Summary: The process of germ cell development from the primordial GERM CELLS to the mature haploid GAMETES: ova in the female (OOGENESIS) or sperm in the male (SPERMATOGENESIS).

Top Publications

  1. Baron D, Houlgatte R, Fostier A, Guiguen Y. Large-scale temporal gene expression profiling during gonadal differentiation and early gametogenesis in rainbow trout. Biol Reprod. 2005;73:959-66 pubmed publisher produce a temporal map of fluctuations in mRNA expression of 102 genes during sex differentiation and early gametogenesis in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)...
  2. Rasch E, Wyngaard G, Connelly B. Heterochromatin endoreduplication prior to gametogenesis and chromatin diminution during early embryogenesis in Mesocyclops edax (Copepoda: Crustacea). J Morphol. 2008;269:387-97 pubmed
    ..We also report the robust uptake of 3H-thymidine by germ cells prior to gametogenesis in this species...
  3. Scholz S, Simon N, Lavazec C, Dude M, Templeton T, Pradel G. PfCCp proteins of Plasmodium falciparum: gametocyte-specific expression and role in complement-mediated inhibition of exflagellation. Int J Parasitol. 2008;38:327-40 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the six PfCCp proteins are specifically expressed during gametocytogenesis and gamete formation, and that select members may represent prospective candidates for transmission blocking vaccines. ..
  4. McNicoll F, Stevense M, Jessberger R. Cohesin in gametogenesis. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2013;102:1-34 pubmed publisher
  5. Ding X, Xu R, Yu J, Xu T, Zhuang Y, Han M. SUN1 is required for telomere attachment to nuclear envelope and gametogenesis in mice. Dev Cell. 2007;12:863-72 pubmed
    ..This study provides genetic evidence that SUN1-telomere interaction is essential for telomere dynamic movement and is required for efficient homologous chromosome pairing/synapsis during mammalian gametogenesis.
  6. Chalmel F, Rolland A, Niederhauser Wiederkehr C, Chung S, Demougin P, Gattiker A, et al. The conserved transcriptome in human and rodent male gametogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:8346-51 pubmed
    ..Expression profiling data further identified numerous conserved genes of biological and clinical interest previously unassociated with the mammalian male germ line. ..
  7. Shimizu K, Ito T, Ishiguro S, Okada K. MAA3 (MAGATAMA3) helicase gene is required for female gametophyte development and pollen tube guidance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2008;49:1478-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The MAA3 gene encodes a homolog of yeast Sen1 helicase, required for RNA metabolism. It is suggested that MAA3 may regulate RNA molecules responsible for nucleolar organization and pollen tube guidance. ..
  8. Meistertzheim A, Lejart M, Le Goïc N, Thébault M. Sex-, gametogenesis, and tidal height-related differences in levels of HSP70 and metallothioneins in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2009;152:234-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, endogenous HSPs and MTs levels in gonad changed significantly during gametogenesis. In female gonads, the constitutive form of HSP70 and the MTs increased from immature (or resting) to mature ..
  9. Okamoto N, Spurck T, Goodman C, McFadden G. Apicoplast and mitochondrion in gametocytogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum. Eukaryot Cell. 2009;8:128-32 pubmed publisher
    ..A close connection of the two organelles is consistently maintained. The apicoplast and mitochondrion are not components of the male gametes, suggesting maternal inheritance. ..

More Information


  1. Guitton A, Berger F. Control of reproduction by Polycomb Group complexes in animals and plants. Int J Dev Biol. 2005;49:707-16 pubmed
    ..Such heterochronic mutations affect the transition to flowering. During gametogenesis the Fertilization-Independent Endosperm-MEDEA-PRC2 (FIE-MEA PRC2) complex controls gametogenesis in synergy ..
  2. Citterio S, Albertini E, Varotto S, Feltrin E, Soattin M, Marconi G, et al. Alfalfa Mob 1-like genes are expressed in reproductive organs during meiosis and gametogenesis. Plant Mol Biol. 2005;58:789-807 pubmed publisher gene is constitutively expressed while the other is expressed only in flower buds during sporogenesis and gametogenesis. For the analysis of gene expression during reproduction in alfalfa wild-types and apomeiotic mutants, a ..
  3. Weng D, Zhang Y, Hayashi Y, Kuan C, Liu C, Babcock G, et al. Promiscuous recombination of LoxP alleles during gametogenesis in cornea Cre driver mice. Mol Vis. 2008;14:562-71 pubmed
    To examine whether promiscuous Cre/LoxP recombination happens during gametogenesis in double transgenic mice carrying LoxP modified alleles and Cre transgene driven by tissue-specific promoter outside the gonads of adult mice...
