fetal weight


Summary: The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.

Top Publications

  1. Kurmanavicius J, Burkhardt T, Wisser J, Huch R. Ultrasonographic fetal weight estimation: accuracy of formulas and accuracy of examiners by birth weight from 500 to 5000 g. J Perinat Med. 2004;32:155-61 pubmed
    To determine the accuracy of birth weight in different birth weight (BW) groups using widely accepted formulas for fetal weight estimation (EFW). The secondary purpose was to estimate the role of examiners on the accuracy of EFW.
  2. Salomon L, Bernard J, Ville Y. Estimation of fetal weight: reference range at 20-36 weeks' gestation and comparison with actual birth-weight reference range. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007;29:550-5 pubmed
    To formulate reference charts and equations for estimated fetal weight (EFW) from a large sample of fetuses and to compare these charts and equations with those obtained for birth weight during the same study period and in the same single ..
  3. Chan W. Effects of citrinin on maturation of mouse oocytes, fertilization, and fetal development in vitro and in vivo. Toxicol Lett. 2008;180:28-32 pubmed publisher
    ..in vitro maturation (IVM) led to increased resorption of postimplantation embryos, and decreased placental and fetal weight. Using an in vivo mouse model, we show that consumption of drinking water containing 5 microM CTN results in ..
  4. Blackwell S, Refuerzo J, Chadha R, Carreno C. Overestimation of fetal weight by ultrasound: does it influence the likelihood of cesarean delivery for labor arrest?. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200:340.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    We sought to determine whether the overestimation of ultrasound-derived estimated fetal weight (EFW) is associated with increased diagnosis of labor arrest.
  5. Ay L, Kruithof C, Bakker R, Steegers E, Witteman J, Moll H, et al. Maternal anthropometrics are associated with fetal size in different periods of pregnancy and at birth. The Generation R Study. BJOG. 2009;116:953-63 pubmed publisher
    We aimed to examine the associations of maternal anthropometrics with fetal weight measured in different periods of pregnancy and with birth outcomes.
  6. Bebbere D, Bauersachs S, F rst R, Reichenbach H, Reichenbach M, Medugorac I, et al. Tissue-specific and minor inter-individual variation in imprinting of IGF2R is a common feature of Bos taurus Concepti and not correlated with fetal weight. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59564 pubmed publisher
    ..growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) is essential for prenatal growth regulation and shows gene dosage effects on fetal weight that can be affected by in-vitro embryo culture...
  7. Fox N, Brennan J, Chasen S. Clinical estimation of fetal weight and the Hawthorne effect. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2008;141:111-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to determine if an obstetrician's clinical estimation of fetal weight (EFW) is influenced by the Hawthorne effect seen in some clinical trials.
  8. de Souza M, Lima P, Sinzato Y, Rudge M, Pereira O, Damasceno D. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on pregnancy outcome and offspring of diabetic rats. Reprod Biomed Online. 2009;18:562-7 pubmed
    ..Maternal and fetal data were analysed by ANOVA followed by the Student Newman-Keuls test. Fetal weight classification was assessed by Fisher's exact test. Diabetes and cigarette smoke caused placentomegaly (G4 = 0...
  9. Chan W. Impact of genistein on maturation of mouse oocytes, fertilization, and fetal development. Reprod Toxicol. 2009;28:52-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the impact of GNT on maturation of mouse oocytes, fertilization, and sequential embryonic development...

More Information


  1. Mikolajczyk R, Zhang J, Betran A, Souza J, Mori R, Gulmezoglu A, et al. A global reference for fetal-weight and birthweight percentiles. Lancet. 2011;377:1855-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to create a generic reference for fetal weight and birthweight that overcame these deficiencies and could be readily adapted to local populations.
  2. Hargreaves K, Cameron M, Edwards H, Gray R, Deane K. Is the use of symphysis-fundal height measurement and ultrasound examination effective in detecting small or large fetuses?. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011;31:380-3 pubmed publisher
    ..the accuracy of using symphysis pubis-fundal height measurement and ultrasonically derived estimation of fetal weight for identifying small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) fetuses...
  3. Gaillard R, de Ridder M, Verburg B, Witteman J, Mackenbach J, Moll H, et al. Individually customised fetal weight charts derived from ultrasound measurements: the Generation R Study. Eur J Epidemiol. 2011;26:919-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed a model for individually customised growth charts for estimated fetal weight, which takes into account physiological maternal and fetal characteristics known at the start of pregnancy...
