estrus synchronization


Summary: Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.

Top Publications

  1. Perry G, Perry B. GnRH treatment at artificial insemination in beef cattle fails to increase plasma progesterone concentrations or pregnancy rates. Theriogenology. 2009;71:775-9 pubmed publisher
    ..72). In summary, treatment with GnRH at time of AI had no influence on conception rates in cattle that had exhibited estrus. ..
  2. Moeini M, Moghaddam A, Bahirale A, Hajarian H. Effects of breed and progestin source on estrus synchronization and rates of fertility and fecundity in Iranian Sanjabi and Lori ewes. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007;10:3801-7 pubmed
    ..The sheep breed influences the estrous response rate while the source of progestin did not affect the estrous response. ..
  3. McArt J, Caixeta L, Machado V, Guard C, Galvao K, Sá Filho O, et al. Ovsynch versus Ultrasynch: reproductive efficacy of a dairy cattle synchronization protocol incorporating corpus luteum function. J Dairy Sci. 2010;93:2525-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The detection of estrus rate of cows in the Ultra-PGF group was 49%; better performance of an Ultrasynch management program may be achievable in a herd with a higher rate of estrus detection...
  4. Macmillan K. Recent advances in the synchronization of estrus and ovulation in dairy cows. J Reprod Dev. 2010;56 Suppl:S42-7 pubmed
  5. Galvao K, Greco L, Vilela J, Sá Filho M, Santos J. Effect of intrauterine infusion of ceftiofur on uterine health and fertility in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:1532-42 pubmed publisher
    ..pyogenes, but did not affect the prevalence of subclinical endometritis or fertility of dairy cows already receiving PGF(2alpha). ..
  6. Awel H, Eshetu L, Tadesse G, Birhanu A, Khar S. Estrus synchronization in sheep with synthetic progestagens. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2009;41:1521-4 pubmed publisher
    ..4 (N.S). From this preliminary investigation it appears that the lower dose of norgestomet ear implants offers better option for estrus synchronization accompanied by higher fertility.
  7. Andreu Vázquez C, Garcia Ispierto I, Lopez Gatius F. Photoperiod length and the estrus synchronization protocol used before AI affect the twin pregnancy rate in dairy cattle. Theriogenology. 2012;78:1209-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Special attention was paid to the estrus synchronization protocol used before the AI resulting in pregnancy...
  8. Noguchi M, Yoshioka K, Suzuki C, Arai S, Itoh S, Wada Y. Estrus synchronization with pseudopregnant gilts induced by a single treatment of estradiol dipropionate. J Reprod Dev. 2010;56:421-7 pubmed
    ..EDP) could induce pseudopregnancy in gilts and to determine the effectiveness of PGF(2alpha) treatment on estrus synchronization in EDP-induced pseudopregnant gilts...
  9. Roelofs J, Bouwman E, Dieleman S, Van Eerdenburg F, Kaal Lansbergen L, Soede N, et al. Influence of repeated rectal ultrasound examinations on hormone profiles and behaviour around oestrus and ovulation in dairy cattle. Theriogenology. 2004;62:1337-52 pubmed
    ..Further research, using ultrasound, can now be carried out to find predictors for time of ovulation. ..

More Information


  1. Chebel R, Santos J, Cerri R, Rutigliano H, Bruno R. Reproduction in dairy cows following progesterone insert presynchronization and resynchronization protocols. J Dairy Sci. 2006;89:4205-19 pubmed
  2. Vasconcelos J, Sartori R, Oliveira H, Guenther J, Wiltbank M. Reduction in size of the ovulatory follicle reduces subsequent luteal size and pregnancy rate. Theriogenology. 2001;56:307-14 pubmed
    ..05) for aspirated (3/21=14.3%) than nonaspirated (10/21=47.6%) cows. In conclusion, ovulation of smaller follicles produced lowered fertility possibly because development of smaller CL decreased circulating progesterone concentrations. ..