  4. Chen Z, Hafidh S, Poh S, Twell D, Berger F. Proliferation and cell fate establishment during Arabidopsis male gametogenesis depends on the Retinoblastoma protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7257-62 pubmed publisher
    ..indicate that hyperproliferation caused by the loss of Rb protein prevents or delays cell determination during plant male gametogenesis, providing further evidence for a direct link between fate determination and cell proliferation.
  5. Kito G, Aramaki S, Tanaka K, Soh T, Yamauchi N, Hattori M. Temporal and spatial differential expression of chicken germline-specific proteins cDAZL, CDH and CVH during gametogenesis. J Reprod Dev. 2010;56:341-6 pubmed Azoospermia-Like (DAZL) protein coded by Dazl gene is a germline-specific RNA-binding protein essential for gametogenesis in vertebrates, and the chicken Dazl gene has also been identified in primordial germ cells (PGCs)...
  6. Luisi S, Florio P, Reis F, Petraglia F. Inhibins in female and male reproductive physiology: role in gametogenesis, conception, implantation and early pregnancy. Hum Reprod Update. 2005;11:123-35 pubmed
  7. Li H, Liu N, Shi D, Liu J, Yang W. YAO is a nucleolar WD40-repeat protein critical for embryogenesis and gametogenesis in Arabidopsis. BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:169 pubmed publisher
    In flowering plants, gametogenesis generates multicellular male and female gametophytes. In the model system Arabidopsis, the male gametophyte or pollen grain contains two sperm cells and a vegetative cell...
  8. Dyer M, Day K. Regulation of the rate of asexual growth and commitment to sexual development by diffusible factors from in vitro cultures of Plasmodium falciparum. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;68:403-9 pubmed
    ..falciparum, the sexual pathway of development is the default, and that constitutive repression of the sexual pathway permits asexual multiplication to occur in the bloodstream of the human host. ..
  9. Llera Herrera R, Garcia Gasca A, Abreu Goodger C, Huvet A, Ibarra A. Identification of male gametogenesis expressed genes from the scallop Nodipecten subnodosus by suppressive subtraction hybridization and pyrosequencing. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73176 pubmed publisher
    ..subnodosus. In relation to the inactive library, we identified 833 transcripts with functional annotation related to activation of the transcription and translation machinery, as well as to germline control and maintenance. ..
  10. Naimi A, Martinez A, Specq M, Mrac A, Diss B, Mathieu M, et al. Identification and expression of a factor of the DM family in the oyster Crassostrea gigas. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2009;152:189-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Cg-DMl may be involved in the development of the gonad and may constitute preliminary clues for future work in order to better understand DM protein evolution...
  11. Taylor C, McRobert L, Baker D. Disruption of a Plasmodium falciparum cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase gene causes aberrant gametogenesis. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:110-8 pubmed publisher
    ..GC activity in parasites having undergone disruption of the PfGCbeta gene had no significant effect on gametogenesis. By contrast, decreased cGMP-PDE activity during gametocyte development owing to disruption of the PfPDEdelta ..
  12. Ciocan C, Cubero Leon E, Puinean A, Hill E, Minier C, Osada M, et al. Effects of estrogen exposure in mussels, Mytilus edulis, at different stages of gametogenesis. Environ Pollut. 2010;158:2977-84 pubmed publisher
    ..increase in VTG and ER2 mRNA expression was observed in mussels exposed to estrogens at the early stage of gametogenesis. In contrast, mature mussels displayed no statistically significant change in the VTG or ER2 mRNA expression...
  13. Furukuma S, Onuma T, Swanson P, Luo Q, Koide N, Okada H, et al. Stimulatory effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 on expression of gonadotropin subunit genes and release of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in masu salmon pituitary cells early in gametogenesis. Zoolog Sci. 2008;25:88-98 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to determine if IGF-I directly stimulates synthesis and release of GTH at an early stage of gametogenesis. The effects of IGF-I on expression of genes encoding glycoprotein alpha (GPalpha), follicle-stimulating ..
  14. Pérez España V, Sanchez Leon N, Vielle Calzada J. CYP85A1 is required for the initiation of female gametogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Signal Behav. 2011;6:321-6 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that BR biosynthesis is required for the initiation of megagametogenesis in Arabidopsis. ..
