Summary: Developmental or acquired stricture or narrowing of the LARYNX. Symptoms of respiratory difficulty depend on the degree of laryngeal narrowing.

Top Publications

  1. George M, Lang F, Pasche P, Monnier P. Surgical management of laryngotracheal stenosis in adults. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2005;262:609-15 pubmed
    ..Similar to data in the literature, post-intubation injury was the leading cause of stenosis in our series. A resection length of up to 6 cm with laryngeal release procedures (when necessary) was found to be technically feasible...
  2. Maat R, Røksund O, Halvorsen T, Skadberg B, Olofsson J, Ellingsen T, et al. Audiovisual assessment of exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction: reliability and validity of observations. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;266:1929-36 pubmed publisher
    ..75, P < 0.001). The presented scoring system is reliable and valid, and we suggest that it can be used when laryngeal function during exercise is evaluated. ..
  3. Maat R, Roksund O, Olofsson J, Halvorsen T, Skadberg B, Heimdal J. Surgical treatment of exercise-induced laryngeal dysfunction. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;264:401-7 pubmed
    ..The ES procedure is an efficient surgical treatment for exercise-induced laryngeal supraglottic obstruction and the CLE-test eases the selection of patients for surgery and facilitates the evaluation of treatment effects. ..
  4. Herrington H, Weber S, Andersen P. Modern management of laryngotracheal stenosis. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:1553-7 pubmed
    ..Patients undergoing dilation for laryngotracheal stenosis require multiple procedures. However, major reconstructive procedures are well tolerated and currently represent a viable primary treatment for laryngotracheal stenosis. ..
  5. Ikonomidis C, George M, Jaquet Y, Monnier P. Partial cricotracheal resection in children weighing less than 10 kilograms. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;142:41-7 pubmed publisher
    ..PCTR in infants and children weighing less than 10 kg is a safe and efficient technique with similar long-term results when compared to results seen in older and heavier children. ..
  6. Marques P, Leal L, Spratley J, Cardoso E, Santos M. Tracheal resection with primary anastomosis: 10 years experience. Am J Otolaryngol. 2009;30:415-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to review clinical, imagiologic, and surgical outcomes of tracheal resection in the management of laryngotracheal stenosis...
  7. Monnier P. Airway stenting with the LT-Mold: experience in 30 pediatric cases. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;71:1351-9 pubmed
    ..Adequate fixation is mandatory to avoid extrusion. ..
  8. Monnier P, George M, Monod M, Lang F. The role of the CO2 laser in the management of laryngotracheal stenosis: a survey of 100 cases. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2005;262:602-8 pubmed
    ..Some guidelines for safe endoscopic treatment modalities with of the CO2 laser, dilatation and/or stenting are proposed...
  9. Zaima A, Bitoh Y, Morita K, Tsugawa J, Ishii T, Satoh S, et al. Long-term T-tube stenting as definitive treatment of severe acquired subglottic stenosis in children. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45:996-9 pubmed publisher
    ..T-tube stenting should be performed as the initial treatment because the time to decannulation was shorter than as an additional operation. ..

More Information


  1. Monnier P, Ikonomidis C, Jaquet Y, George M. Proposal of a new classification for optimising outcome assessment following partial cricotracheal resections in severe pediatric subglottic stenosis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73:1217-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This new classification is relatively simple and aimed at providing more accurate and uniform prognostic information to both patients and surgeons when dealing with the whole spectrum of severe SGS. ..
  2. Jaquet Y, Lang F, Pilloud R, Savary M, Monnier P. Partial cricotracheal resection for pediatric subglottic stenosis: long-term outcome in 57 patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005;130:726-32 pubmed
    ..The procedure has no deleterious effects on laryngeal growth and function. The quality of voice significantly improves after surgical intervention but largely depends on the preoperative condition. ..
  3. Garabedian E, Nicollas R, Roger G, Delattre J, Froehlich P, Triglia J. Cricotracheal resection in children weighing less than 10 kg. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;131:505-8 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt of CTR in this weight category, providing results comparable to those published in older children. ..