  3. Son D, Choe C, Cho S, Choi S, Kim H, Hur T, et al. A CIDR-based timed embryo transfer protocol increases the pregnancy rate of lactating repeat breeder dairy cows. J Reprod Dev. 2007;53:1313-8 pubmed
    ..01) and subsequently increased by Day 16 (P<0.01). These data suggest that the CIDR-based TET protocol can be used to effectively increase the pregnancy rate in lactating repeat breeder dairy cows. ..
  4. Ribadu A, Nakada K, Moriyoshi M, Zhang W, Tanaka Y, Nakao T. The role of LH pulse frequency in ACTH-induced ovarian follicular cysts in heifers. Anim Reprod Sci. 2000;64:21-31 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the LH pulse frequency observed following ACTH treatment may interact with high estradiol concentration to induce ovarian cyst formation in heifers. ..
  5. Tenhagen B, Surholt R, Wittke M, Vogel C, Drillich M, Heuwieser W. Use of Ovsynch in dairy herds--differences between primiparous and multiparous cows. Anim Reprod Sci. 2004;81:1-11 pubmed
    ..8% versus 75.4%, P=0.003). However, the extent of the difference varied between trials. Results indicate that Ovsynch protocols are more effective in primiparous than in older cows. ..
  6. Répási A, Beckers J, Sulon J, Perényi Z, Reiczigel J, Szenci O. Effect of different doses of prostaglandin on the area of corpus luteum, the largest follicle and progesterone concentration in the dairy cow. Reprod Domest Anim. 2003;38:423-8 pubmed
    ..At the same time, the decrease in the percentage changes relative to the area of CL and to the concentrations of P4 were statistically significant in both treated groups. ..
  7. Walsh R, LeBlanc S, Duffield T, Kelton D, Walton J, Leslie K. Synchronization of estrus and pregnancy risk in anestrous dairy cows after treatment with a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90:1139-48 pubmed
    ..87 d). These results support the efficacy of a PRID to induce estrus in previously anestrous cows. The reason, however, for the variable response between primiparous and multiparous cows was not clear. ..
  8. Stevenson J, Phatak A. Inseminations at estrus induced by presynchronization before application of synchronized estrus and ovulation. J Dairy Sci. 2005;88:399-405 pubmed
    ..4 or 59 +/- 0.2 DIM). We concluded that conception rates after Heatsynch and Ovsynch were similar under these experimental conditions, and that delaying first AI improved fertility for cows inseminated after detected estrus. ..
  9. Ziecik A, Biallowicz M, Kaczmarek M, Demianowicz W, Rioperez J, Wasielak M, et al. Influence of estrus synchronization of prepubertal gilts on embryo quality. J Reprod Dev. 2005;51:379-84 pubmed
    ..the number, quality, and in vitro development of embryos recovered from gilts following single or double estrus synchronization and superovulation. Prepubertal gilts from the single synchronization group were injected with 1500 I.U...
  10. Martinez M, Kastelic J, Mapletoft R. The use of estradiol and/or GnRH in a two-dose PGF protocol for breeding management of beef heifers. Theriogenology. 2004;62:363-72 pubmed
    ..A combination of estrus detection and timed-AI in a two-dose PGF protocol resulted in highly acceptable pregnancy rates. ..
  11. Sprott L, Harris M, Forrest D, Young J, Zhang H, Oyarzo J, et al. Artificial insemination outcomes in beef females using bovine sperm with a detectable fertility-associated antigen. J Anim Sci. 2000;78:795-8 pubmed
    ..Fertility-associated antigen is an important determinant for fertility potential of sperm from bulls to be used in AI breeding programs. ..
  12. Lamb G, Stevenson J, Kesler D, Garverick H, Brown D, Salfen B. Inclusion of an intravaginal progesterone insert plus GnRH and prostaglandin F2alpha for ovulation control in postpartum suckled beef cows. J Anim Sci. 2001;79:2253-9 pubmed
    ..Body condition and days postpartum at initiation of the breeding season affected overall efficacy of the Cosynch and Cosynch+P protocols. ..
