Summary: A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.

Top Publications

  1. Ziaee V, Razaei M, Ahmadinejad Z, Shaikh H, Yousefi R, Yarmohammadi L, et al. The changes of metabolic profile and weight during Ramadan fasting. Singapore Med J. 2006;47:409-14 pubmed
    ..It seems that the effect of Ramadan fasting on serum lipid levels may be closely related to the nutritional diet or biochemical response to starvation. ..
  2. Bahammam A. Does Ramadan fasting affect sleep?. Int J Clin Pract. 2006;60:1631-7 pubmed
    ..Where applicable, these findings are compared with those obtained during experimental fasting. ..
  3. Albar M. Organ transplantation: a Sunni Islamic perspective. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2012;23:817-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In Amman, Jordan, the International Islamic Jurist Council recognized brain-death as a recognized sign of death in Islam in October 1986...
  4. Hajek P, Myers K, Dhanji A, West O, McRobbie H. Weight change during and after Ramadan fasting. J Public Health (Oxf). 2012;34:377-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Current weight management treatments generally assume that skipping meals leads to weight gain and advise against it. The finding suggests that further research is needed on the justification of the 'do not skip meals' advice. ..
  5. Alkandari J, Maughan R, Roky R, Aziz A, Karli U. The implications of Ramadan fasting for human health and well-being. J Sports Sci. 2012;30 Suppl 1:S9-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Although Ramadan fasting is safe for all healthy individuals, those with various diseases should consult their physicians and follow medical and scientific recommendations. ..
  6. Chtourou H, Hammouda O, Chaouachi A, Chamari K, Souissi N. The effect of time-of-day and Ramadan fasting on anaerobic performances. Int J Sports Med. 2012;33:142-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Ramadan might modify the circadian rhythm of muscle power and fatigue during the Wingate test by decreasing power output and increasing muscle fatigue at the time of the acrophase. ..
  7. Barkia A, Mohamed K, Smaoui M, Zouari N, Hammami M, Nasri M. Change of diet, plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and fatty acids during Ramadan: a controversial association of the considered Ramadan model with atherosclerosis risk. J Health Popul Nutr. 2011;29:486-93 pubmed
    ..Future studies considering the no-alimentary factors, such as sleep and physical activity, would be useful to clarify the contribution of dietary change in the observed modification of biological profile. ..
  8. Trabelsi K, El Abed K, Stannard S, Jammoussi K, Zeghal K, Hakim A. Effects of fed- versus fasted-state aerobic training during Ramadan on body composition and some metabolic parameters in physically active men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2012;22:11-8 pubmed
    ..In contrast, fed aerobic training decreases only body weight. In addition, Ramadan fasting induced change in some metabolic parameters in FAST, but these changes were absent in FED. ..
  9. Canver C, Al Buraiki J, Saad E, Yousafzai S, Al Ahmadi M, Al Sanei A. A high-volume heart transplantation center in an Islamic country. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2011;19:244-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Actuarial survival was 87.4% at 1 year and 81.5% at 3 years. A hospital in a Muslim country can increase cardiac transplant activity with excellent 30-day mortality and early survival comparable to that in worldwide counterparts. ..

More Information


  1. Balkhy H, Al Hajjar S. Avian influenza: are our feathers ruffled?. Ann Saudi Med. 2006;26:175-82 pubmed
    ..In this article, we highlight the current avian influenza situation from its different aspects with a special focus on the Hajj since we host over 2 million pilgrims a year in the holy cities of Mekkah and Medina. ..
  2. Bakhotmah B. The puzzle of self-reported weight gain in a month of fasting (Ramadan) among a cohort of Saudi families in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia. Nutr J. 2011;10:84 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly weight gain and not weight loss was reported after Ramadan by Saudis which indicates timely needed life-style and dietary modification programs for a population which reports one of the highest prevalence rates of diabetes. ..
