birth rate


Summary: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.

Top Publications

  1. Romaniuk A. Persistence of high fertility in tropical Africa: the case of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Popul Dev Rev. 2011;37:1-28 pubmed
    ..While an eventual fertility transition may be taken for granted, the article examines the many hurdles, contradictions, and tensions that will have to be overcome to achieve that outcome. ..
  2. Ferraretti A, Goossens V, Kupka M, Bhattacharya S, de Mouzon J, Castilla J, et al. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2009: results generated from European registers by ESHRE. Hum Reprod. 2013;28:2318-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Pregnancy and delivery rates after IVF and ICSI remained relatively stable compared with 2008 and 2007. The number of multiple embryo transfers (3+ embryos) and the multiple delivery rate have shown a clear decline. ..
  3. Martin J, Hamilton B, Ventura S, Osterman M, Kirmeyer S, Mathews T, et al. Births: final data for 2009. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2011;60:1-70 pubmed
    ..The general fertility rate declined 3 percent to 66.7 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years. The teenage birth rate fell 6 percent to 39.1 per 1,000...
  4. Pitzer V, Viboud C, Lopman B, Patel M, Parashar U, Grenfell B. Influence of birth rates and transmission rates on the global seasonality of rotavirus incidence. J R Soc Interface. 2011;8:1584-93 pubmed publisher
    ..While vaccination is expected to decrease the overall burden of disease, it may increase the degree of seasonal variation in the incidence of rotavirus in some settings. ..
  5. Ezeh A, Bongaarts J, Mberu B. Global population trends and policy options. Lancet. 2012;380:142-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research into the potential effect of demographic policies on other social systems, social groups, and fertility decisions and trends is therefore recommended. ..
  6. Cummings D. Seasonal sunshine and vitamin D: a possible explanation for differences in European and United States birth patterns. Biodemography Soc Biol. 2010;56:105-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences in clearness may explain birth pattern differences and reduced U.S. births in the 1930s. Although the effect of vitamin D is plausible, further research is required. ..
  7. Luke B, Brown M, Stern J, Missmer S, Fujimoto V, Leach R. Racial and ethnic disparities in assisted reproductive technology pregnancy and live birth rates within body mass index categories. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:1661-6 pubmed publisher
    ..57 and 1.76, respectively), and normal-weight and obese black women (1.45 and 1.84, respectively). These findings indicate significant disparities in pregnancy and live birth rates by race and ethnicity, even within BMI categories. ..
  8. Tedesco R, Passini R, Cecatti J, Camargo R, Pacagnella R, Sousa M. Estimation of preterm birth rate, associated factors and maternal morbidity from a demographic and health survey in Brazil. Matern Child Health J. 2013;17:1638-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Odds ratios and 95 % CI were estimated for complications such as severe maternal morbidity. The preterm birth rate was 9.9 %, with regional variations...
  9. Terashita Y, Wakayama S, Yamagata K, Li C, Sato E, Wakayama T. Latrunculin A can improve the birth rate of cloned mice and simplify the nuclear transfer protocol by gently inhibiting actin polymerization. Biol Reprod. 2012;86:180 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, by using LatA, we could simplify the procedure with a higher birth rate of cloned mice compared with our original method.

More Information


  1. Metcalf C, Lessler J, Klepac P, Cutts F, Grenfell B. Impact of birth rate, seasonality and transmission rate on minimum levels of coverage needed for rubella vaccination. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:2290-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Policy-makers should be aware of the potential negative effect of local extinction of rubella, since heterogeneity in vaccination coverage will shape extinction patterns, potentially increasing CRS burdens. ..
  2. Canning D, Schultz T. The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning. Lancet. 2012;380:165-71 pubmed publisher
    ..At the macroeconomic level, reductions in fertility enhance economic growth as a result of reduced youth dependency and an increased number of women participating in paid labour. ..
  3. Ahmed S, Li Q, Liu L, Tsui A. Maternal deaths averted by contraceptive use: an analysis of 172 countries. Lancet. 2012;380:111-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide evidence that use of contraception is a substantial and effective primary prevention strategy to reduce maternal mortality in developing countries. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. ..
