ERM proteins and clinical outcome. ..
  51. Guney K, Ozbilim G, Derin A, Cetin S. Expression of PTEN protein in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2007;34:481-6 pubmed
    ..It could be worthwhile to test if PTEN expression is diminished in patients with more aggressive laryngeal tumors, with special attention to tumor localization in larger series. ..
  52. He H, Bing H, Liu G. TSR2 Induces laryngeal cancer cell apoptosis through inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway. Laryngoscope. 2018;128:E130-E134 pubmed publisher
    ..squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is a malignancy that was discovered originally in the epithelial tissue of laryngeal mucosa. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still not clear...
  53. Haxhiu M, Haxhiu Poskurica B, Moracic V, Carlo W, Martin R. Reflex and chemical responses of tracheal submucosal glands in piglets. Respir Physiol. 1990;82:267-77 pubmed
    ..3 +/- 2.6, 10.0 +/- 4.4, 27.1 +/- 4.5, 41 +/- 5). In older piglets, stimulation of laryngeal mucosa, airway irritant receptors, as well as stimulation of pulmonary C-fiber receptors induced a significant ..
  54. Cardesa A, Nadal A, Jares P, Mallofre C, Fernandez P, Campo E, et al. Hyperplastic lesions of the larynx. Experience of the Barcelona group. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 1997;527:43-6 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of cyclin D1, a common phenomenon in advanced carcinomas, is not likely to participate in the early phases of neoplastic development. ..
  55. Kosztyła Hojna B, Rogowski M. [Usefulness of video-laryngo-stroboscopy in the diagnosis of laryngeal pathology]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2003;14:413-6 pubmed
    ..Aberrations in the vocal fold vibrations indicate a supraepithelial oedema of the laryngeal mucosa and a functional type of dysphonia, requiring differential therapy...
  56. Chan R. Measurements of vocal fold tissue viscoelasticity: approaching the male phonatory frequency range. J Acoust Soc Am. 2004;115:3161-70 pubmed
    ..These findings supported the use of controlled strain rheometry for future investigations of the viscoelasticity of vocal fold tissues and phonosurgical biomaterials at phonatory frequencies. ..
  57. Kosztyła Hojna B, Moskal D, Kuryliszyn Moskal A, Andrzejewska A, Falkowski D. Morphological changes of the vocal fold mucosa in hyperfunctional dysphonia diagnosed by psychoacoustic and videostroboscopic methods. Adv Med Sci. 2011;56:343-51 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to provide a morphological assessment of the laryngeal mucosa in patients with hyperfunctional dysphonia diagnosed by psychoacoustic and videostroboscopic methods...
  58. Zheng Z, Tian R, Wang P. Roles of KAI1 and nm23 in lymphangiogenesis and lymph metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. World J Surg Oncol. 2017;15:211 pubmed publisher
    ..expression rates of KAI1 and nm23 protein were detected via immunohistochemistry in 45 LSCC and 22 normal laryngeal mucosa adjacent to LSCC...
  59. Thompson D, Rutter M, Rudolph C, Willging J, Cotton R. Altered laryngeal sensation: a potential cause of apnea of infancy. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2005;114:258-63 pubmed
    ..This closure may play a role in infant apnea. ..
  60. Lyberg Ahlander V, Malm L, Schalén L. Hoarseness as a sign of possible nonspecific mucosal hyperreactivity in vocal tract. J Voice. 2009;23:707-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The study supports the view that vocal dysfunction after exposure to non-specific environmental irritating factors may be triggered mainly by emotional mechanisms such as off-warding reaction or dissociative disorder. ..
  61. Li L, Yue Z, Feng X, Liu J, Liu S. [Expression of EMS1 protein and its clinical significance in laryngeal carcinoma]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2009;23:673-5 pubmed
    ..5 cm), and 20 samples of normal laryngeal mucosa as controls by Flow Cytometer (Epics-XL II)...
  62. Li X, Shen Y, Di B, Li J, Geng J, Lu X, et al. Biological and clinical significance of p75NTR expression in laryngeal squamous epithelia and laryngocarcinoma. Acta Otolaryngol. 2012;132:314-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-expression of p75(NTR) and CD133 was confirmed, showing the association of p75(NTR)-positive cells with cancer stem cells in Hep-2 cells. ..
  63. Masaoka T, Oizumi H, Fujishima T, Naruke Y, Shiono S, Shimazaki Y. Removal of cartilage rings prevents graft stenosis in extended tracheal allotransplantation with omentopexy and immunosuppression: an experimental study. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2002;21:485-92 pubmed
    ..However, it is unclear whether this method can be applied to extended tracheal allotransplantation that requires immunosuppression. In this report, we describe midterm results of extended tracheal allotransplantation with the technique...
  64. Kutta H, Steven P, Tillmann B, Tsokos M, Paulsen F. Region-specific immunological response of the different laryngeal compartments: significance of larynx-associated lymphoid tissue. Cell Tissue Res. 2003;311:365-71 pubmed
    ..However, the impact on presence or absence of laryngeal MALT awaits clarification. ..
  65. Gill G, Buda A, Moorghen M, Dettmar P, Pignatelli M. Characterisation of adherens and tight junctional molecules in normal animal larynx; determining a suitable model for studying molecular abnormalities in human laryngopharyngeal reflux. J Clin Pathol. 2005;58:1265-70 pubmed
    ..The expression of intercellular junctional complexes in porcine epithelium is similar to that seen in humans. These results confirm the suitability of these species to study molecular mechanisms of LPR in an experimental system. ..