  4. Monnier P. A new stent for the management of adult and pediatric laryngotracheal stenosis. Laryngoscope. 2003;113:1418-22 pubmed
  5. Gluth M, Shinners P, Kasperbauer J. Subglottic stenosis associated with Wegener's granulomatosis. Laryngoscope. 2003;113:1304-7 pubmed
    ..Either laryngotracheal reconstruction or CO(2) laser resection and dilation may be undertaken with safety and should result in favorable outcomes. ..
  6. Macchiarini P, Verhoye J, Chapelier A, Fadel E, Dartevelle P. Partial cricoidectomy with primary thyrotracheal anastomosis for postintubation subglottic stenosis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2001;121:68-76 pubmed
    ..The association with a tracheoesophageal fistula does not contraindicate surgical repair. ..
  7. Liu H, Lee K, Huang C, Cheng C, Hsu W, Huang M. Silicone T-tube for complex laryngotracheal problems. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2002;21:326-30 pubmed
    ..Silicone T-tube can effectively resolve the complex laryngotracheal lesions with limited complications. Concurrent cardiopulmonary diseases and intractable infection were the two major causes for failure after the T-tube reconstruction. ..
  8. Mandour M, Remacle M, Van de Heyning P, Elwany S, Tantawy A, Gaafar A. Chronic subglottic and tracheal stenosis: endoscopic management vs. surgical reconstruction. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2003;260:374-80 pubmed
    ..However, if contraindications to open surgery exist, whether local or general, laser-assisted endoscopy with stenting can offer good palliative results. ..
  9. Mandell D, Arjmand E. Laryngomalacia induced by exercise in a pediatric patient. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2003;67:999-1003 pubmed
    ..Here, a case of laryngomalacia induced by exercise in a previously asymptomatic 10-year-old athlete with a remote history of laryngomalacia in infancy is presented, and a review of previously reported cases is provided. ..
  10. Rahbar R, Shapshay S, Healy G. Mitomycin: effects on laryngeal and tracheal stenosis, benefits, and complications. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2001;110:1-6 pubmed
    ..This study gives promising findings on the efficacy and safety of mitomycin-C as an adjuvant treatment in the management of selected cases of laryngeal and tracheal stenosis...
  11. Dollner R, Verch M, Schweiger P, Graf B, Wallner F. Long-term outcome after Griggs tracheostomy. J Otolaryngol. 2002;31:386-9 pubmed
    ..Further follow-up studies are necessary to improve and ensure the quality of PDT techniques. ..
  12. Alaani A, Hogg R, Drake Lee A. Wegener's granulomatosis and subglottic stenosis: management of the airway. J Laryngol Otol. 2004;118:786-90 pubmed
    ..More aggressive or elaborate surgical treatments should be reserved for non-active cases in which patients have not required medical treatment for one year. ..
  13. Triglia J, Nicollas R, Roman S. Management of subglottic stenosis in infancy and childhood. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2000;257:382-5 pubmed
    ..After decannulation, 132 children (94%) were able to breathe normally through the upper airway. Perspectives for development of new techniques and improvement of conventional methods are discussed. ..
  14. Lorenz R. Adult laryngotracheal stenosis: etiology and surgical management. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;11:467-72 pubmed
    ..Modern-day surgeons continue to struggle with the prevention and the treatment of this difficult problem, and the purpose of this review is to examine new causes, diagnostic methods, and treatments in laryngotracheal stenosis...
  15. Sanna A, Fargnoli R, Camiciottoli G. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome as a complication after tracheal surgery. J Clin Sleep Med. 2006;2:458-9 pubmed
    ..The patient refused a tracheal stent placement and any surgical procedure aimed at stabilizing the tracheal walls. She was treated with a continuous positive airway pressure. ..