  3. Zargar A, Siraj M, Jawa A, Hasan M, Mahtab H. Maintenance of glycaemic control with the evening administration of a long acting sulphonylurea in male type 2 diabetic patients undertaking the Ramadan fast. Int J Clin Pract. 2010;64:1090-4 pubmed publisher
    ..5%) after Ramadan. Male type 2 diabetic patients undertaking the Ramadan fast can safely maintain glycaemic control with evening administration of gliclazide MR 60 mg during the fast, and reverting to a morning schedule thereafter. ..
  4. Maughan R. Fasting and sport: an introduction. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44:473-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research on a wide range of athletes with special nutrition needs is urgently required. In events where performance might be affected, other strategies to eliminate or minimise any effects must be sought. ..
  5. Sheikh A. Should Muslims have faith based health services?. BMJ. 2007;334:74 pubmed
  6. Kassem H, Zantout M, Azar S. Insulin therapy during Ramadan fast for Type 1 diabetes patients. J Endocrinol Invest. 2005;28:802-5 pubmed
    ..The total insulin dose should consist of around 85% of their initial insulin dose and it should be composed of around 70% ultralente and 30% rapid insulin, divided equally between Suhur and Iftar. ..
  7. Laird L, de Marrais J, Barnes L. Portraying Islam and Muslims in MEDLINE: a content analysis. Soc Sci Med. 2007;65:2425-39 pubmed
    ..of 2342 OVID MEDLINE-indexed abstracts from 1966 through August 2005, derived from a Boolean search for "islam or muslim or muslims...
  8. Waterhouse J. Effects of Ramadan on physical performance: chronobiological considerations. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44:509-15 pubmed publisher
    ..It is clear that the detailed nature of the problems involved and dealing with them in a manner based upon a firm body of knowledge requires far more experimental investigation. ..
  9. Bedir A, Aksoy S. Brain death revisited: it is not 'complete death' according to Islamic sources. J Med Ethics. 2011;37:290-4 pubmed publisher
    ..According to Islam, the entity that moves the body is named the soul. And the aliment of the soul is air...
  10. Asghar A, Ashshi A, Azhar E, Bukhari S, Zafar T, Momenah A. Profile of bacterial pneumonia during Hajj. Indian J Med Res. 2011;133:510-3 pubmed
    ..This necessitates taking a sputum sample before starting treatment for identification and sensitivity testing. Special precautions need to be taken for >50 yr old patients. ..
  11. Reilly T, Waterhouse J. Altered sleep-wake cycles and food intake: the Ramadan model. Physiol Behav. 2007;90:219-28 pubmed
    ..The Ramadan model provides an alternative to those for ageing, nocturnal shift-work and time-zone transitions in understanding the links between behaviour and endogenous circadian rhythms. ..
  12. Al Hourani H, Atoum M. Body composition, nutrient intake and physical activity patterns in young women during Ramadan. Singapore Med J. 2007;48:906-10 pubmed
    ..Estimates of energy, carbohydrates, protein, fat and sugar did not change, despite the reduction in the number of meals taken. The overall activity patterns remained similar. ..
  13. Chaouachi A, Coutts A, Wong D, Roky R, Mbazaa A, Amri M, et al. Haematological, inflammatory, and immunological responses in elite judo athletes maintaining high training loads during Ramadan. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009;34:907-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that athletes who continue to train intensely during Ramadan are liable to experience a myriad of small fluctuations in hormones, immunoglobulins, antioxidants, and inflammatory responses. ..
  14. Ahmed S, Green J, Hewison J. Attitudes towards prenatal diagnosis and termination of pregnancy for thalassaemia in pregnant Pakistani women in the North of England. Prenat Diagn. 2006;26:248-57 pubmed
  15. Aslam M, Hameed W. UK Muslim graduates need more information about organ donation and transplant. Transpl Int. 2008;21:92-3 pubmed
  16. Chaouachi A, Chamari K, Roky R, Wong P, Mbazaa A, Bartagi Z, et al. Lipid profiles of judo athletes during Ramadan. Int J Sports Med. 2008;29:282-8 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, all the measured serum parameters remained within normal levels for young and active individuals. The volunteers, in this study, were able to maintain a constant training load during RIF. ..
  17. Padela A. Islamic medical ethics: a primer. Bioethics. 2007;21:169-78 pubmed
    ..It is hoped that the insights gained will aid both clinicians and ethicists to better understand the Islamic paradigm of medical ethics and thereby positively affect patient care. ..
  18. Shafi S, Rashid H, Ali K, El Bashir H, Haworth E, Memish Z, et al. Influenza vaccine uptake among British Muslims attending Hajj, 2005 and 2006. BMJ. 2006;333:1220 pubmed
  19. Hedayat K, Shooshtarizadeh P, Raza M. Therapeutic abortion in Islam: contemporary views of Muslim Shiite scholars and effect of recent Iranian legislation. J Med Ethics. 2006;32:652-7 pubmed
    ..Recent measures in Iran provide an opportunity for the Muslim scholars in other countries to review their traditional stance on abortion. ..
  20. Mujika I, Chaouachi A, Chamari K. Precompetition taper and nutritional strategies: special reference to training during Ramadan intermittent fast. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44:495-501 pubmed publisher
    ..However, experienced elite Muslim athletes are able to maintain their usual training load during this month of intermittent fasting without decrements in measures of fitness and with only minor adverse effects. ..
  21. Ahmed M, Abdu T. Diabetes and Ramadan: an update on use of glycemic therapies during fasting. Ann Saudi Med. 2011;31:402-6 pubmed
    ..Further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new antidiabetic agents and new diabetes-related technologies during Ramadan. ..
  22. Pritchard C, Amanullah S. An analysis of suicide and undetermined deaths in 17 predominantly Islamic countries contrasted with the UK. Psychol Med. 2007;37:421-30 pubmed
    ..The regional Islamic cultural differences in Middle Eastern, South Asian, European Islam countries and those of the former Union of Socialist Soviet Republics (FUSSR) were analysed separately to test the ..
  23. Bakiner O, Ertorer M, Bozkirli E, Tutuncu N, Demirag N. Repaglinide plus single-dose insulin glargine: a safe regimen for low-risk type 2 diabetic patients who insist on fasting in Ramadan. Acta Diabetol. 2009;46:63-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this pilot study indicated that repaglinide t.i.d. plus single-dose insulin glargine regimen was safe for low-risk type 2 diabetic patients who insisted on fasting during Ramadan. ..
  24. Ghouri N, Atcha M, Sheikh A. Influence of Islam on smoking among Muslims. BMJ. 2006;332:291-4 pubmed
  25. Guerrero Morilla R, Ramírez Rodrigo J, Sánchez Caravaca A, Villaverde Gutiérrez C, Ruiz Villaverde G, Pérez Moreno B. [Dietary modifications, in young Muslims engaged in Ramadan fasting]. Nutr Hosp. 2009;24:738-43 pubmed
  26. Devendra D, Gohel B, Bravis V, Hui E, Salih S, Mehar S, et al. Vildagliptin therapy and hypoglycaemia in Muslim type 2 diabetes patients during Ramadan. Int J Clin Pract. 2009;63:1446-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The addition of vildagliptin to metformin therapy during Ramadan in Muslim patients with type 2 diabetes was associated with a reduction in the incidence of hypoglycaemia. ..
  27. Azizi F. Islamic fasting and health. Ann Nutr Metab. 2010;56:273-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Although Ramadan fasting is safe for all healthy individuals, those with various diseases should consult their physicians and follow scientific recommendations. ..
  28. Van Tubergen F, Poortman A. Adolescent alcohol use in the Netherlands: the role of ethnicity, ethnic intermarriage, and ethnic school composition. Ethn Health. 2010;15:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Alcohol use norms are presumably stricter in families with mono-ethnic parents and in predominantly Muslim schools than in families with ethnically mixed parents and in schools with fewer Muslim students. ..
  29. Salehi M, Neghab M. Effects of fasting and a medium calorie balanced diet during the holy month Ramadan on weight, BMI and some blood parameters of overweight males. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007;10:968-71 pubmed
    ..Conversely, no significant changes in serum levels of triglyceride were noted. ..
  30. Shirreffs S, Maughan R. Water and salt balance in young male football players in training during the holy month of Ramadan. J Sports Sci. 2008;26 Suppl 3:S47-54 pubmed publisher
    ..07). These descriptive data show large individual variations in all measured parameters with relatively little difference in sweat parameters between fasting and non-fasting individuals. ..