  13. Chenault J, Boucher J, Dame K, Meyer J, Wood Follis S. Intravaginal progesterone insert to synchronize return to estrus of previously inseminated dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2003;86:2039-49 pubmed
    ..7, 12.2%) and control (30.9, 11.1%) cows did not differ significantly. The CIDR inserts improved synchrony of returns to estrus, slightly reduced PR to initial AI, but did not affect CR or PR to AI during the resynchrony period. ..
  14. Kuroiwa T, Ishibashi A, Fukuda M, Kim S, Tanaka T, Kamomae H. Estrus synchronization and conception rate after a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) treatment from the early luteal phase in heifers. J Reprod Dev. 2005;51:669-73 pubmed
    The objective of the present study was to evaluate estrus synchronization and conception rate after progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) treatment from the early luteal phase in the presence or absence of estradiol benzoate (..
  15. Al Merestani M, Zarkawi M, Wardeh M. Improving the reproductive efficiency, pregnancy diagnosis and monitoring the resumption of luteal activity in indigenous damascus goats. Reprod Domest Anim. 2003;38:36-40 pubmed
    ..It is also concluded that pregnancy can be diagnosed accurately and successfully using an ultrasound pregnancy detector. In addition, ovarian activity in the Damascus goat in Syria resumes in September. ..
  16. Bo G, Baruselli P, Martinez M. Pattern and manipulation of follicular development in Bos indicus cattle. Anim Reprod Sci. 2003;78:307-26 pubmed
    ..indicus cattle by offering the possibility of planning AI programs without the necessity of oestrus detection and without sacrificing the overall results. ..
  17. Melendez P, Gonzalez G, Aguilar E, Loera O, Risco C, Archbald L. Comparison of two estrus-synchronization protocols and timed artificial insemination in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2006;89:4567-72 pubmed
  18. Howard J, Manzo R, Dalton J, Frago F, Ahmadzadeh A. Conception rates and serum progesterone concentration in dairy cattle administered gonadotropin releasing hormone 5 days after artificial insemination. Anim Reprod Sci. 2006;95:224-33 pubmed
    ..In summary, the results of this study indicated that GnRH administered 5 days after AI increased serum progesterone by developing an accessory CL but did not improve conception rates in dairy cattle. ..
  19. Cerri R, Santos J, Juchem S, Galvao K, Chebel R. Timed artificial insemination with estradiol cypionate or insemination at estrus in high-producing dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2004;87:3704-15 pubmed
    ..Use of 1 mg of ECP to induce ovulation as part of a synchrony regimen improved reproduction at first postpartum insemination in dairy cows. ..
  20. Santos J, Thatcher W, Chebel R, Cerri R, Galvao K. The effect of embryonic death rates in cattle on the efficacy of estrus synchronization programs. Anim Reprod Sci. 2004;82-83:513-35 pubmed
    ..Improvements in reproductive programs in the future will have to focus on enhancing fertilization rates and minimizing embryonic losses to optimize conception rates in dairy and beef cattle. ..
  21. Lucy M, McDougall S, Nation D. The use of hormonal treatments to improve the reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows in feedlot or pasture-based management systems. Anim Reprod Sci. 2004;82-83:495-512 pubmed
    ..Fundamental research into anestrous, the hormonal control of the estrous cycle, and early pregnancy detection should elucidate new methods that can be used to strengthen reproductive programs on dairy farms. ..
  22. Imwalle D, Fernandez D, Schillo K. Melengestrol acetate blocks the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone, the expression of behavioral estrus, and ovulation in beef heifers. J Anim Sci. 2002;80:1280-4 pubmed
    ..In contrast, none of the MGA-treated heifers exhibited estrus, LH surges, or evidence of ovulation. The results of this experiment show that MGA prevents ovulation in cattle by inhibiting the preovulatory surge of LH. ..