  15. de Koning Ward T, Olivieri A, Bertuccini L, Hood A, Silvestrini F, Charvalias K, et al. The role of osmiophilic bodies and Pfg377 expression in female gametocyte emergence and mosquito infectivity in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Microbiol. 2008;67:278-90 pubmed
    ..less efficient both in vitro and in vivo in their emergence from the erythrocytes upon induction of gametogenesis, a process whose timing is critical for fertilization with the short-lived male gamete...
  16. Kracklauer M, Link J, Alsheimer M. LINCing the nuclear envelope to gametogenesis. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2013;102:127-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Gametogenesis combines two important features: reduction of the genome content from diploid to haploid by carefully partitioning chromosomes, and the subsequent differentiation into fertilization-competent gametes, which in males is ..
  17. Unuma T, Ikeda K, Yamano K, Moriyama A, Ohta H. Zinc-binding property of the major yolk protein in the sea urchin - implications of its role as a zinc transporter for gametogenesis. FEBS J. 2007;274:4985-98 pubmed
    ..the digestive tract is a major production site of MYP, we propose that CFMYP transports zinc, essential for gametogenesis, from the digestive tract to the ovary and testis through the coelomic fluid, after which part of the CFMYP is ..
  18. Talman A, Domarle O, McKenzie F, Ariey F, Robert V. Gametocytogenesis: the puberty of Plasmodium falciparum. Malar J. 2004;3:24 pubmed
    ..There is a need for research on gametocytes, which are a fascinating stage, responsible to a large extent for the success of P. falciparum. ..
  19. Ebel C, Mariconti L, Gruissem W. Plant retinoblastoma homologues control nuclear proliferation in the female gametophyte. Nature. 2004;429:776-80 pubmed
    ..Thus, RBR1 has a novel and previously unrecognized function in cell cycle control during gametogenesis and in the repression of autonomous endosperm development.
  20. Teramura T, Takehara T, Kawata N, Fujinami N, Mitani T, Takenoshita M, et al. Primate embryonic stem cells proceed to early gametogenesis in vitro. Cloning Stem Cells. 2007;9:144-56 pubmed
    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) of nonhuman primates are important for research into human gametogenesis because of similarities between the embryos and fetuses of nonhuman primates and those of humans...
  21. Herrera C, Medrano M, Bazaga P. Epigenetic differentiation persists after male gametogenesis in natural populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70730 pubmed publisher
    ..sporophytes and descendant gametophytes showed that ~75% of epigenetic markers persisted unchanged through gametogenesis. In spite of some epigenetic reorganization taking place during gametogenesis, multilocus epigenetic ..
  22. Kashiwabara S, Nakanishi T, Kimura M, Baba T. Non-canonical poly(A) polymerase in mammalian gametogenesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1779:230-8 pubmed publisher
    ..lengthening, maintenance, and shortening of poly(A) tails in the cytoplasm are all essential for modulation of gametogenesis. Here we focus on the functional roles of mouse Tpap and Gld-2 in spermatogenesis and oocyte maturation, ..
  23. Marracci S, Casola C, Bucci S, Ragghianti M, Ogielska M, Mancino G. Differential expression of two vasa/PL10-related genes during gametogenesis in the special model system Rana. Dev Genes Evol. 2007;217:395-402 pubmed
    ..Both genes were expressed during the early stages of gametogenesis of R. ridibunda, R. lessonae, and their natural hybrid R. esculenta. RlVlg expression was germline specific...
  24. Ruan Q, Ju J, Li Y, Li X, Liu R, Liang G, et al. Chlorpyrifos exposure reduces reproductive capacity owing to a damaging effect on gametogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. J Appl Toxicol. 2012;32:527-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Alterations in the expression patterns of genes involved in gametogenesis may explain the corresponding changes in gametogenesis in nematodes exposed to chlorpyrifos...
  25. Wolgemuth D. Function of the A-type cyclins during gametogenesis and early embryogenesis. Results Probl Cell Differ. 2011;53:391-413 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, cyclin A2-deficiency is marked by early embryonic lethality; thus, understanding the function of cyclin A2 in the adult germ line awaits conditional mutagenesis or other approaches to knock down its expression. ..
  26. Eksi S, Williamson K. Protein targeting to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane of Plasmodium falciparum. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:744-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report to define the amino acid domains required for targeting to the P. falciparum PVM. ..
  27. Pugacheva E, Suzuki T, Pack S, Kosaka Suzuki N, Yoon J, Vostrov A, et al. The structural complexity of the human BORIS gene in gametogenesis and cancer. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13872 pubmed publisher
    ..neoplastic cells suggest that the gene is involved in a range of functionally important aspects of both normal gametogenesis and cancer development...