  4. Einarsdóttir K, Kemp A, Haggar F, Moorin R, Gunnell A, Preen D, et al. Increase in caesarean deliveries after the Australian Private Health Insurance Incentive policy reforms. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41436 pubmed publisher
    ..The reforms may not have been beneficial for quality obstetric care in Australia or the burden of Australian hospitals. ..
  5. Martin J, Hamilton B, Sutton P, Ventura S, Mathews T, Kirmeyer S, et al. Births: final data for 2007. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2010;58:1-85 pubmed
    ..Preliminary findings for 2008 suggest that these trends continued for cesarean delivery, unmarried childbearing, and preterm births. ..
  6. Mathe J, Kasonia K, Maliro A. Barriers to adoption of family planning among women in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Afr J Reprod Health. 2011;15:69-77 pubmed
    ..Promotion of FP was poor (42%). Training of health workers, advocating modern contraception, improving FP services in all public health facilities and promoting FP on each contact of women is highly recommended in this city. ..
  7. Enabudoso E, Okpighe A, Gharoro E, Okpere E. Delivery rate in Benin City, Nigeria: are there seasonal variations?. Niger J Clin Pract. 2011;14:129-31 pubmed publisher
    ..There exists a significant monthly variation in delivery rates in Benin City. This finding will prove valuable in health system planning and in the interpretation of seasonal variations in other reproductive parameters. ..
  8. Ijaiya G, Raheem U, Olatinwo A, Ijaiya M, Ijaiya M. Estimating the impact of birth control on fertility rate in sub-Saharan Africa. Afr J Reprod Health. 2009;13:137-45 pubmed
    ..the paper suggests measures, such as the need for massive enlightenment campaign on the benefit of these birth control devices, the frequent checking of the potency of the devices and good governance in the delivery of the devices ..
  9. Papanikolaou E, Fatemi H, Camus M, Kyrou D, Polyzos N, Humaidan P, et al. Higher birth rate after recombinant hCG triggering compared with urinary-derived hCG in single-blastocyst IVF antagonist cycles: a randomized controlled trial. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:2902-4 pubmed publisher
    ..1 vs. 25.7, respectively); however, adequately powered randomized controlled trials are justified to ascertain whether this difference is true. ..
  10. MacDorman M, Declercq E, Zhang J. Obstetrical intervention and the singleton preterm birth rate in the United States from 1991-2006. Am J Public Health. 2010;100:2241-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Obstetrical interventions were related to the increase in the US preterm birth rate between 1991 and 2006...
  11. Hogan M, Foreman K, Naghavi M, Ahn S, Wang M, Makela S, et al. Maternal mortality for 181 countries, 1980-2008: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5. Lancet. 2010;375:1609-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Although only 23 countries are on track to achieve a 75% decrease in MMR by 2015, countries such as Egypt, China, Ecuador, and Bolivia have been achieving accelerated progress. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. ..
  12. Boivin J, Schmidt L. Use of complementary and alternative medicines associated with a 30% lower ongoing pregnancy/live birth rate during 12 months of fertility treatment. Hum Reprod. 2009;24:1626-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore compared ongoing pregnancy and live birth rate in spontaneous users and non-users of CAM during a 12-month period of assisted reproduction technique (ART) ..
  13. Cancho Candela R, Andres de Llano J, Ardura Fernandez J. Decline and loss of birth seasonality in Spain: analysis of 33,421,731 births over 60 years. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2007;61:713-8 pubmed
    ..In Spain, seasonal birth rhythm shows a decline from 1970, and, finally, lack of birth seasonality in 1991-2000. This trend is similar to other European countries, although Spain shows a more intense loss of seasonality. ..
  14. Hesketh T, Lu L, Xing Z. The effect of China's one-child family policy after 25 years. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:1171-6 pubmed
  15. He D, Earn D. Epidemiological effects of seasonal oscillations in birth rates. Theor Popul Biol. 2007;72:274-91 pubmed
    ..We incorporate seasonality of birth rate into the standard, deterministic susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-exposed-infectious-..