  66. Sato K, Sakamoto K, Nakashima T. Expression and distribution of CD44 and hyaluronic acid in human vocal fold mucosa. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2006;115:741-8 pubmed
    ..Stellate cells in the macula flava and CD44 cooperatively play important roles in maintaining hyaluronic acid in the human vocal fold mucosa as a vibrating tissue. ..
  67. Kutta H, Willer A, Steven P, Bräuer L, Tsokos M, Paulsen F. Distribution of mucins and antimicrobial substances lysozyme and lactoferrin in the laryngeal subglottic region. J Anat. 2008;213:473-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, knowledge of the observed distribution pattern of mucins in the subglottis can be a useful tool for a classification of subglottic laryngeal carcinomas. ..
  68. Morinaka S. Herpes zoster laryngitis with intractable hiccups. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2009;36:606-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevation of the CF titer after 2 weeks confirmed the diagnosis of herpes zoster. This condition should be considered in patients with unilateral sore throat and intractable hiccups, and treatment with acyclovir should be provided. ..
  69. Hammer H. Reflux-associated laryngitis and laryngopharyngeal reflux: a gastroenterologist's point of view. Dig Dis. 2009;27:14-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The laryngeal mucosa is considerably more sensitive to acid and pepsin than the mucosa of the esophagogastric junction...
  70. Markowski J, Tyszkiewicz T, Jarząb M, Oczko Wojciechowska M, Gierek T, Witkowska M, et al. Metal-proteinase ADAM12, kinesin 14 and checkpoint suppressor 1 as new molecular markers of laryngeal carcinoma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;266:1501-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis of gene expression profile allows, in laryngeal carcinoma, to point out to new genes, which in future may become molecular markers of the carcinoma. ..
  71. Olofsson J. Laryngotracheal anatomy and physiology. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg. 1995;49:303-11 pubmed
    ..g. in phono-surgery and for procedures in patients with laryngeal palsy. The trachea with its location causes specific problems in the treatment of stenoses and tumours. The mucociliary system is nowadays being more focused upon. ..
  72. Sbarbati A, Merigo F, Benati D, Tizzano M, Bernardi P, Osculati F. Laryngeal chemosensory clusters. Chem Senses. 2004;29:683-92 pubmed
    ..CCs lack pores and their delimitation from the surrounding epithelium is poorly evident. The demonstration of the existence of CCs strengthens the hypothesis of a phylogenetic link between gustatory and solitary chemosensory cells. ..
  73. Marcos C, Alonso Guervós M, Prado N, Gimeno T, Iglesias F, Hermsen M, et al. Genetic model of transformation and neoplastic progression in laryngeal epithelium. Head Neck. 2011;33:216-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We included new steps, not presented in the classic models: normal mucosa tobacco exposed, positive lymph node primary tumor, and corresponding lymph node metastases. ..
  74. Luongo S, Frontalini C, Pesaresi M, Valsecchi M, Tagliabracci A. Histopathological markers for the diagnosis of anaphylactic death. Med Sci Law. 2011;51 Suppl 1:S30-6 pubmed publisher
  75. Wang J, Zhang Y. [Expression of programmed cell death 4 and its correlation with proliferation and apoptosis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2012;26:266-9 pubmed
    ..The PI of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas tissues was higher than that of the normal laryngeal mucosa tissues (P < 0.01)...
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    ..To ensure optimal acoustic outcome, the arytenoid must be correctly rotated. This study provides objective support for the combined ML-AA procedure in tolerant patients. ..
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    ..The mast cells respond drastically to irradiation, but in the long run, regeneration of these cells occurs. ..
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    ..Further studies are needed to asses the long-term effects of MTC on healing and restenosis, and its effects on cartilage growth and formation, following SSLTR. ..
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    ..These data, as well as anatomic evidence for afferent nerve subtype convergence in the commissural nucleus of the solitary tract, suggest that airway nociceptors and mechanoreceptors may act synergistically to regulate airway tone. ..
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    ..The current review seeks to provide a foundation of basic wound healing science and present the most current data regarding the wound healing process in the vocal folds. ..
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    ..We suggest that the Ljubljana classification may give a reliable assessment of laryngeal hyperplastic epithelial lesions and can help in monitoring all those patients. ..
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    ..It leads to impaired sensory capacity of the laryngeal mucosa. The sensory integrity of the laryngopharynx can be evaluated through endoscopic administration of pulsed air,..
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    ..The histological composition of the Lamina propria in pigs - especially in the cranial fold of the glottis - gives reason to expect other phoniatric properties than in man. Age-related changes must be considered. ..
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    ..In this way, a less invasive procedure, better recovery of the voice and less complication could be expected. ..
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    The microbial communities that inhabit the laryngeal mucosa build stable microenvironments and have the potential to influence the health of the human throat...
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    ..05. Our study suggests the involvement of immune mechanisms, particularly cell mediated, during laryngeal carcinogenesis and the possibility that the assessment of Langerhans cell density might be of prognostic significance. ..
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    ..These findings supported the feasibility of using quick freezing to preserve laryngeal tissues for in vitro biomechanical testing, for excised larynx experiments, and for tissue engineering applications. ..
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    ..subunits of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), alphaENaC, betaENaC and gammaENaC, in the nodose ganglion and laryngeal mucosa of rat by RT-PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry...