Summary: The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.

Top Publications

  1. Lynch V, Wagner G. Did egg-laying boas break Dollo's law? Phylogenetic evidence for reversal to oviparity in sand boas (Eryx: Boidae). Evolution. 2010;64:207-16 pubmed publisher
    ..There has also been much interest in whether the transition from oviparity to viviparity is reversible, particularly in squamate reptiles where the transition to viviparity has occurred ..
  2. Heg D. Reproductive suppression in female cooperatively breeding cichlids. Biol Lett. 2008;4:606-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, some reproduction is tolerated, possibly to ensure continued alloparental care by subordinate females. ..
  3. Rogina B, Wolverton T, Bross T, Chen K, Muller H, Carey J. Distinct biological epochs in the reproductive life of female Drosophila melanogaster. Mech Ageing Dev. 2007;128:477-85 pubmed
    ..The presence of these distinctive biological epochs may reflect increased female sensitivity to mating due to age-related decline. ..
  4. Dolui A, Debnath M, De B, Kumar A. Reproductive activities of Heliotropium indicum isolate against Helopeltis theivora and toxicity evaluation in mice. J Environ Biol. 2012;33:603-7 pubmed
    ..wt., once daily) for 21 days as evident from different haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters in compound E treated group when compared with control...
  5. Tiedemann R, Paulus K, Havenstein K, Thorstensen S, Petersen A, Lyngs P, et al. Alien eggs in duck nests: brood parasitism or a help from Grandma?. Mol Ecol. 2011;20:3237-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Intraspecific brood parasitism in ducks may constitute cooperation among generations of closely related females. ..
  6. Fletcher R, Miller C. The type and timing of social information alters offspring production. Biol Lett. 2008;4:482-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the type and timing of social information may have an important, yet unappreciated, influence on reproductive allocation. ..
  7. Deus K, Saavedra Rodriguez K, Butters M, Black W, Foy B. The effect of ivermectin in seven strains of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) including a genetically diverse laboratory strain and three permethrin resistant strains. J Med Entomol. 2012;49:356-63 pubmed
    ..A correlation analysis of log-transformed LC50 among strains suggests that permethrin and ivermectin cross-resistance may occur. ..
  8. Vega F, Kramer M, Jaramillo J. Increasing coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) female density in artificial diet decreases fecundity. J Econ Entomol. 2011;104:87-93 pubmed
    ..g., host-marking pheromones). The decrease in fecundity may explain why infestations of only one colonizing female per berry are the norm in the field. ..
  9. Bleu J, Heulin B, Haussy C, Meylan S, Massot M. Experimental evidence of early costs of reproduction in conspecific viviparous and oviparous lizards. J Evol Biol. 2012;25:1264-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Such an ability to compensate the higher costs of a longer egg retention period may account for the frequent evolution of viviparity in squamate reptiles. ..

More Information


  1. Calsbeek R, Sinervo B. Correlational selection on lay date and life-history traits: experimental manipulations of territory and nest site quality. Evolution. 2007;61:1071-83 pubmed
    ..Results indicate the influence of environmental variation on correlational selection on life-history traits. ..
  2. Frazer H, Ellis M, Huveneers C. Can a threshold value be used to classify chondrichthyan reproductive modes: systematic review and validation using an oviparous species. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50196 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the current threshold value of -20% established by previous studies is invalid and should be avoided to ascertain the reproductive mode of aplacental viviparous species. ..
  3. Walsh M, Reznick D. Influence of the indirect effects of guppies on life-history evolution in Rivulus hartii. Evolution. 2010;64:1583-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that indirect effects mold Rivulus evolution and thereby highlight connections between community processes and evolutionary change. ..
  4. Williams L, Campbell M, Tsang P, Sulikowski J. Using estradiol and progesterone concentrations to assess individual variability in the reproductive cyclicity of captive female little skates, Leucoraja erinacea, from the western Gulf of Maine. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2013;39:1089-99 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the weekly sampling frequency revealed that plasma E2 concentrations, not P4, were more useful to assess reproductive status in asynchronous continuously breeding oviparous elasmobranchs. ..