  16. Mastenbroek S, Twisk M, van Echten Arends J, Sikkema Raddatz B, Korevaar J, Verhoeve H, et al. In vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic screening. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:9-17 pubmed
    ..51 to 0.93). The women assigned to preimplantation genetic screening also had a significantly lower live-birth rate (49 of 206 women [24%] vs. 71 of 202 women [35%]; rate ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.92)...
  17. Kongnyuy E, Wiysonge C. Association between fertility and HIV status: what implications for HIV estimates?. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:309 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings of this study support the use of summary RIR for the adjustment of HIV prevalence (among adult female population) obtained from sentinel surveillance in antenatal clinics. ..
  18. Sunderam S, Chang J, Flowers L, Kulkarni A, Sentelle G, Jeng G, et al. Assisted reproductive technology surveillance--United States, 2006. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2009;58:1-25 pubmed
    ..Adverse maternal and infant outcomes (e.g., low birthweight and preterm delivery) associated with ART treatment choices should be explained thoroughly when counseling patients considering ART. ..
  19. Lain S, Ford J, Raynes Greenow C, Hadfield R, Simpson J, Morris J, et al. The impact of the Baby Bonus payment in New South Wales: who is having "one for the country"?. Med J Aust. 2009;190:238-41 pubmed
    ..Change in birth rate in 2005 and 2006 compared with the trend in birth rates before the introduction of the Baby Bonus...
  20. Gibson M, Mace R. An energy-saving development initiative increases birth rate and childhood malnutrition in rural Ethiopia. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e87 pubmed
    ..hazards models and general linear modelling techniques, we found that whilst infant mortality has declined, the birth rate has increased, causing greater scarcity of resources within households...
  21. Grant J, Hoorens S, Sivadasan S, Loo M, DaVanzo J, Hale L, et al. Trends in European fertility: should Europe try to increase its fertility rate...or just manage the consequences?. Int J Androl. 2006;29:17-24 pubmed
    ..Currently across Europe, birth rates are falling and the population is aging. This paper describes these trends and assesses which policies can prevent or mitigate the adverse consequences of these two trends. ..
  22. Lutz W. Fertility rates and future population trends: will Europe's birth rate recover or continue to decline?. Int J Androl. 2006;29:25-33 pubmed
    ..We will also discuss trade-offs between fertility and immigration, and the phenomenon that Europe now has entered a period of negative momentum of population growth. ..
  23. Elizur S, Lerner Geva L, Levron J, Shulman A, Bider D, Dor J. Cumulative live birth rate following in vitro fertilization: study of 5,310 cycles. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2006;22:25-30 pubmed
    ..7% vs. 85.4%). In conclusion, each treatment cycle increased the cumulative delivery rate, resulting in a rate of 87% after 14 consecutive cycles. The introduction of ICSI resulted in the highest cumulative rates. ..
  24. Dixon Mueller R, Germain A. Fertility regulation and reproductive health in the Millennium Development Goals: the search for a perfect indicator. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:45-51 pubmed
  25. Main E, Moore D, Farrell B, Schimmel L, Altman R, Abrahams C, et al. Is there a useful cesarean birth measure? Assessment of the nulliparous term singleton vertex cesarean birth rate as a tool for obstetric quality improvement. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;194:1644-51; discussion 1651-2 pubmed
    ..NTSV CB rate is strongly influenced by elective obstetric practices. The addition of an easily performed maternal age adjustment makes it the most promising CB quality measure for use at the hospital level. ..
  26. Kuehn B. Groups take aim at US preterm birth rate. JAMA. 2006;296:2907-8 pubmed
  27. Syse A, Kravdal O, Tretli S. Parenthood after cancer - a population-based study. Psychooncology. 2007;16:920-7 pubmed
    ..This is further supported by the difference in probability between first and subsequent births observed for women. ..
  28. Gebremedhin S, Betre M. Level and differentials of fertility in Awassa town, Southern Ethiopia. Afr J Reprod Health. 2009;13:93-112 pubmed
  29. Yang Z, Gaydos L. Reasons for and challenges of recent increases in teen birth rates: a study of family planning service policies and demographic changes at the state level. J Adolesc Health. 2010;46:517-24 pubmed publisher
    After declining for over a decade, the birth rate in the United States for adolescents aged 15-19 years increased by 3% in 2006 and 1% again in 2007. We examined demographic and policy reasons for this trend at state level...