  4. Kusinski L, Stanley J, Dilworth M, Hirt C, Andersson I, Renshall L, et al. eNOS knockout mouse as a model of fetal growth restriction with an impaired uterine artery function and placental transport phenotype. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2012;303:R86-93 pubmed publisher
    ..eNOS(-/-) fetal weight and abdominal circumference were significantly reduced compared with WT...
  5. Pilliod R, Cheng Y, Snowden J, Doss A, Caughey A. The risk of intrauterine fetal death in the small-for-gestational-age fetus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012;207:318.e1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to evaluate the risk of intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses...
  6. Ego A, Subtil D, Grange G, Thiebaugeorges O, Senat M, Vayssiere C, et al. Should parity be included in customised fetal weight standards for identifying small-for-gestational-age babies? Results from a French multicentre study. BJOG. 2008;115:1256-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to assess the impact of adjusting for parity in identification of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births...
  7. Streimish I, Ehrenkranz R, Allred E, O Shea T, Kuban K, Paneth N, et al. Birth weight- and fetal weight-growth restriction: impact on neurodevelopment. Early Hum Dev. 2012;88:765-71 pubmed
    The newborn classified as growth-restricted on fetal weight curves, but not on birth weight curves, is classified prenatally as small for gestational age (SGA), but postnatally as appropriate for gestational age (AGA).
  8. Kiefte de Jong J, Jaddoe V, Uitterlinden A, Steegers E, Willemsen S, Hofman A, et al. Levels of antibodies against tissue transglutaminase during pregnancy are associated with reduced fetal weight and birth weight. Gastroenterology. 2013;144:726-735.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the associations between levels of antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG, a marker of celiac disease) and fetal growth and birth outcomes for pregnant women...
  9. Lertbunnaphong T, Talungjit P, Titapant V. Does gestational weight gain in normal pre-pregnancy BMI pregnant women reflect fetal weight gain?. J Med Assoc Thai. 2012;95:853-8 pubmed
    To identify the correlation between gestational weight gain in pregnant women with normal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and fetal weight gain.
  10. Little S, Edlow A, Thomas A, Smith N. Estimated fetal weight by ultrasound: a modifiable risk factor for cesarean delivery?. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012;207:309.e1-6 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether knowledge of ultrasound-obtained estimated fetal weight (US-EFW) is a risk factor for cesarean delivery (CD).
  11. Burd I, Srinivas S, Pare E, Dharan V, Wang E. Is sonographic assessment of fetal weight influenced by formula selection?. J Ultrasound Med. 2009;28:1019-24 pubmed
    Several published formulas exist for the determination of estimated fetal weight (EFW), with limited data on their comparative accuracies...
  12. Satterfield M, Bazer F, Spencer T, Wu G. Sildenafil citrate treatment enhances amino acid availability in the conceptus and fetal growth in an ovine model of intrauterine growth restriction. J Nutr. 2010;140:251-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Fetal weight was lower (P < 0.05) in nutrient-restricted ewes on d 115...
  13. Severi F, Bocchi C, Imperatore A, Boni C, Ferrata C, Florio P, et al. Ultrasound estimated fetal weight slightly below the median is associated with increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth. Prenat Diagn. 2012;32:588-91 pubmed publisher
    This study investigates the possible relationship between ultrasound estimated fetal weight (EFW) at third trimester and the risk of preterm birth following spontaneous preterm labor in otherwise uncomplicated pregnancies.
  14. Coan P, Angiolini E, Sandovici I, Burton G, Constancia M, Fowden A. Adaptations in placental nutrient transfer capacity to meet fetal growth demands depend on placental size in mice. J Physiol. 2008;586:4567-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this adaptability in placental phenotype provides a functional reserve capacity for maximizing fetal growth during late gestation when placental growth is compromised...
  15. Dilworth M, Kusinski L, Baker B, Renshall L, Greenwood S, Sibley C, et al. Defining fetal growth restriction in mice: A standardized and clinically relevant approach. Placenta. 2011;32:914-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest this as a standardized approach to defining FGR in mouse, and other animal models...
  16. Baum J, Gussman D, Wirth J. Clinical and patient estimation of fetal weight vs. ultrasound estimation. J Reprod Med. 2002;47:194-8 pubmed
    To compare clinical and patient estimation of fetal weight to ultrasound estimation.