  23. Lopez Gatius F. Reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows treated with cloprostenol, hcg and estradiol benzoate for synchronization of estrus followed by timed AI. Theriogenology. 2000;54:551-8 pubmed were to evaluate the reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows treated with this method of estrus synchronization and to determine the effect of decreasing the hCG-EB dose on synchronization and pregnancy rates after ..
  24. Kasimanickam R, Cornwell J, Nebel R. Fertility following fixed-time AI or insemination at observed estrus in Ovsynch and Heatsynch programs in lactating dairy cows. Theriogenology. 2005;63:2550-9 pubmed
    ..1% versus 22.3%) were not different (P>0.1). In conclusion, it was recommended to include AI at observed estrus and fixed-time AI for cows not observed in estrus in order to improve the conception rate in synchronization protocols. ..
  25. Lopez Gatius F, Lopez Bejar M, Fenech M, Hunter R. Ovulation failure and double ovulation in dairy cattle: risk factors and effects. Theriogenology. 2005;63:1298-307 pubmed
    ..The effect of milk production on double ovulation was negative, whereas lactation number was positively correlated with this factor; the highest incidence of double ovulation occurring during the mid-lactation period. ..
  26. El Zarkouny S, Cartmill J, Hensley B, Stevenson J. Pregnancy in dairy cows after synchronized ovulation regimens with or without presynchronization and progesterone. J Dairy Sci. 2004;87:1024-37 pubmed
    ..Presynchronization before Ovsynch enhanced pregnancy rate. ..
  27. Cavestany D, Cibils J, Freire A, Sastre A, Stevenson J. Evaluation of two different oestrus-synchronisation methods with timed artificial insemination and resynchronisation of returns to oestrus in lactating Holstein cows. Anim Reprod Sci. 2003;77:141-55 pubmed
    ..4%). It was concluded that the addition of a progestin to the ovsynch protocol resulted in increased pregnancy rates of cows treated during anoestrus. The benefit of including MAP with the ovsynch protocol for cycling cows is equivocal. ..
  28. Alnimer M, De Rosa G, Grasso F, Napolitano F, Bordi A. Effect of climate on the response to three oestrous synchronisation techniques in lactating dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci. 2002;71:157-68 pubmed
  29. Dadarwal D, Mapletoft R, Adams G, Pfeifer L, Creelman C, Singh J. Effect of progesterone concentration and duration of proestrus on fertility in beef cattle after fixed-time artificial insemination. Theriogenology. 2013;79:859-66 pubmed publisher
    ..A low progesterone environment during growth of the ovulatory follicle increased the preovulatory follicle size and subsequent CL size and function, and compensated for the effect of a short proestrus on pregnancy rates. ..
  30. Bruno R, Farias A, Hernández Rivera J, Navarrette A, Hawkins D, Bilby T. Effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone or prostaglandin F(2?)-based estrus synchronization programs for first or subsequent artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96:1556-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based programs increased the proportion of TAI cows. Cows artificially inseminated upon ED had increased P/AI compared with TAI cows. ..
  31. Grazul Bilska A, Johnson M, Borowicz P, Baranko L, Redmer D, Reynolds L. Placental development during early pregnancy in sheep: effects of embryo origin on fetal and placental growth and global methylation. Theriogenology. 2013;79:94-102 pubmed publisher
  32. Dorneles Tortorella R, Ferreira R, Tonellotto Dos Santos J, Silveira de Andrade Neto O, Barreta M, Oliveira J, et al. The effect of equine chorionic gonadotropin on follicular size, luteal volume, circulating progesterone concentrations, and pregnancy rates in anestrous beef cows treated with a novel fixed-time artificial insemination protocol. Theriogenology. 2013;79:1204-9 pubmed publisher
    ..7 ng/mL, respectively). We concluded that eCG given 2 days before progestin removal in this FTAI protocol for anestrous beef cows increased diameter of the dominant follicle, luteal volume, serum P4 concentrations, and pregnancy rates. ..