  28. Riparbelli M, Callaini G. Male gametogenesis without centrioles. Dev Biol. 2011;349:427-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have analyzed male gametogenesis in DSas-4 Drosophila mutants and we have reported that spindle alignment and asymmetric divisions are properly ..
  29. Itman C, Miyamoto Y, Young J, Jans D, Loveland K. Nucleocytoplasmic transport as a driver of mammalian gametogenesis. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2009;20:607-19 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses key examples of regulated nucleocytoplasmic transport during mammalian gametogenesis and the mechanisms underpinning these transport events, focusing on examples critical for the establishment of ..
  30. Marchal R, Chicheportiche A, Dutrillaux B, Bernardino Sgherri J. DNA methylation in mouse gametogenesis. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2004;105:316-24 pubmed
  31. McCormick S. Control of male gametophyte development. Plant Cell. 2004;16 Suppl:S142-53 pubmed
  32. Ward J, Reinholdt L, Hartford S, Wilson L, Munroe R, Schimenti K, et al. Toward the genetics of mammalian reproduction: induction and mapping of gametogenesis mutants in mice. Biol Reprod. 2003;69:1615-25 pubmed
    The genetic control of mammalian gametogenesis is inadequately characterized because of a lack of mutations causing infertility...
  33. Abane R, Mezger V. Roles of heat shock factors in gametogenesis and development. FEBS J. 2010;277:4150-72 pubmed
    ..Besides their roles in the stress response, heat shock factors perform crucial roles during gametogenesis and development in physiological conditions...
  34. Taylor A, Ang C, Bell S, Konje J. The role of the endocannabinoid system in gametogenesis, implantation and early pregnancy. Hum Reprod Update. 2007;13:501-13 pubmed
    ..In addition, we examine its role on the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle as a potential mechanism for adverse pregnancy outcome. ..
  35. Chen Z, Tan J, Ingouff M, Sundaresan V, Berger F. Chromatin assembly factor 1 regulates the cell cycle but not cell fate during male gametogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Development. 2008;135:65-73 pubmed
    ..The single sperm is functional and fertilizes indiscriminately either female gamete. Our results thus suggest that pollen cell fate is independent from cell cycle regulation. ..
  36. Li N, Yuan L, Liu N, Shi D, Li X, Tang Z, et al. SLOW WALKER2, a NOC1/MAK21 homologue, is essential for coordinated cell cycle progression during female gametophyte development in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2009;151:1486-97 pubmed publisher
    Morphogenesis requires the coordination of cell growth, division, and cell differentiation. Female gametogenesis in flowering plants, where a single haploid spore undergoes continuous growth and nuclear division without cytokinesis to ..
  37. Naimi A, Martinez A, Specq M, Diss B, Mathieu M, Sourdaine P. Molecular cloning and gene expression of Cg-Foxl2 during the development and the adult gametogenetic cycle in the oyster Crassostrea gigas. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;154:134-42 pubmed publisher
    ..5-month-old spats, a period of development when primordial germ cells may differentiate into germinal stem cells during the first gonadic establishment. ..
  38. Ragghianti M, Bucci S, Marracci S, Casola C, Mancino G, Hotz H, et al. Gametogenesis of intergroup hybrids of hemiclonal frogs. Genet Res. 2007;89:39-45 pubmed
    ..ridibunda, was not hybridogenetic, showed no genome exclusion, and evidenced a disturbed gametogenesis resulting from the combination of two heterospecific genomes...
  39. Torres J, Rodriguez M, Rodriguez M, de la Cruz Hernandez Hernandez F. Plasmodium berghei: effect of protease inhibitors during gametogenesis and early zygote development. Exp Parasitol. 2005;111:255-9 pubmed
    ..The effect of five protease inhibitors, TPCK, TLCK, PMSF, leupeptin, and 1,10-phenanthroline on in vitro gametogenesis and early zygote development of P. berghei was investigated. PMSF and leupeptin showed no effect...
  40. Rentzsch F, Hobmayer B, Holstein T. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 has a proapoptotic function in Hydra gametogenesis. Dev Biol. 2005;278:1-12 pubmed
    ..In Hydra, HyGSK3 transcripts are strongly upregulated during gametogenesis. Treatment of female polyps with the GSK3 inhibitors lithium and alsterpaullone prevents the differentiation ..
  41. Santerre C, Sourdaine P, Marc N, Mingant C, Robert R, Martinez A. Oyster sex determination is influenced by temperature - first clues in spat during first gonadic differentiation and gametogenesis. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2013;165:61-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In parallel, gonadic differentiation, gametogenesis and sex ratios were assessed by histology at each of these temperatures...