  17. Cooke R. Conventional birth weight standards obscure fetal growth restriction in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2007;92:F189-92 pubmed
    ..This study investigated whether using estimated fetal weights (EFW) might reveal the effects of hidden FGR...
  18. Cisse R, Ouedraogo A, Tapsoba T, Lougue C, Ouedraogo C, Ouattara T, et al. [Fetal weight gain curve for a cohort of 126 pregnant women at Ouagadougou, Burkino Faso]. Sante. 2000;10:169-72 pubmed
    ..out a prospective study at Ouagadougou, from March 1 1997 to April 30 1998, in which we plotted curves of fetal weight gain, estimated by ultrasound biometry, with the aim of comparing our results to those of other authors and ..
  19. Ratanasiri T, Jirapornkul S, Somboonporn W, Seejorn K, Patumnakul P. Comparison of the accuracy of ultrasonic fetal weight estimation by using the various equations. J Med Assoc Thai. 2002;85:962-7 pubmed
    To compare the accuracy of ultrasonic fetal weight estimation using the Hadlock's, Shepard's, Tongsong's and Hansmann's equations.
  20. Maina G, Saracco P, Giolito M, Danelon D, Bogetto F, Todros T. Impact of maternal psychological distress on fetal weight, prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation. J Affect Disord. 2008;111:214-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the association between maternal distress and intrauterine growth abnormality, low birth weight and preterm birth...
  21. Oktem O, Dedeoğlu N, Oymak Y, Sezen D, Koksal L, Pekin T, et al. Maternal serum, amniotic fluid and cord leptin levels at term: their correlations with fetal weight. J Perinat Med. 2004;32:266-71 pubmed
    To investigate the relationship between fetal weight and leptin levels in maternal serum, amniotic fluid and umbilical cord.
  22. Deter R. Individualized growth assessment: evaluation of growth using each fetus as its own control. Semin Perinatol. 2004;28:23-32 pubmed
    ..Individualized Growth Assessment methods have effectively identified growth abnormalities in fetuses and neonates except in prenatal cases where only a change in soft tissue has occurred...
  23. Hiendleder S, Wirtz M, Mund C, Klempt M, Reichenbach H, Stojkovic M, et al. Tissue-specific effects of in vitro fertilization procedures on genomic cytosine methylation levels in overgrown and normal sized bovine fetuses. Biol Reprod. 2006;75:17-23 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that bovine IVF procedures can affect fetal genomic 5mC levels in a protocol- and tissue-specific manner and show that hepatic hypermethylation is associated with fetal overgrowth and its correlated endocrine changes...
  24. Lewis R, Doherty C, James L, Burton G, Hales C. Effects of maternal iron restriction on placental vascularization in the rat. Placenta. 2001;22:534-9 pubmed
    ..These changes in placental vascularization may contribute to the fetal growth retardation observed in iron-restricted litters...
  25. Fry A, Bernstein I, Badger G. Comparison of fetal growth estimates based on birth weight and ultrasound references. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2002;12:247-52 pubmed
    To compare three different methods for modeling fetal weight gain during the third trimester of pregnancy.
  26. Togni F, Araujo Júnior E, Vasques F, Moron A, Torloni M, Nardozza L. The cross-sectional area of umbilical cord components in normal pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2007;96:156-61 pubmed
    ..To determine the normal cross-sectional areas of the umbilical vein, umbilical artery, and Wharton jelly in healthy pregnancies, and correlate the obtained values with fetal anthropometric parameters...
  27. Weiner Z, Ben Shlomo I, Beck Fruchter R, Goldberg Y, Shalev E. Clinical and ultrasonographic weight estimation in large for gestational age fetus. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2002;105:20-4 pubmed
    ..To examine prospectively the effect on pregnancy outcome of a management protocol, that adds ultrasonographic weight estimation in fetuses suspected clinically as large...
  28. Salas S, Giacaman A, Romero W, Downey P, Aranda E, Mezzano D, et al. Pregnant rats treated with a serotonin precursor have reduced fetal weight and lower plasma volume and kallikrein levels. Hypertension. 2007;50:773-9 pubmed
    ..We postulate that an increased vascular resistance, both at the placental and renal levels, mediates these effects...