  16. Yener M, Acar G, Cansiz H, Oz B, Cigerciogullari E, Seymen O. Use of titanium mesh in laryngotracheal reconstruction: an experimental study on rabbits. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;267:1247-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The lumens in both groups were moderately obstructed. Reconstruction of the upper airway with titanium mesh may be used in very selected cases where autologous grafting materials are inadequate and unsatisfactory. ..
  17. Midyat L, Cakir E, Kut A. Upper airway abnormalities detected in children using flexible bronchoscopy. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;76:560-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Diagnosis of underlying diseases, as soon as possible, permits the withdrawal of antibiotics or antiasthmatic drugs often used unnecessarily for long periods to treat these children. ..
  18. Dohar J, Greenberg L, Galera R. The dysphonic videolaryngoscopy with stroboscopy paradox and challenge of acquired subglottic stenosis after laryngotracheal reconstruction. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;77:732-8 pubmed publisher
  19. Nouraei S, Nouraei S, Patel A, Murphy K, Giussani D, Koury E, et al. Diagnosis of laryngotracheal stenosis from routine pulmonary physiology using the expiratory disproportion index. Laryngoscope. 2013;123:3099-104 pubmed publisher
  20. Eustaquio M, Chan K, Deterding R, Hollister R. Multilevel airway involvement in children with Wegener's granulomatosis: clinical course and the utility of a multidisciplinary approach. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;137:480-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We advocate a combined surgical approach involving otolaryngology, pulmonology, and rheumatology in managing aggressive cases of multilevel airway involvement in WG. ..
  21. Achkar J, Dowdal J, Fink D, Franco R, Song P. Balloon dilation complication during the treatment of subglottic stenosis: background of the FDA class 1 recall for the 18 x 40-mm Acclarent Inspira AIR balloon dilation system. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2013;122:364-8 pubmed
    ..Awareness of this possibility, as well as preparedness with the proper instruments, is vital for prevention of a catastrophic emergency during an otherwise low-risk procedure. ..
  22. Rogers D, Hartnick C. Endoscopic CO2 laser laryngofissure in pediatric laryngotracheal reconstruction. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;77:850-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Endoscopic CO2 laser laryngofissure represents a novel technique to divide the anterior commissure and facilitate its accurate reapproximation. ..
  23. Goto T, Akanabe K, Oyamada Y, Kato R. A new technique for T tube insertion in severe subglottic stenosis. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2011;12:895-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we present an improved method for inserting a silicone T tube through a tracheostomy stoma in patients with severe subglottic stenosis. ..
  24. Liu Z, Chen W, Cui P, Gao P, Ruan Y, Luo J, et al. [Use of silicon T-tube in laryngotracheal reconstruction]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2011;25:882-3 pubmed
    ..Silicon T-tube is an effective and safe stent for laryngotracheal reconstruction. Paying attention to some application details may avoid the complication and obtain a satisfactory effect. ..
  25. McCormick M, Johnson Y, Pena M, Wratney A, Pestieau S, Zalzal G, et al. Dexmedetomidine as a primary sedative agent after single-stage airway reconstruction. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;148:503-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Although success can be expected in greater than 90% of these surgical patients, the optimal postoperative sedation management remains challenging. ..
  26. Fusconi M, Lo Vasco V, Delfini A, De Virgilio A, Taddei A, Vassalli C, et al. Is Montgomery tracheal Safe-T-Tube clinical failure induced by biofilm?. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;149:269-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Early biofilm colonization takes place in Montgomery Safe-T-Tubes in most cases. The mechanical decay could be justified in part by the destructive biofilm activity and by the release of inflammatory effectors and enzymes. ..
  27. Liu L, Wu W, Wang J, Feng B, Zhao H, Huang D. [Analysis of traumatic laryngotracheal stenosis in 63 cases]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2009;44:389-94 pubmed
    ..It is necessary to evaluate the laryngotracheal framework defect, the degree and extension of stenosis systematically before operation for surgical planning. ..
  28. Willis E, Folk D, Bent J. Adjunctive procedures after pediatric single-stage laryngotracheoplasty. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2013;122:330-4 pubmed
    ..In this series, more than half of our pediatric patients who underwent single-stage LTP required 1 or more postoperative adjunctive procedures, and all had successful outcomes. ..
