Summary: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.

Top Publications

  1. Santiago G, Cools P, Verstraelen H, Trog M, Missine G, El Aila N, et al. Longitudinal study of the dynamics of vaginal microflora during two consecutive menstrual cycles. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28180 pubmed publisher
    ..of the menstrual cycle on the different categories of vaginal microflora and assessed possible causes, such as menstruation and sexual intercourse, of VMF disturbance...
  2. Henriet P, Gaide Chevronnay H, Marbaix E. The endocrine and paracrine control of menstruation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;358:197-207 pubmed publisher
    During the reproductive life, the human endometrium undergoes cycles of substantial remodeling including, at menstruation, a massive but delimited tissue breakdown immediately followed by scarless repair...
  3. Bussone G, Allais G, Castagnoli Gabellari I, Benedetto C. Almotriptan for menstrually related migraine. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2011;12:1933-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Since MRM may be difficult to treat, it is important to find an appropriate treatment option for women suffering from this condition...
  4. Emera D, Romero R, Wagner G. The evolution of menstruation: a new model for genetic assimilation: explaining molecular origins of maternal responses to fetal invasiveness. Bioessays. 2012;34:26-35 pubmed publisher
    ..while most mammals do not? Here, we present our answer to this long-debated question, arguing that (i) menstruation occurs as a mechanistic consequence of hormone-induced differentiation of the endometrium (referred to as ..
  5. Wong L. Attitudes toward menstruation, menstrual-related symptoms, and premenstrual syndrome among adolescent girls: a rural school-based survey. Women Health. 2011;51:340-64 pubmed publisher
    ..With a higher score indicating a more positive attitude toward menstruation, the mean attitude score was 3.84 (SD ± 1.62) out of a maximum of six...
  6. Fraser I, Critchley H, Broder M, Munro M. The FIGO recommendations on terminologies and definitions for normal and abnormal uterine bleeding. Semin Reprod Med. 2011;29:383-90 pubmed publisher
    ..It is anticipated that these terminologies and definitions will be reviewed again on a regular basis through the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Menstrual Disorders Working Group...
  7. Lieba Samal D, Wöber C. Sex hormones and primary headaches other than migraine. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2011;15:407-14 pubmed publisher
    ..headache has been studied less extensively, but there is at least some evidence that hormones in general, and menstruation, pregnancy, or menopause in particular, also impact these disorders...
  8. Guo Y, He B, Xu X, Wang J. Comprehensive analysis of leukocytes, vascularization and matrix metalloproteinases in human menstrual xenograft model. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16840 pubmed publisher
    ..However, mouse is not a natural menstruation animal, and the menstruation model using external stimuli may not truly reflect the occurrence and development ..
  9. Maybin J, Hirani N, Jabbour H, Critchley H. Novel roles for hypoxia and prostaglandin E2 in the regulation of IL-8 during endometrial repair. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:1245-56 pubmed publisher
    ..5% O(2). The endometrial IL-8 concentration peaked during menstruation (P < 0.001) and had a significant proangiogenic effect...