  5. Kivelä S, Välimäki P, Oksanen J, Kaitala A, Kaitala V. Seasonal clines of evolutionarily stable reproductive effort in insects. Am Nat. 2009;174:526-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Reproductive effort responds strongly to changing phenology when density-dependent mortality occurs during diapause and weakly when juvenile mortality is density dependent. ..
  6. Crocco M, Ibarguengoytía N, Cussac V. Contributions to the study of oviparity-viviparity transition: placentary structures of Liolaemus elongatus (Squamata: Liolaemidae). J Morphol. 2008;269:865-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The embryo's wet weight doubles the weight of the decrease observed in vitelline mass. But the dry wet diminishes, evidencing the importance of the exchange of water and inorganic nutrients. ..
  7. Xue R, Barnard D, Ali A. Influence of multiple blood meals on gonotrophic dissociation and fecundity in Aedes albopictus. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2009;25:504-7 pubmed
    ..Blood meal source did not significantly influence gonotrophic dissociation in Ae. albopictus. ..
  8. Stewart J, Ecay T, Garland C, Fregoso S, Price E, Herbert J, et al. Maternal provision and embryonic uptake of calcium in an oviparous and a placentotrophic viviparous Australian lizard (Lacertilia: Scincidae). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2009;153:202-8 pubmed publisher
    ..pagenstecheri reveals that the onset of embryonic acquisition of calcium occurs earlier relative to embryonic stage but the timing of peak uterine secretion of calcium is delayed, compared to S. mustelinus. ..
  9. Wolc A, Lisowski M, Hill W, White I. Genetic heterogeneity of variance in production traits of laying hens. Br Poult Sci. 2011;52:537-40 pubmed publisher
  10. Jantra S, Bigliardi E, Brizzi R, Ietta F, Bechi N, Paulesu L. Interleukin 1 in oviductal tissues of viviparous, oviparous, and ovuliparous species of amphibians. Biol Reprod. 2007;76:1009-15 pubmed
    ..shows that IL1B and IL1R1 expression occurs in all reproductive modes, the differential expression patterns noted between ovuliparity and oviparity and viviparity may reflect the different roles of IL1 in the various reproductive modes.
  11. Ogiwara K, Fujimori C, Rajapakse S, Takahashi T. Characterization of luteinizing hormone and luteinizing hormone receptor and their indispensable role in the ovulatory process of the medaka. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54482 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that Lh/Lhcgrbb is critically involved in the induction of oocyte maturation and ovulation. ..
  12. Thayananuphat A, Youngren O, Kang S, Bakken T, Kosonsiriluk S, Chaiseha Y, et al. Dopamine and mesotocin neurotransmission during the transition from incubation to brooding in the turkey. Horm Behav. 2011;60:327-35 pubmed publisher
    ..They also indicate that DAergic, through its D2 receptor, and MTergic systems may play a role in regulating brooding behaviors in birds. ..
  13. Toufarová E, Gvoždík L. Do female newts modify thermoregulatory behavior to manipulate egg size?. J Therm Biol. 2016;57:72-7 pubmed publisher
    ..influences thermoregulatory behavior in species where females lay eggs shortly after fertilization (strict oviparity), we compared preferred body temperatures (Tp) between reproductive (egg-laying) and non-reproductive female ..
  14. Macke E, Magalhães S, Do Thi Khanh H, Frantz A, Facon B, Olivieri I. Mating modifies female life history in a haplodiploid spider mite. Am Nat. 2012;179:E147-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Females with multiple opportunities for mating produced fewer eggs and a less female-biased sex ratio than once-mated females, raising the question of why multiple mating often occurs in this species. ..
  15. Xie D, Luo L, Sappington T, Jiang X, Zhang L. Comparison of reproductive and flight capacity of Loxostege sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), developing from diapause and non-diapause larvae. Environ Entomol. 2012;41:1199-207 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there were no significant differences between sexes within the two categories of moths in terms of total flight duration, total flight distance, flight velocity, and longest flight duration. ..