  29. Semmler M, Keck T, Reiter R, Gruen P. Endolaryngeal posterior mucosal flap for surgical repair of posterior glottic stenosis. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2011;38:608-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that the endolaryngeal posterior mucosal flap may offer an additional option in patients with mild to moderate posterior glottic stenosis. ..
  30. Smith S, Pereira K. Irradiated homograft cartilage in laryngotracheal reconstruction--a preliminary experience. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;71:1753-6 pubmed
    ..Irradiated homograft costal cartilage can serve as a successful alternative to the traditional autologous costal cartilage in lower grades of laryngotracheal stenosis. ..
  31. Nandakumar R, Jagdish C, Prathibha C, Shilpa C, Sreenivas V, Balasubramanya A, et al. Tracheal resection with end-to-end anastomosis for post-intubation cervical tracheal stenosis: study of 14 cases. J Laryngol Otol. 2011;125:958-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Local application of mitomycin C prevents granulation and aids long term airway patency. ..
  32. Way C, Hartley B, Glaisyer H. Glottic scar bands following intubation. Paediatr Anaesth. 2006;16:689-92 pubmed
    ..Glottic scar bands are a result of intubation trauma and are a treatable cause of voice abnormalities and sometimes respiratory distress. ..
  33. Cui P, Luo J, Zhao D, Guo Z, Ma R. [Management of subglottic stenosis in children with endoscopic balloon dilation]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2016;51:286-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Pneumothoraces occurred in 2 children postoperatively. Endoscopic balloon dilation is an effective, relatively safe and minimally invasive surgical method for patients with low-grade subglottic stenosis. ..
  34. de Trey L, Morrison G. Buccal mucosa graft for laryngotracheal reconstruction in severe laryngeal stenosis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;77:1643-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This operation is an alternative, which allows an increase in the airway lumen by excising the scar tissue then re-lining the exposed internal lumen. The buccal mucosa reduces granulation formation and re-stenosis. ..
  35. Svider P, Pashkova A, Husain Q, Mauro A, Eloy J, Baredes S, et al. Determination of legal responsibility in iatrogenic tracheal and laryngeal stenosis. Laryngoscope. 2013;123:1754-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the majority of cases were defendant decisions, the verdicts decided for the plaintiffs had considerable damages awarded. ..
  36. Pajor A, Kwiatkowska S, Kroczyńska Bednarek J, Piotrowski W. Acute laryngeal dyspnea as first presentation of granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2015;83:216-9 pubmed publisher
  37. Szyfter W, Wierzbicka M, Gawecki W, Popko M, Leszczyńska M, Balcerowiak A. [The reasons of laryngo-tracheal stenosis: a review of literature and analysis of 124 patients]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2009;63:338-42 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in the cases, when the reason is not clear, a lot of specific examination should be done to find another rare reason, and only after exclusion it the diagnosis of idiopathic LTS can be established. ..
  38. Gallagher T, Hartnick C. Costal cartilage harvest. Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;73:39-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Costal cartilage is the preferred source for graft material in most cases. In this section, the authors highlight the surgical technique for cartilage graft harvest with discussion of surgical pearls necessary for success. ..
  39. Oshima Y, Sasaki A, Kajitani H, Sasaki A, Niino N, Matsubara Y. [Preliminary report: observation by video laryngoscope of glottal narrowing due to cricoid pressure]. Masui. 2006;55:1155-7 pubmed
    ..The right-to-left distance of the rima glottides was significantly reduced by backward pressure or BURP on the thyroid cartilage, and was also markedly reduced by cricoid pressure in 1 of the 12 patients. ..
  40. Tedde M, Rodrigues A, Scordamaglio P, Monteiro J. A new technique for T-tube insertion in patients with subglottic stenosis. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2011;39:130-1 pubmed publisher
    ..An adjunct to the traditional technique of Montgomery may help to insert a T tube in such patients. ..