  42. Jiang L, Xia M, Strittmatter L, Makaroff C. The Arabidopsis cohesin protein SYN3 localizes to the nucleolus and is essential for gametogenesis. Plant J. 2007;50:1020-34 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that SYN3 may not function as part of a typical cohesin complex; rather it may have evolved a specialized role in controlling rDNA structure, transcription or rRNA processing. ..
  43. Moll C, von Lyncker L, Zimmermann S, Kägi C, Baumann N, Twell D, et al. CLO/GFA1 and ATO are novel regulators of gametic cell fate in plants. Plant J. 2008;56:913-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results thus establish that the restriction of gametic cell fate is specifically coupled to the function of various core spliceosomal components. ..
  44. Huang L, Chen X, Rim Y, Han X, Cho W, Kim S, et al. Arabidopsis glucan synthase-like 10 functions in male gametogenesis. J Plant Physiol. 2009;166:344-52 pubmed publisher
    ..gsl10 mutant microspores failed to enter into mitosis. Unlike the previously described functions of GSL1, GSL2 and GSL5, GSL10 involves an independent process of pollen development at the mitotic division stage. ..
  45. Sørmo C, Brembu T, Winge P, Bones A. Arabidopsis thaliana MIRO1 and MIRO2 GTPases are unequally redundant in pollen tube growth and fusion of polar nuclei during female gametogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18530 pubmed publisher
  46. Leu N, Kurosaka S, Kashina A. Conditional Tek promoter-driven deletion of arginyltransferase in the germ line causes defects in gametogenesis and early embryonic lethality in mice. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7734 pubmed publisher
    ..had lethality at early post-implantation stages that could be explained only by a previously unknown defect in gametogenesis originating from Tek-driven Ate1 deletion in premeiotic germs cells...
  47. Gill M, Hu Y, Lin Y, Page D. Licensing of gametogenesis, dependent on RNA binding protein DAZL, as a gateway to sexual differentiation of fetal germ cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:7443-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of both XX and XY fetuses undergo licensing, an active developmental transition that enables the resultant gametogenesis-competent cells to respond to feminizing or masculinizing cues produced by the fetal ovary or testis and hence ..
  48. Wang D, Tyson M, Jackson S, Yadegari R. Partially redundant functions of two SET-domain polycomb-group proteins in controlling initiation of seed development in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13244-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, MEA and SWN perform partially redundant functions in controlling the initiation of endosperm development before fertilization in Arabidopsis. ..
  49. Liu X, Zhang Z, Shao M, Liu J, Muhammad F. Sexually dimorphic expression of foxl2 during gametogenesis in scallop Chlamys farreri, conserved with vertebrates. Dev Genes Evol. 2012;222:279-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data imply that Cf-foxl2 is expressed in a sexually dimorphic pattern at the RNA level, which is conserved with vertebrates. ..
  50. Xu M, Soloveychik M, Ranger M, Schertzberg M, Shah Z, Raisner R, et al. Timing of transcriptional quiescence during gametogenesis is controlled by global histone H3K4 demethylation. Dev Cell. 2012;23:1059-71 pubmed publisher
    Gametes are among the most highly specialized cells produced during development. Although gametogenesis culminates in transcriptional quiescence in plants and animals, regulatory mechanisms controlling this are unknown...
  51. Kierszenbaum A. Cell-cycle regulation and mammalian gametogenesis: a lesson from the unexpected. Mol Reprod Dev. 2006;73:939-42 pubmed
    The progression of mammalian gametogenesis requires a precise balance between cell-cycle activities and elimination of defective gametogenic cells to ensure the perpetuation of species...
  52. Hanazawa M, Kawasaki I, Kunitomo H, Gengyo Ando K, Bennett K, Mitani S, et al. The Caenorhabditis elegans eukaryotic initiation factor 5A homologue, IFF-1, is required for germ cell proliferation, gametogenesis and localization of the P-granule component PGL-1. Mech Dev. 2004;121:213-24 pubmed
    ..nuclei are observed, as revealed by presence of immunoreactivity to the anti-HIM-3 antibody; however, no gametogenesis occurs in the iff-1 gonads...
  53. Jullien P, Kinoshita T, Ohad N, Berger F. Maintenance of DNA methylation during the Arabidopsis life cycle is essential for parental imprinting. Plant Cell. 2006;18:1360-72 pubmed
    ..FIS2 imprinting requires the maintenance of DNA methylation throughout the plant life cycle, including male gametogenesis and endosperm development...