  16. Shen J, Li R, Gao F. Effects of ambient temperature on lipid and fatty acid composition in the oviparous lizards, Phrynocephalus przewalskii. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;142:293-301 pubmed
    ..These results suggested that lipid characteristics of P. przewalskii tissues examined were influenced by ambient temperature. ..
  17. Gandon S, Rivero A, Varaldi J. Superparasitism evolution: adaptation or manipulation?. Am Nat. 2006;167:E1-22 pubmed
    ..More generally, this model provides a theoretical framework for analyzing the evolution of the manipulation of parasitoid life-history traits by microparasites. ..
  18. de Deus J, Kakitani I. [Parity of Ochlerotatus scapularis in laboratory and field conditions]. Rev Saude Publica. 2006;40:505-12 pubmed
    ..To identify the parity status of Ochlerotatus scapularis females in laboratory and field conditions...
  19. Bowden R, Smithee L, Paitz R. A modified yolk biopsy technique improves survivorship of turtle eggs. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2009;82:611-15 pubmed publisher
    ..By elevating survival to a level on par with other oviparous taxa, this method permits a more thorough exploration of reptilian egg physiology and allows for studies that examine traits in both the egg and the resulting hatchling. ..
  20. Irie T, Sugimoto T, Ueki N, Senoo H, Seki T. Retinoid storage in the egg of reptiles and birds. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;157:113-8 pubmed publisher
  21. Kannan N, Reveendran R, Hari Dass S, Manjunatha T, Sharma V. Temperature can entrain egg laying rhythm of Drosophila but may not be a stronger zeitgeber than light. J Insect Physiol. 2012;58:245-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that temperature and light associatively entrain circadian egg laying clocks of Drosophila. ..
  22. Kritsky D, Vianna R, Boeger W. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 50. Oviparous gyrodactylids from loricariid and pimelodid catfishes in Brazil, with the proposal of Phanerothecioides n. g., Onychogyrodactylus n. g. and Aglaiogyrodactylus n. g. (Polyonchoinea: Gyrodactylidea). Syst Parasitol. 2007;66:1-34 pubmed
    ..Species of Aglaiogyrodactylus n. g. possess H-shaped vitelline ducts and a complex accessory piece and sclerotised or non-sclerotised male copulatory organ enclosed within the copulatory sac. ..
  23. Guerrero Tortolero D, Campos Ramos R, Burgos Aceves M, Pérez Urbiola J, Colado Durán G. Effects of compressed seasonally changing day-length cycles on spawning performance, production of viable eggs and levels of vitellogenin in plasma in female yellowtail snapper Lutjanus argentiventris. J Fish Biol. 2010;77:2285-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These results showed that it is feasible to synchronize day length between winter-induced and natural summer and autumn reproduction to produce eggs and larvae during the year. ..
  24. Lee H, Gillespie D. Life tables and development of Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) at different temperatures. Exp Appl Acarol. 2011;53:17-27 pubmed publisher
  25. Dai Z, Li R, Dai L, Yang J, Chen S, Zeng Q, et al. Determination in oocytes of the reproductive modes for the brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica. Biosci Rep. 2011;31:17-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our results provide evidence at the molecular level that the reproductive mode of Artemia is already determined at the oocyte stage of their life cycle...
  26. Kanbe T, Akimoto S. Allelic and genotypic diversity in long-term asexual populations of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum in comparison with sexual populations. Mol Ecol. 2009;18:801-16 pubmed publisher
    ..sativa-associated lineages. Therefore, our results support the theoretical predictions and provide a new perspective on the origin of sexual populations. ..
  27. Smith M, Zhang Y, Polli J, Wu H, Zhang B, Xiao P, et al. Impacts of chronic low-level nicotine exposure on Caenorhabditis elegans reproduction: identification of novel gene targets. Reprod Toxicol. 2013;40:69-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes implicated in reproduction, cholinergic signaling, and stress response were regulated by nicotine, suggesting widespread physiological impacts of nicotine. ..