  33. Whittier W, Currin J, Schramm H, Holland S, Kasimanickam R. Fertility in Angus cross beef cows following 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR estrus synchronization and timed artificial insemination. Theriogenology. 2013;80:963-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, cows synchronized with the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol had greater AI pregnancy rate than those that received the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. ..
  34. Pilz M, Fischer Tenhagen C, von Krueger X, Thiele G, Heuwieser W. [Efficacy of vaginal progesterone inserts (CIDR) to reduce early embryonic losses in dairy cows]. Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere. 2012;40:7-13 pubmed
    ..Supplementation with progesterone at d 20 p.i. does not decrease early embryonic losses between d 27 and 39 p.i. or increase the number of cows pregnant on d 39 p.i. ..
  35. Knights M, Ramgattie R, Siew N, Singh Knights D, Bourne G. Effectiveness of a short-term treatment with progesterone injections on synchrony of lambing and fertility in tropical hair sheep. Anim Reprod Sci. 2011;126:70-5 pubmed publisher
  36. Lamb G, Mercadante V. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Beef Cattle. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2016;32:335-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Continued use of intensive reproductive management tools such as estrus synchronization and AI will result positive changes to calving distribution, pregnancy rates, and subsequent calf value.
  37. Martemucci G, D Alessandro A. Synchronization of oestrus and ovulation by short time combined FGA, PGF(2?), GnRH, eCG treatments for natural service or AI fixed-time. Anim Reprod Sci. 2011;123:32-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05) in FPG and FPeG Groups (53.0h vs 61.6h). Fertility rate was higher in FPeG treated ewes inseminated at 60hs.r. (60%, 6/10). In FP and FPG Groups fertility rates were higher following insemination at 52hs.r. (50.0 and 40.0%). ..
  38. Bisinotto R, Chebel R, Santos J. Follicular wave of the ovulatory follicle and not cyclic status influences fertility of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2010;93:3578-87 pubmed publisher
  39. Childs S, Hennessy A, Sreenan J, Wathes D, Cheng Z, Stanton C, et al. Effect of level of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on systemic and tissue fatty acid concentrations and on selected reproductive variables in cattle. Theriogenology. 2008;70:595-611 pubmed publisher
    ..86; P<0.0001) and total n-3 PUFA (R(2)=0.77; P<0.0001). IGF-1 concentrations increased on all diets and were greatest at the highest level of n-3 PUFA supplementation (P<0.05). ..
  40. Mocé M, Blasco A, Santacreu M. In vivo development of vitrified rabbit embryos: effects on prenatal survival and placental development. Theriogenology. 2010;73:704-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Both treatments showed similar percentage of dead fetuses (3.3% vs. 4%). Maternal placenta of the fetuses from fresh embryos was 15% heavier than maternal placenta of fetuses from vitrified embryos. ..
  41. Bukar M, Yusoff R, Haron A, Dhaliwal G, Khan M, Omar M. Estrus response and follicular development in Boer does synchronized with flugestone acetate and PGF2? or their combination with eCG or FSH. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2012;44:1505-11 pubmed publisher
    The effects of different estrus synchronization techniques on follicular development and estrus response were studied in 81 nulliparous Boer does. The does were divided into nine groups...
  42. Sontakke S, Patil M, Umapathy G, Rao K, Shivaji S. Ejaculate characteristics, short-term semen storage and successful artificial insemination following synchronisation of oestrus in the Indian blackbuck antelope (Antilope cervicapra). Reprod Fertil Dev. 2009;21:749-56 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the synchronisation of oestrus and successful non-surgical AI in blackbuck. ..