  29. Ericsson A, Säljö K, Sjöstrand E, Jansson N, Prasad P, Powell T, et al. Brief hyperglycaemia in the early pregnant rat increases fetal weight at term by stimulating placental growth and affecting placental nutrient transport. J Physiol. 2007;581:1323-32 pubmed
    ..Three glucose injections in early pregnancy significantly increased placental weight by 10%, whereas fetal weight was found to be increased at term in response to both three (9% increase in fetal weight, P<0...
  30. Ben Haroush A, Chen R, Hadar E, Hod M, Yogev Y. Accuracy of a single fetal weight estimation at 29-34 weeks in diabetic pregnancies: can it predict large-for-gestational-age infants at term?. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;197:497.e1-6 pubmed
    This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of a single sonographic estimated fetal weight at 29-34 weeks' gestation with respect to birthweight determination in diabetic pregnancies.
  31. Chang Y, Chang S, Chao A, Hsieh P, Wang C, Tseng L. The individual fetal weight/estimated placental weight ratios in monochorionic twins with selective intrauterine growth restriction. Prenat Diagn. 2008;28:217-21 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the individual fetal weight/estimated placental weight ratios (F/P ratio) of the two fetuses in monochorionic (MC) twins with selective intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).
  32. Owen P, Osman I, Farrell T. Is there a relationship between fetal weight and amniotic fluid index?. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2002;20:61-3 pubmed
    To establish whether there is a relationship between the amniotic fluid index and estimated fetal weight in the third trimester...
  33. Doherty C, Lewis R, Sharkey A, Burton G. Placental composition and surface area but not vascularization are altered by maternal protein restriction in the rat. Placenta. 2003;24:34-8 pubmed
    ..This study found that maternal protein restriction is associated with an increase in placental size, and that this enlargement is accompanied by increases in some, but not all, structural correlates of function...
  34. Chauhan S, Cole J, Sanderson M, Magann E, Scardo J. Suspicion of intrauterine growth restriction: Use of abdominal circumference alone or estimated fetal weight below 10%. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2006;19:557-62 pubmed
    ..peripartum outcomes and predictive accuracy for those with normal abdominal circumference (AC) and estimated fetal weight (EFW) for gestational age (GA; group 1) versus those with AC < or = 10% for GA but EFW>10% (group 2) ..
  35. Beringue F, Blondeau B, Castellotti M, Breant B, Czernichow P, Polak M. Endocrine pancreas development in growth-retarded human fetuses. Diabetes. 2002;51:385-91 pubmed
    ..Our data militate against a primary developmental pancreatic abnormality in human IUGR, leaving peripheral insulin resistance as the most likely mechanism of glucose intolerance in adults born with IUGR...
  36. Titapant V, Chawanpaiboon S, Mingmitpatanakul K. A comparison of clinical and ultrasound estimation of fetal weight. J Med Assoc Thai. 2001;84:1251-7 pubmed
    The accuracy of clinical and ultrasound estimation of fetal weight was compared by an analytical cross sectional study...
  37. Perni S, Predanic M, Cho J, Kalish R, Chasen S. Association of amniotic fluid index with estimated fetal weight. J Ultrasound Med. 2004;23:1449-52; quiz 1453 pubmed
    ..The association of body weight and urine output has been observed in human neonates. Our goal was to assess the correlation of the amniotic fluid index (AFI) with estimated fetal weight (EFW) in the third trimester.
  38. Drooger J, Troe J, Borsboom G, Hofman A, Mackenbach J, Moll H, et al. Ethnic differences in prenatal growth and the association with maternal and fetal characteristics. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2005;26:115-22 pubmed
    ..The objectives of this study were to determine ethnic differences in prenatal growth and to examine their association with differences in maternal and fetal characteristics such as maternal height, weight, age, parity and fetal gender...
  39. Mongelli M, Biswas A. Menstrual age-dependent systematic error in sonographic fetal weight estimation: a mathematical model. J Clin Ultrasound. 2002;30:139-44 pubmed
    We used computer modeling techniques to evaluate the accuracy of different types of sonographic formulas for estimating fetal weight across the full range of clinically important menstrual ages.
  40. Wlodek M, Di Nicolantonio R, Westcott K, Farrugia W, Ho P, Moseley J. PTH/PTHrP receptor and mid-molecule PTHrP regulation of intrauterine PTHrP: PTH/PTHrP receptor antagonism increases SHR fetal weight. Placenta. 2004;25:53-61 pubmed
    ..05) following intrauterine infusions of PTHrP(1-34) and PTHrP(67-94) had no effect on WKY and SHR fetal weight. Effective growth promoting actions of increased endogenous PTHrP were observed following PTH/PTHrP receptor ..