  28. Jung J, Yim U, Han G, Shim W. Biochemical changes in rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli, exposed to dispersed crude oil. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2009;150:218-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments confirm that the use of oil dispersants will increase the exposure of ovoviviparous fish to hydrocarbons in oil. ..
  29. Pilorget L, Buckner J, Lundgren J. Sterol limitation in a pollen-fed omnivorous lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). J Insect Physiol. 2010;56:81-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This research shows that pollens clearly vary in their sterol contents intraspecifically, which affects their suitability for omnivores that rely on pollen. However, sterols appear to be only one of the limiting nutrients in pollens. ..
  30. Apger McGlaughon J, Wolfner M. Post-mating change in excretion by mated Drosophila melanogaster females is a long-term response that depends on sex peptide and sperm. J Insect Physiol. 2013;59:1024-30 pubmed publisher
  31. Friesen K, Johnson G. Reproductive potential of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) fed cattle, chicken, or horse blood. J Med Entomol. 2012;49:461-6 pubmed
    ..Results from this study in addition to field observations indicate that stable fly interactions with birds may be limited to relatively low risk scenarios. ..
  32. Stewart J, Russell K, Thompson M. Development of yolk sac and chorioallantoic membranes in the Lord Howe Island skink, Oligosoma lichenigerum. J Morphol. 2012;273:1163-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The resulting chorioallantoic membrane has a similar structure but different developmental history to the chorioallantoic membrane of the embryonic hemisphere of the egg. ..
  33. Rönn J, Katvala M, Arnqvist G. Interspecific variation in ejaculate allocation and associated effects on female fitness in seed beetles. J Evol Biol. 2008;21:461-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss possible causes for this variation and conclude that coevolution between male ejaculates and female utilization of ejaculate substances has apparently been rapid in this clade. ..
  34. Zanette L, Miller S, Faria C, Almond E, Huggins T, Jordan W, et al. Reproductive conflict in bumblebees and the evolution of worker policing. Evolution. 2012;66:3765-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Worker policing in B. terrestris almost certainly arose via reproductive competition among workers, that is, as "selfish" policing. ..
  35. Podisi B, Knott S, Dunn I, Burt D, Hocking P. Bone mineral density QTL at sexual maturity and end of lay. Br Poult Sci. 2012;53:763-9 pubmed publisher
  36. Kajita Y, Evans E, Yasuda H. Reproductive responses of invasive and native predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to varying prey availability. Environ Entomol. 2009;38:1283-92 pubmed
    ..Such ability might contribute to the numerical dominance of the introduced C. septempunctata in alfalfa fields, which have supported low numbers of aphids in recent years. ..
  37. Warner D, Shine R. Reproducing lizards modify sex allocation in response to operational sex ratios. Biol Lett. 2007;3:47-50 pubmed
    ..e. overproduced the more abundant sex). This response may enhance fitness if local OSRs predict survival probabilities of offspring of each sex, rather than the intensity of sexual competition. ..
  38. Adams S, Biazik J, Stewart R, Murphy C, Thompson M. Fundamentals of viviparity: comparison of seasonal changes in the uterine epithelium of oviparous and viviparous Lerista bougainvillii (Squamata: Scincidae). J Morphol. 2007;268:624-35 pubmed
    ..bi-modal reproduction and that may indicate specialities for the different requirements of viviparity and oviparity. The uteri of females from oviparous and viviparous populations of the Australian scincid lizard, Lerista ..
  39. Mori A, Romero Severson J, Severson D. Genetic basis for reproductive diapause is correlated with life history traits within the Culex pipiens complex. Insect Mol Biol. 2007;16:515-24 pubmed
  40. Lacroix R, Delatte H, Hue T, Reiter P. Dispersal and survival of male and female Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Réunion Island. J Med Entomol. 2009;46:1117-24 pubmed
    ..Populations of wild mosquitoes had parous and insemination rates indicative of a young population. These results are relevant to future attempts to control this species by sterile insect technology. ..