  30. French D, Sabanegh E, Goldfarb J, Desai N. Does severe teratozoospermia affect blastocyst formation, live birth rate, and other clinical outcome parameters in ICSI cycles?. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:1097-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Microscopic selection of sperm with "normal" morphology during the ICSI procedure allowed excellent outcomes even in samples with severe teratozoospermia. ..
  31. Desai N, Abdelhafez F, Sabanegh E, Goldfarb J. Paternal effect on genomic activation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rate after ICSI with cryopreserved epididymal versus testicular spermatozoa. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009;7:142 pubmed publisher
    ..This study takes an in depth look at embryonic development, implantation, pregnancy and live birth rates with frozen epididymal and testicular sperm from obstructed (OA) and non-obstructed (NOA) patients...
  32. Hwa H, Yen M, Lin C, Ko T, Hsieh F, Chen T. Cost-effectiveness analysis of triple test in second-trimester maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome: an experience from Taiwan with decreasing birth rate but increasing population of old pregnant women. J Eval Clin Pract. 2008;14:191-7 pubmed publisher
    ..oestriol (uE3) in maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome in Taiwan, where there is a decreasing birth rate but an increasing trend of old women having pregnancies...
  33. Moustafa M, Sheded S, El Aziz Mousta M. Elective single embryo transfer versus double embryo transfer in assisted reproduction. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;17:82-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the results of this prospective randomized trial and 1-year follow-up show that in young women, elective SET should be the first line of choice. Even so, these results should be confirmed by larger randomized studies. ..
  34. Kosova G, Abney M, Ober C. Colloquium papers: Heritability of reproductive fitness traits in a human population. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107 Suppl 1:1772-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore propose that reproductive traits should be amenable to genetic mapping studies, and the results we present here will facilitate the search for the novel genes influencing natural fertility in humans. ..
  35. Robson S, Tan W, Adeyemi A, Dear K. Estimating the rate of cesarean section by maternal request: anonymous survey of obstetricians in Australia. Birth. 2009;36:208-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Maternal request is an important contributor to cesarean section rates in Australia. ..
  36. Stover J, Ross J. How increased contraceptive use has reduced maternal mortality. Matern Child Health J. 2010;14:687-695 pubmed publisher
    ..Increases in the use of modern contraceptives have made and can continue to make an important contribution to reducing maternal mortality in the developing world...
  37. Pitzer V, Viboud C, Simonsen L, Steiner C, Panozzo C, Alonso W, et al. Demographic variability, vaccination, and the spatiotemporal dynamics of rotavirus epidemics. Science. 2009;325:290-4 pubmed publisher
    ..A transmission model calibrated against epidemiological data shows that spatiotemporal variation in birth rate can explain the timing of rotavirus epidemics...
  38. Navara K. Humans at tropical latitudes produce more females. Biol Lett. 2009;5:524-7 pubmed publisher
    ..3%). This pattern remained strong despite enormous continental variation in lifestyle and socio-economic status, suggesting that latitudinal variables may act as overarching cues on which sex ratio variation in humans is based. ..
  39. Shahine L, Lamb J, Lathi R, Milki A, Langen E, Westphal L. Poor prognosis with in vitro fertilization in Indian women compared to Caucasian women despite similar embryo quality. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7599 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation into explanations for ethnic differences in reproduction is needed. ..
  40. Broutin H, Viboud C, Grenfell B, Miller M, Rohani P. Impact of vaccination and birth rate on the epidemiology of pertussis: a comparative study in 64 countries. Proc Biol Sci. 2010;277:3239-45 pubmed publisher
    ..over the past 30-70 years, we document the observed relationship between the average inter-epidemic period, birth rate and vaccine coverage...
  41. Salzer J, Svenningsson A, Sundstrom P. Season of birth and multiple sclerosis in Sweden. Acta Neurol Scand. 2010;121:20-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreased exposure to sun in the winter leading to low vitamin D levels during pregnancy is a possible explanation that needs further research. ..