More Information


  1. MacGregor E. Prevention and treatment of menstrual migraine. Drugs. 2010;70:1799-818 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Menstruation is a significant risk factor for migraine, with attacks most likely to occur on or between 2 days before the ..
  2. Calhoun A. Current topics and controversies in menstrual migraine. Headache. 2012;52 Suppl 1:8-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This article takes a closer look at some of these products, including concerns surrounding them, non-contraceptive benefits, and their potential role as preventive agents for MRM. ..
  3. Orringer K, Gahagan S. Adolescent girls define menstruation: a multiethnic exploratory study. Health Care Women Int. 2010;31:831-47 pubmed publisher
    Incomplete understanding of menstruation may place girls at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and unintended pregnancy...
  4. Szarewski A, von Stenglin A, Rybowski S. Women's attitudes towards monthly bleeding: results of a global population-based survey. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2012;17:270-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Past, current or future users of hormonal contraception reported that bleeding has a severe negative impact on daily life. Given the choice, most women surveyed would reduce the frequency of their bleeding. ..
  5. Evans J, Salamonsen L. Inflammation, leukocytes and menstruation. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2012;13:277-88 pubmed publisher
    b>Menstruation has many of the features of an inflammatory process. The complexity and sequence of inflammatory-type events leading to the final tissue breakdown and bleeding are slowly being unravelled...
  6. Montgomery P, Ryus C, Dolan C, Dopson S, Scott L. Sanitary pad interventions for girls' education in Ghana: a pilot study. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48274 pubmed publisher
    ..Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201202000361337. ..
  7. Parker S, Troisi R, Wise L, Palmer J, Titus Ernstoff L, Strohsnitter W, et al. Menarche, menopause, years of menstruation, and the incidence of osteoporosis: the influence of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99:594-601 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to investigate the association between age at menarche, age at menopause, and years of menstruation with incidence of osteoporosis and assess the impact of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a ..
  8. Magnay J, Schönicke G, Nevatte T, O Brien S, Junge W. Validation of a rapid alkaline hematin technique to measure menstrual blood loss on feminine towels containing superabsorbent polymers. Fertil Steril. 2011;96:394-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The semiautomated alkaline hematin technique is a reliable method for measuring menstrual blood loss from Always Ultra sanitary towels containing superabsorbent polymers. ..
  9. Maybin J, Barcroft J, Thiruchelvam U, Hirani N, Jabbour H, Critchley H. The presence and regulation of connective tissue growth factor in the human endometrium. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:1112-21 pubmed publisher
    The human endometrium efficiently repairs each month after menstruation. The mechanisms involved in this repair process remain undefined. Aberrations in endometrial repair may lead to the common disorder of heavy menstrual bleeding...
  10. Harward L, Mitchell K, Pieper C, Copland S, Criscione Schreiber L, Clowse M. The impact of cyclophosphamide on menstruation and pregnancy in women with rheumatologic disease. Lupus. 2013;22:81-6 pubmed publisher study enrollment, older at CYC treatment, and had a higher cumulative CYC dose than those with preserved menstruation. While more women with GnRH-a co-therapy during CYC had maintained menses, this difference did not reach ..
  11. Liu H, Chen K, Peng N. Cultural practices relating to menarche and menstruation among adolescent girls in Taiwan--qualitative investigation. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2012;25:43-7 pubmed publisher
    ..aim of this study was to qualitatively record the cultural attitudes and practices associated with menarche and menstruation in Taiwanese girls, particularly with respect to coping mechanisms. Forty-eight adolescent girls participated...
  12. Pastore L, Williams C, Jenkins J, Patrie J. True and sham acupuncture produced similar frequency of ovulation and improved LH to FSH ratios in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:3143-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We were unable to discern a difference between the true and sham acupuncture protocols for these women with PCOS, and both groups had a similar improvement in their LH/FSH ratio. ..
  13. Fraser I, Romer T, Parke S, Zeun S, Mellinger U, Machlitt A, et al. Effective treatment of heavy and/or prolonged menstrual bleeding with an oral contraceptive containing estradiol valerate and dienogest: a randomized, double-blind Phase III trial. Hum Reprod. 2011;26:2698-708 pubmed publisher
    ..This double-blind trial investigated the efficacy and safety of estradiol valerate/dienogest (E(2)V/DNG) for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding without recognizable organic pathology...
  14. Vetvik K, Russell M. Are menstrual and nonmenstrual migraine attacks different?. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2011;15:339-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Collection of both prospective and retrospective data is warranted, and headache diagnosis base on interviews by physicians with interest in headache are more precise than lay interviews or questionnaires. ..
  15. Hauge A, Kirchmann M, Olesen J. Characterization of consistent triggers of migraine with aura. Cephalalgia. 2011;31:416-38 pubmed publisher
    ..category 19/24), red wine (under the alcohol category 20/22), passive smoking (under the smoke category 11/11), menstruation (under the menstruation or break from the pill category 12/14) and perfume (under the fumes/heavy scents ..
  16. Umeora O, Egwuatu V. Menstruation in rural Igbo women of south east Nigeria: attitudes, beliefs and practices. Afr J Reprod Health. 2008;12:109-15 pubmed
    ..supplemented with in-depth interviews evaluated the beliefs, myths and traditional practices associated with menstruation within rural Igbo communities...
  17. Adinma E, Adinma J. Perceptions and practices on menstruation amongst Nigerian secondary school girls. Afr J Reprod Health. 2008;12:74-83 pubmed
    ..550 secondary school girls in southeastern Nigeria to determine their perceptions, problems, and practices on menstruation. Majority of the students, (75.6%), were aged 15-17 years. Only 39...
  18. Allen C, Desmond N, Chiduo B, Medard L, Lees S, Vallely A, et al. Intravaginal and menstrual practices among women working in food and recreational facilities in Mwanza, Tanzania: implications for microbicide trials. AIDS Behav. 2010;14:1169-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Intravaginal and menstrual practices and associated behaviours and demographic factors should be measured and monitored throughout microbicide trials to enable analyses of their impacts on microbicide effectiveness. ..
  19. Gaide Chevronnay H, Lemoine P, Courtoy P, Marbaix E, Henriet P. Ovarian steroids, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and/or aspartic proteinases cooperate to control endometrial remodeling by regulating gene expression in the stroma and glands. Endocrinology. 2010;151:4515-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, MAPKs and/or aspartic proteinases likely act in concert with EP to locally and specifically control differential expression of genes between degrading and preserved areas of the human endometrium. ..
  20. Drago H, Marin G, Sturla F, Roque G, Martire K, Díaz Aquino V, et al. The next generation of burns treatment: intelligent films and matrix, controlled enzymatic debridement, and adult stem cells. Transplant Proc. 2010;42:345-9 pubmed publisher
  21. El Gilany A, Badawi K, El Fedawy S. Menstrual hygiene among adolescent schoolgirls in Mansoura, Egypt. Reprod Health Matters. 2005;13:147-52 pubmed
    ..type of sanitary protection used, frequency of changing pads or cloths, means of disposal and bathing during menstruation. Girls were selected by cluster sampling technique in public secondary schools in urban and rural areas...
  22. Yoo S, Kim W, Yoon J, Chang S, Chang K, Ryu H. Young girls with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors can undergo normal menarche and menstruation after fertility-preserving surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010;89:126-30 pubmed publisher
    ..9%) subsequently had normal menarche. Among the 16 adolescent patients, 15 (93.8%) resumed normal menstruation and 1 had premature ovarian failure. Conclusion...
  23. Chao H, Wang S, Lee W, Wang Y, Papke O. Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk from central Taiwan and their relation to infant birth outcome and maternal menstruation effects. Environ Int. 2007;33:239-45 pubmed
    ..Little data have been gathered on the associations between PBDEs exposure and birth outcome and female menstruation characteristics in both epidemiological and animal studies...