  41. Ben Haroush A, Yogev Y, Hod M. Fetal weight estimation in diabetic pregnancies and suspected fetal macrosomia. J Perinat Med. 2004;32:113-21 pubmed
    To review the literature on the accuracy of sonographic estimated fetal weight (EFW) in diabetic pregnancies, specifically on its role in the prediction and clinical management of fetal macrosomia.
  42. Dudley N. A systematic review of the ultrasound estimation of fetal weight. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2005;25:80-9 pubmed
    ..Measurements have been combined to estimate fetal weight by mathematically based non-linear regression analysis or physically based volumetric methods...
  43. Ott W. Sonographic diagnosis of fetal growth restriction. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2006;49:295-307 pubmed
    ..the combined use of Doppler velocity wave form analysis of fetal vessels and the ultrasonic estimation of fetal weight (or abdominal circumference) appears to be the best method of both identification and evaluation of IUGR...
  44. Ventrucci G, Mello M, Gomes Marcondes M. Effect of a leucine-supplemented diet on body composition changes in pregnant rats bearing Walker 256 tumor. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2001;34:333-8 pubmed
    ..At the end of pregnancy, all animals were sacrificed and body weight and tumor and fetal weight were determined...
  45. Hogberg U, Lekâs Berg M. Prolonged labour attributed to large fetus. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2000;49:160-4 pubmed
    ..For multiparas no significant association were found. To conclude, this study indicates that heavy birth weight and large head circumference contribute to 1/5th of the prolongation of labour and interventions among primiparas...
  46. Ehrenkranz R. Estimated fetal weights versus birth weights: should the reference intrauterine growth curves based on birth weights be retired?. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2007;92:F161-2 pubmed
  47. Barbieri C, Cecatti J, Krupa F, Marussi E, Costa J. Validation study of the capacity of the reference curves of ultrasonographic measurements of the umbilical cord to identify deviations in estimated fetal weight. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87:286-91 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to evaluate the capacity of the cross-sectional area and diameter of the umbilical cord, and the area of Wharton's jelly (WJ), to predict abnormalities in estimated fetal weight (EFW) in 20-40 week, low-risk pregnancies.
  48. Chien P, Owen P, Khan K. Validity of ultrasound estimation of fetal weight. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;95:856-60 pubmed
    To assess the validity of ultrasound estimation of fetal weight at term.
  49. Wilson M, Ford S. Comparative aspects of placental efficiency. Reprod Suppl. 2001;58:223-32 pubmed
    ..This definition of uterine capacity allows maximization of both uterine size and placental efficiency in future attempts to increase litter size in pigs...
  50. Predanic M, Cho A, Ingrid F, Pellettieri J. Ultrasonographic estimation of fetal weight: acquiring accuracy in residency. J Ultrasound Med. 2002;21:495-500 pubmed
    Ultrasonographic imaging is considered an objective means for fetal weight estimation...
  51. Scheaffer A, Caton J, Redmer D, Reynolds L. The effect of dietary restriction, pregnancy, and fetal type in different ewe types on fetal weight, maternal body weight, and visceral organ mass in ewes. J Anim Sci. 2004;82:1826-38 pubmed
    ..8 vs. 110.4 and 98.1 +/- 7.9 kg, respectively; P < 0.01). Fetal weight at d 130 was less for the R/R than for R/C and C/C (2.2 vs. 3.3 and 4.7 +/- 0.3 kg, respectively; P < 0...
  52. Hackmon R, Bornstein E, Ferber A, Horani J, O Reilly Green C, Divon M. Combined analysis with amniotic fluid index and estimated fetal weight for prediction of severe macrosomia at birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;196:333.e1-4 pubmed
    To evaluate combined analysis with amniotic fluid index (AFI) and estimated fetal weight (EFW) for prediction of severe macrosomia at birth.
  53. Anderson N, Jolley I, Wells J. Sonographic estimation of fetal weight: comparison of bias, precision and consistency using 12 different formulae. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007;30:173-9 pubmed
    To determine the major sources of error in ultrasonographic assessment of fetal weight and whether they have changed over the last decade.