  31. Meysamie A, Ardakani H, Razavi S, Doroodi T. Comparison of mortality and morbidity rates among Iranian pilgrims in Hajj 2004 and 2005. Saudi Med J. 2006;27:1049-53 pubmed
    ..The findings of this study may guide the Hajj managers to estimate the needs of drugs, equipment, manpower, and educational needs for the pilgrims, also to identify and eliminate casual factors of diseases and accidents. ..
  32. Stannard S, Thompson M. The effect of participation in Ramadan on substrate selection during submaximal cycling exercise. J Sci Med Sport. 2008;11:510-7 pubmed
    ..However, changes in anthropometric variables reflect a net energy deficit during Ramadan which may have mediated the observed increased lipid oxidation during submaximal exercise. ..
  33. Aziz A, Wahid M, Png W, Jesuvadian C. Effects of Ramadan fasting on 60 min of endurance running performance in moderately trained men. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44:516-21 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Ramadan fasting has a small yet significant negative impact on endurance running performance, although the impact varies across individuals. ..
  34. Memish Z. The Hajj: communicable and non-communicable health hazards and current guidance for pilgrims. Euro Surveill. 2010;15:19671 pubmed
    ..The Hajj 2010 starts in the first week of November 2010 and this report is a timely reminder that many infectious diseases can be avoided or averted by adopting appropriate prophylactic measures. ..
  35. Cesur M, Corapcioglu D, Gursoy A, Gonen S, Ozduman M, Emral R, et al. A comparison of glycemic effects of glimepiride, repaglinide, and insulin glargine in type 2 diabetes mellitus during Ramadan fasting. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007;75:141-7 pubmed
    ..In this fasting sample of patients with type 2 diabetes, glimepiride, repaglinide, and insulin glargine did not produce significant changes in glucose and lipid parameters. ..
  36. Benbarka M, Khalil A, Beshyah S, Marjei S, Awad S. Insulin pump therapy in Moslem patients with type 1 diabetes during Ramadan fasting: an observational report. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2010;12:287-90 pubmed publisher
    ..0 +/- 0.6 mmol/L, and the post-Ramadan value was 3.6 +/- 0.6 mmol/L (P = 0.007). Fasting during Ramadan is feasible in patients with type 1 diabetes using an insulin pump, with adequate counseling and support. ..
  37. Bouhlel E, Zaouali M, Miled A, Tabka Z, Bigard X, Shephard R. Ramadan fasting and the GH/IGF-1 axis of trained men during submaximal exercise. Ann Nutr Metab. 2008;52:261-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Ramadan fasting induces positive changes in body composition without disturbing glucose regulation or activity of the GH/IGF-1 system. ..
  38. Bouguerra R, Jabrane J, Maâtki C, Ben Salem L, Hamzaoui J, El Kadhi A, et al. [Ramadan fasting in type 2 diabetes mellitus]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2006;67:54-9 pubmed
    ..Ramadan fasting in type 2 diabetic patients seems to cause slight effects on glycemia and lipoprotein levels when previous metabolic control is quite good; but fasting induces more deterioration when previous control is poor. ..
  39. Aramesh K, Dabbagh S. An Islamic view to stem cell research and cloning: Iran's experience. Am J Bioeth. 2007;7:62-3 pubmed
  40. Shah A, Chandia M. The relationship between suicide and Islam: a cross-national study. J Inj Violence Res. 2010;2:93-7 pubmed publisher
    ..that there will be no relationship between general population suicide rates and the percentage of adherents of Islam was undertaken...
  41. Majeed A. How Islam changed medicine. BMJ. 2005;331:1486-7 pubmed
  42. Chaouachi A, Coutts A, Chamari K, Wong D, Chaouachi M, Chtara M, et al. Effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on aerobic and anaerobic performance and perception of fatigue in male elite judo athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23:2702-9 pubmed publisher
  43. Papadopoulos V, Tsakiridis K, Filippou D, Aggelopoulos P, Nikiforidis D, Baltatzidis G. Comparison of stroke among Christians and Muslims in Thrace, Greece. Rural Remote Health. 2006;6:505 pubmed
    ..The contribution of culture-related habits (diet, occupation) remains to be investigated in further studies. ..