  41. Hashmi N, Mandel J, Mirza N. Laryngeal mask airway in laryngoscopies: a safer alternative for the difficult airway. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2009;71:342-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we recommend preoperative identification of difficult airways and consideration of elective LMA use with a flexible endoscope during laryngeal and upper tracheal procedures. ..
  42. Ernst A, Rafeq S, Boiselle P, Sung A, Reddy C, Michaud G, et al. Relapsing polychondritis and airway involvement. Chest. 2009;135:1024-1030 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the prevalence and characteristics of airway involvement in relapsing polychondritis (RP)...
  43. Gonfiotti A, Jaus M, Barale D, Baiguera S, Comin C, Lavorini F, et al. The first tissue-engineered airway transplantation: 5-year follow-up results. Lancet. 2014;383:238-44 pubmed publisher
    ..European Commission, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Swedish Research Council, ALF Medicine. ..
  44. Crysdale W. Laryngotracheoplasty: 30-year follow-up to a pioneering case. J Otolaryngol. 2005;34:418-9 pubmed
  45. Ueda M, Okutani R, Nakada K, Nakano T, Kinoshita A. Anesthetic management during tracheotomy in a child with respiratory distress caused by severe intubation-induced glottic stenosis. J Anesth. 2012;26:449-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The tracheotomy was performed safely without respiratory complications by employing manual-assisted ventilation, while spontaneous breathing was preserved by use of a face mask. ..
  46. Schikschneit M, Ridder G, Boedeker C. [Blister-forming mucous membrane disease with cicatricial laryngeal stenosis]. HNO. 2008;56:158-60 pubmed
  47. Lin B, Lee S, Kao C, Tsung Y, Kuo C, Wong C, et al. Subglottic stenosis after thoracotomy--a case report. Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan. 2007;45:59-62 pubmed
    ..The possible causes are macrotrauma due to multiple intubations and microtrauma due to inappropriate tube size in the course of anesthesia. Furthermore, GER may worsen mucosal injuries, which may be precipitated by the lateral position. ..
  48. Lerat J, Lacoste M, Prechoux J, Aubry K, Nadalon S, Ly K, et al. An uncommon case of dyspnea with unilateral laryngeal paralysis in acromegaly. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2016;43:105-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first description of a case of acute respiratory distress due to unilateral larynx paralysis leading to acromegaly diagnosis. This is due to submucosal hypertrophy and vocal cord immobility. ..
  49. Barry R, Fink D, Pourciau D, Hayley K, Lanius R, Hayley S, et al. Effect of Increased Body Mass Index on Complication Rates during Laryngotracheal Surgery Utilizing Jet Ventilation. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017;157:473-477 pubmed publisher
    ..Jet ventilation was performed without significant adverse events in this sample, and it is a viable option if used with an experienced team in the management of laryngotracheal stenosis. ..
  50. Daniel S, Mujica Mota M. Successful cricoid fracture reduction using a balloon dilator. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;76:1382-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The mentioned procedure reduced the fracture and allowed us to prevent a tracheostomy and its complications. ..
  51. Riffat F, Palme C, Veivers D. Endoscopic treatment of glottic stenosis: a report on the safety and efficacy of CO2 laser. J Laryngol Otol. 2012;126:503-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Glottic airway patency can be compromised by bilateral vocal fold palsy, anterior webbing or a posterior segment scar, which may be significant enough to impair arytenoid movement...
  52. Krashin E, Ben Ari J, Springer C, DeRowe A, Avital A, Sivan Y. Synchronous airway lesions in laryngomalacia. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;72:501-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Except for underlying neurodevelopmental problems, no clear risk factors for the existence of SALs were identified. ..
  53. Hart C, de Alarcon A, Tabangin M, Hamilton S, Rutter M, Pentiuk S, et al. Impedance probe testing prior to pediatric airway reconstruction. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2014;123:641-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with fundoplication were less likely to have a successful outcome, suggesting that factors other than reflux influence airway reconstruction outcomes. ..