  42. Morton Pradhan S, Bay R, Coonrod D. Birth rate and its correlation with the lunar cycle and specific atmospheric conditions. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192:1970-3 pubmed conjunction with National Weather Service records to determine whether there is a relationship between birth rate and meteorologic or lunar conditions...
  43. Movahedi M, Hajarizadeh B, Rahimi A, Arshinchi M, Amirhosseini K, Haghdoost A. Trends and geographical inequalities of the main health indicators for rural Iran. Health Policy Plan. 2009;24:229-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate a remarkable improvement in most of the health indicators in rural areas. On the other hand, there is still considerable inequality among the rural population at a provincial level. ..
  44. Wright V, Chang J, Jeng G, Macaluso M. Assisted reproductive technology surveillance--United States, 2005. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2008;57:1-23 pubmed
    ..Adverse maternal and infant outcomes (e.g., low birthweight and preterm delivery) associated with ART treatment choices should be explained fully when counseling patients who are considering ART. ..
  45. Karlström P, Bergh C. Reducing the number of embryos transferred in Sweden-impact on delivery and multiple birth rates. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:2202-7 pubmed
    ..Single embryo transfer (SET) results in satisfactory delivery rates and a dramatic decrease in the MBRs, also when applied on a broad scale. The experience from Sweden ought to encourage other countries to introduce SET more widely. ..
  46. Wright V, Chang J, Jeng G, Chen M, Macaluso M. Assisted reproductive technology surveillance - United States, 2004. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2007;56:1-22 pubmed
    ..Adverse maternal and infant outcomes (e.g., low birthweight and preterm delivery) associated with ART treatment choices should be explained fully when counseling patients who are considering ART. ..
  47. Robinson S, Christley R. Identifying temporal variation in reported births, deaths and movements of cattle in Britain. BMC Vet Res. 2006;2:11 pubmed
    ..Incorporating this temporal variation in epidemic disease modelling may result in more accurate model predictions and may usefully inform future surveillance strategies. ..
  48. Fitaw Y, Berhane Y, Worku A. Impact of child mortality and fertility preferences on fertility status in rural Ethiopia. East Afr Med J. 2004;81:300-6 pubmed
    ..92, 95% CI: 1.30,2.80). The study finding implies high fertility status is strongly associated with child death and hence measures that curb child mortality are believed to decrease fertility status besides promoting child survival. ..
  49. Parrado E. How high is Hispanic/Mexican fertility in the united states? Immigration and tempo considerations. Demography. 2011;48:1059-80 pubmed publisher
  50. Stadler T. Inferring epidemiological parameters on the basis of allele frequencies. Genetics. 2011;188:663-72 pubmed publisher
    ..13, 0.24] and a reproductive value of 1.02 [1.01, 1.04]. I demonstrate that the allele frequency probability under the birth-death model does not follow the well-known Ewens' sampling formula that holds under Kingman's coalescent. ..
  51. Fernandez H, Garbin O, Castaigne V, Gervaise A, Levaillant J. Surgical approach to and reproductive outcome after surgical correction of a T-shaped uterus. Hum Reprod. 2011;26:1730-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Forty-eight women (49.5%) became pregnant after metroplasty. The overall live birth rate per pregnancy before surgery was 0%; for these patients, it increased to 73%, and their miscarriage rate fell ..
  52. Levi Setti P, Albani E, Matteo M, Morenghi E, Zannoni E, Baggiani A, et al. Five years (2004-2009) of a restrictive law-regulating ART in Italy significantly reduced delivery rate: analysis of 10,706 cycles. Hum Reprod. 2013;28:343-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data represent a relevant clinical contribution for countries still debating the enactment of restrictive limitations of ART. ..
  53. Egerup P, Kårhus L, Skovlund C, Lidegaard O. Improving reproductive long-term prognosis for women with a first ectopic pregnancy. A national controlled follow-up study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2014;93:490-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Pregnancy outcomes included deliveries, miscarriages, induced abortions and ectopic pregnancies. The birth rate for women with a first ectopic pregnancy increased significantly through the three cohorts from 85 to 122 ..