  44. Rakicioglu N, Samur G, Topcu A, Topçu A. The effect of Ramadan on maternal nutrition and composition of breast milk. Pediatr Int. 2006;48:278-83 pubmed
    ..All of the nutrient intakes (except vitamins A, E and C) decreased during Ramadan. For these reasons, it would seem prudent to excuse lactating women from fasting during Ramadan. ..
  45. Lamine F, Bouguerra R, Jabrane J, Marrakchi Z, Ben Rayana M, Ben Slama C, et al. Food intake and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels changes during ramadan fasting in healthy young subjects. Tunis Med. 2006;84:647-50 pubmed
    ..02). This increase was lost after Ramadan. Fasting Ramadan affects beneficially serum lipoprotein metabolism in young adult healthy subjects with an increase of HDL-cholesterol. ..
  46. Shaw A. 'They say Islam has a solution for everything, so why are there no guidelines for this?' Ethical dilemmas associated with the births and deaths of infants with fatal abnormalities from a small sample of Pakistani Muslim couples in Britain. Bioethics. 2012;26:485-92 pubmed publisher
    ..There was little knowledge or open discussion of the view that Islam permits the termination of pregnancy for serious or fatal abnormality within 120 days and there was considerable ..
  47. Maughan R, Bartagi Z, Dvorak J, Zerguini Y. Dietary intake and body composition of football players during the holy month of Ramadan. J Sports Sci. 2008;26 Suppl 3:S29-38 pubmed publisher
    ..After Ramadan, the dietary variables reverted to the pre-Ramadan values. ..
  48. Madani T, Ghabrah T, Al Hedaithy M, Alhazmi M, Alazraqi T, Albarrak A, et al. Causes of hospitalization of pilgrims in the Hajj season of the Islamic year 1423 (2003). Ann Saudi Med. 2006;26:346-51 pubmed
    ..It is hoped that this data will be of help to health sector planners and officials to provide optimal and cost-effective health care services to pilgrims in Hajj. ..
  49. Brisswalter J, Bouhlel E, Falola J, Abbiss C, Vallier J, Hausswirth C, et al. Effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on middle-distance running performance in well-trained runners. Clin J Sport Med. 2011;21:422-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Ramadan changes in muscular performance and oxygen kinetics could affect performance during middle-distance events and need to be considered to choose training protocols during RIF. ..
  50. Bouhlel E, Salhi Z, Bouhlel H, Mdella S, Amamou A, Zaouali M, et al. Effect of Ramadan fasting on fuel oxidation during exercise in trained male rugby players. Diabetes Metab. 2006;32:617-24 pubmed
    ..199.1+/-20 mg/min, P<0.001). Ramadan fasting increases the lipid oxidation of trained athletes during submaximal exercise. The increased fat utilisation may be related to decreases in body mass and body fat content. ..
  51. Aravind S, Al Tayeb K, Ismail S, Shehadeh N, Kaddaha G, Liu R, et al. Hypoglycaemia in sulphonylurea-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes undergoing Ramadan fasting: a five-country observational study. Curr Med Res Opin. 2011;27:1237-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In this five-country observational study, nearly 20% of sulphonylurea-treated Muslim subjects with type 2 diabetes experienced symptomatic hypoglycaemia while fasting during Ramadan, with variations across sulphonylureas and countries. ..
  52. Hessini L. Abortion and Islam: policies and practice in the Middle East and North Africa. Reprod Health Matters. 2007;15:75-84 pubmed
    ..Reform efforts, including progressive interpretations of Islam, have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on ..
  53. Meckel Y, Ismaeel A, Eliakim A. The effect of the Ramadan fast on physical performance and dietary habits in adolescent soccer players. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008;102:651-7 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that Ramadan fasting can lead to a significant decrease in athletic performance capacities. The decrease in performance does not necessarily relate to changes in caloric intake and sleeping hours during the fast. ..