  43. Letelier C, Contreras Solis I, Garcia Fernandez R, Ariznavarreta C, Tresguerres J, Flores J, et al. Ovarian follicular dynamics and plasma steroid concentrations are not significantly different in ewes given intravaginal sponges containing either 20 or 40 mg of fluorogestone acetate. Theriogenology. 2009;71:676-82 pubmed publisher
    ..8+/-0.35 ng/mL for P20 and 3.9+/-0.38 ng/mL for P40) were similar. In conclusion, reducing the dose of fluorogestone acetate from 40 to 20mg did not affect significantly ovarian follicular dynamics or other aspects of ovarian function. ..
  44. Alvarez Gallardo H, Kjelland M, Moreno J, Welsh T, Randel R, Lammoglia M, et al. Gamete therapeutics: recombinant protein adsorption by sperm for increasing fertility via artificial insemination. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65083 pubmed publisher
  45. Chao L, Takayama K, Nakanishi Y, Hamana K, Takagi M, Kubota C, et al. Luteal lifespan and fertility after estrus synchronization in goats. J Vet Sci. 2008;9:95-101 pubmed
    The present experiment aims to examine the efficiency of estrus synchronization using progesterone and equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) and to look at luteal function...
  46. De Rensis F, Bottarelli E, Battioni F, Capelli T, Techakumphu M, Garcia Ispierto I, et al. Reproductive performance of dairy cows with ovarian cysts after synchronizing ovulation using GnRH or hCG during the warm or cool period of the year. Theriogenology. 2008;69:481-4 pubmed
  47. Heredia V, Bianco I, Tríbulo H, Tríbulo R, Seoane M, Faudone S, et al. Polyisoprene matrix for progesterone release: in vitro and in vivo studies. Int J Pharm. 2009;382:98-103 pubmed publisher
  48. Escalante R, Poock S, Mathew D, Martin W, Newsom E, Hamilton S, et al. Short communication: presynchronization for timed artificial insemination in grazing dairy cows by using progesterone for 14 days with or without prostaglandin F2α at the time of progesterone withdrawal. J Dairy Sci. 2012;95:5102-5108 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, treating cows with PGF(2α) at CIDR removal increased the percentage of cows with all tail paint removed but did not increase percentage of pregnant cows after TAI. ..
  49. Burns M, Buttrey B, Dobbins C, Martel C, Olson K, Lamb G, et al. Evaluation of human chorionic gonadotropin as a replacement for gonadotropin-releasing hormone in ovulation-synchronization protocols before fixed timed artificial insemination in beef cattle. J Anim Sci. 2008;86:2539-48 pubmed publisher
  50. Shephard R. Efficacy of inclusion of equine chorionic gonadotrophin into a treatment protocol for anoestrous dairy cows. N Z Vet J. 2013;61:330-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of a low payload (1.0?g) progesterone releasing intravaginal device with eCG treatment at device removal within a GPG treatment is a clinically effective treatment for anoestrous in New Zealand dairy cows. ..
  51. Vilarino M, Rubianes E, Menchaca A. Re-use of intravaginal progesterone devices associated with the Short-term Protocol for timed artificial insemination in goats. Theriogenology. 2011;75:1195-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the pregnancy rate with reused devices was acceptable (i.e., > 60%), it was significantly lower than that achieved with new devices and further studies to ensure adequate follicular turnover are required. ..
  52. Larson J, Thielen K, Funnell B, Stevenson J, Kesler D, Lamb G. Influence of a controlled internal drug release after fixed-time artificial insemination on pregnancy rates and returns to estrus of nonpregnant cows. J Anim Sci. 2009;87:914-21 pubmed publisher
  53. An L, Ling P, Zhu X, Liu Y, Zhang F, Ma X, et al. Successful Vitrification of In vivo Embryos Collected from Superovulated Japanese Black Cattle (Wagyu). Reprod Domest Anim. 2016;51:255-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This study gives also indication that, compared to vitrified blastocysts, MDV of morula stage embryos results in higher pregnancy rates following warming and transfer into synchronized recipients. ..