  41. Lenkic L, Wolfe J, Chang B, Tobe S. Endocrine and reproductive differences and genetic divergence in two populations of the cockroach Diploptera punctata. J Insect Physiol. 2008;54:931-8 pubmed publisher
  42. Amarasekare K, Mannion C, Osborne L, Epsky N. Life history of Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four host plant species under laboratory conditions. Environ Entomol. 2008;37:630-5 pubmed
    ..Life history parameters of P. marginatus on hibiscus, acalypha, plumeria, and parthenium show its ability to develop, survive, and reproduce on a wide variety of plant species. ..
  43. Rimoldi F, Schneider M, Ronco A. Susceptibility of Chrysoperla externa eggs (Neuroptera: Chrisopidae) to conventional and biorational insecticides. Environ Entomol. 2008;37:1252-7 pubmed
    ..externa. The ecotoxicological studies showed the neonate-L(1) larvae as a susceptible developmental stage. These data indicate that the biorational insecticides tested are compatible with conserving C. externa. ..
  44. Sobotnik J, Hanus R, Piskorski R, Urbanová K, Wimmer Z, Weyda F, et al. Impact of a juvenile hormone analogue on the anatomy and the frontal gland secretion of Prorhinotermes simplex (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J Insect Physiol. 2010;56:65-72 pubmed publisher
    ..simplex, and they have not been reported in other species but in some Termopsidae. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that soldiers may have emerged from soldier neotenics during the evolution of termites. ..
  45. Du X, Ma H, Zhang X, Liu K, Peng J, Lan Q, et al. Characterization of the sterol carrier protein-x/sterol carrier protein-2 gene in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. J Insect Physiol. 2012;58:1413-23 pubmed publisher
    ..armigera. The results taken together suggest that HaSCPx/2 gene is important for normal development and fertility in H. armigera...
  46. Szczepaniec A, Raupp M. Direct and indirect effects of imidacloprid on fecundity and abundance of Eurytetranychus buxi (Acari: Tetranychidae) on boxwoods. Exp Appl Acarol. 2013;59:307-18 pubmed publisher
    ..buxi stems more from indirect changes in plant quality than from a loss of top-down regulation from E. buxi's natural enemies...
  47. Khosravi R, Sendi J, Ghadamyari M, Yezdani E. Effect of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua crude leaf extracts on some biological and physiological characteristics of the lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis. J Insect Sci. 2011;11:156 pubmed publisher
    ..The activity of ?-amylase and protease 48 hours post-treatment was significantly reduced compared with the control. Similarly lipase, esterase, and glutathione S-transferase activity were significantly affected by A. annua extract. ..
  48. Riesgo A, Maldonado M. Ultrastructure of oogenesis of two oviparous demosponges: Axinella damicornis and Raspaciona aculeata (Porifera). Tissue Cell. 2009;41:51-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The involvement of nurse cells in the vitellogenesis of R. aculeata shortened the oocyte maturation, whereas a largely autosynthetic vitellogenesis in A. damicornis prolonged the duration of oogenesis...
  49. Luo J, King S, Adams M. Effect of probiotic Propionibacterium jensenii 702 supplementation on layer chicken performance. Benef Microbes. 2010;1:53-60 pubmed publisher
    ..23). In conclusion, the application of novel probiotic PJ 702 in the early layer hen is safe and effective to promote production and the quality of products in layer husbandry...
  50. Jiang H, Liu J, Wang Z, Wang J. Temperature-dependent development and reproduction of a novel stored product psocid, Liposcelis badia (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae). Environ Entomol. 2008;37:1105-12 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the optimal range of temperature for L. badia population growth is 27.5-30 degrees C. ..
  51. Alyokhin A, Guillemette R, Choban R. Stimulatory and suppressive effects of novaluron on the Colorado potato beetle reproduction. J Econ Entomol. 2009;102:2078-83 pubmed
    ..Our results corroborate that novaluron reduces fertility of treated adults. ..
  52. Barnard D, Xue R. Bloodmeal mass and oviparity mediate host avidity and DEET repellency in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 2009;46:1235-9 pubmed
    This study was made to determine the effects of bloodmeal mass and oviparity in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) on continued host-seeking activity in female mosquitoes and efficacy of the repellent N,N-diethyl-3-..