Summary: A complex body of social, cultural, and religious beliefs and practices evolved in and largely confined to the Indian subcontinent and marked by a caste system, an outlook tending to view all forms and theories as aspects of one eternal being and truth, and the practice of the way of works, the way of knowledge, or the way of devotion as a means of release from the round of rebirths. (From Webster, 3d ed)

Top Publications

  1. Sheler J. Faith in America. US News World Rep. 2002;132:40-4, 46, 48 passim pubmed
  2. Chichester M. Requesting perinatal autopsy: multicultural considerations. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2007;32:81-6; quiz 87-8 pubmed
    ..This purpose of this article is to provide information on selected cultural and religious groups to assist the nurse who is seeking consent for a perinatal autopsy. ..
  3. Campbell C, Clark L, Loy D, Keenan J, Matthews K, Winograd T, et al. The bodily incorporation of mechanical devices: ethical and religious issues (part 2). Camb Q Healthc Ethics. 2007;16:268-80 pubmed
  4. Hejmadi A, Davidson R, Rozin P. Exploring Hindu Indian emotion expressions: evidence for accurate recognition by Americans and Indians. Psychol Sci. 2000;11:183-7 pubmed
    ..Participants from both countries were quite accurate in identifying emotions correctly using both fixed-choice (65% correct, expected value of 9%) and free-response (61% correct, expected value close to zero) methods. ..
  5. Graafsma T, Kerkhof A, Gibson D, Badloe R, van de Beek L. High rates of suicide and attempted suicide using pesticides in Nickerie, Suriname, South America. Crisis. 2006;27:77-81 pubmed
    ..Health care alone will not be sufficient to tackle this problem. One of the most urgent measures to prevent suicides is to stow away pesticides in locked cabinets with the key held by the proprietor. ..
  6. Williams E, Nazroo J, Kooner J, Steptoe A. Subgroup differences in psychosocial factors relating to coronary heart disease in the UK South Asian population. J Psychosom Res. 2010;69:379-87 pubmed publisher
    ..This study found that Muslims were exposed to more psychosocial and behavioral adversity than Sikhs and Hindus, and highlights the importance of investigating subgroup heterogeneity in South Asian CHD risk. ..
  7. Pereira M, Kriska A, Joswiak M, Dowse G, Collins V, Zimmet P, et al. Physical inactivity and glucose intolerance in the multiethnic island of Mauritius. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995;27:1626-34 pubmed
    ..These data are supportive of a potentially important role of physical activity in the prevention of NIDDM in middle-aged inhabitants of Mauritius. ..
  8. Chattopadhyay S. Religion, spirituality, health and medicine: why should Indian physicians care?. J Postgrad Med. 2007;53:262-6 pubmed
    ..Indian physicians may also find religion and spirituality significant and fulfilling in their own lives. ..
  9. Mohanty S, Sahu G, Mohanty M, Patnaik M. Suicide in India: a four year retrospective study. J Forensic Leg Med. 2007;14:185-9 pubmed
    ..Financial burden (37%) and marital disharmony (35%) were the principal reasons for the suicide. ..

More Information


  1. Stricker M, Simon E, Angrigiani C, Perroni C. [Advances in facial transplantation]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 2010;55:318-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors report the principal constraints of face transplant and the evolution in minds to deal with it...
  2. Joshi S. Whose life is it, anyway? The evolving face of euthanasia. J Assoc Physicians India. 2005;53:279-81 pubmed
  3. Gautam R. Opportunity for natural selection among the Indian population: secular trend, covariates and implications. J Biosoc Sci. 2009;41:705-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The declining trend of I(t), Im and I(f) shows that the Indian population is passing through the demographic transition. ..
  4. Ramalingam V, Saeed F, Sinnakirouchenan R, Holley J, Srinivasan S. End-of-life care beliefs among Hindu physicians in the United States. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2015;32:8-14 pubmed publisher
    ..It is likely that the ethical, cultural, and patient-centered environment of US health care has influenced the practice of end-of-life care by Hindu physicians in this country. ..
  5. Madhok B, Raj S. Lower income Hindu women's attitude towards abortion: a case study in urban India. Int J Appl Philos. 2004;18:123-37 pubmed
    ..Does Hindu dharma have the regulatory power it wielded in the past? What accounts for the changing face of mores in urban centers like Calcutta? These and related issues are the focus of this essay. ..
  6. Ashma R, Kashyap V. Genetic profile based upon 15 microsatellites of four caste groups of the eastern Indian state, Bihar. Ann Hum Biol. 2003;30:570-8 pubmed
    ..North-eastern Indian Mongoloids form a separate cluster. ..
  7. Narayanasamy A. Spiritual coping mechanisms in chronic illness: a qualitative study. J Clin Nurs. 2004;13:116-7 pubmed
  8. Bagla P. India. Book triggers attack on research institute. Science. 2004;303:296 pubmed
  9. Sarma D. "Hindu" bioethics?. J Law Med Ethics. 2008;36:51-8, 3 pubmed publisher
    ..He shows that from a classical and Brahminical perspective, medicine is an inappropriate and impure profession. ..
  10. Elliott C, Farmer K. Immunization status of children under 7 years in the Vikas Nagar area, North India. Child Care Health Dev. 2006;32:415-21 pubmed
  11. Srinivasan M, Dunham Y, Hicks C, Barner D. Do attitudes toward societal structure predict beliefs about free will and achievement? Evidence from the Indian caste system. Dev Sci. 2016;19:109-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are the first to directly relate the societal structure in which a person is raised to the specific intuitive theories they adopt. ..
  12. Chattopadhyay A, Goswami B. Status of women in two Bengals: evidence from large scale surveys. J Biosoc Sci. 2007;39:267-86 pubmed
    ..In West Bengal, the religious gap for all the indicators considered is pretty high, whereas in Bangladesh the gap is not that wide. A state-level population policy is needed in West Bengal to act as a social leveller. ..
  13. Bhugra D. Mad tales from Bollywood: the impact of social, political, and economic climate on the portrayal of mental illness in Hindi films. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2005;112:250-6 pubmed
    ..Hindi films since the 1950s appear to have been influenced by changing cultural norms which in turn affected the way mental illness is portrayed. ..
  14. Sabir S. Chimerical categories: caste, race, and genetics. Dev World Bioeth. 2003;3:170-7 pubmed
    ..It also discusses the debate over the exclusion of a discussion of caste-based discrimination at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance held in Durban, South Africa. ..
  15. Bhargava B, Karthikeyan G, Yadav R, Naik N, Sharma G. Late stent thrombosis following antiplatelet withdrawal while fasting during holy months. Indian Heart J. 2004;56:685 pubmed
  16. Bresnahan M, Mahler K. Ethical debate over organ donation in the context of brain death. Bioethics. 2010;24:54-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Organ procurement agencies claim that all major world religions approve of organ donation and do not address the ethical controversy about organ donation in the context of brain death that is readily available online. ..
  17. Govindama Y. Mental disorders and the symbolic function of therapeutic rites in the Réunion Island Hindu environment. Transcult Psychiatry. 2006;43:488-511 pubmed
  18. Bharmal N, Kaplan R, Shapiro M, Kagawa Singer M, Wong M, Mangione C, et al. The association of religiosity with overweight/obese body mass index among Asian Indian immigrants in California. Prev Med. 2013;57:315-21 pubmed publisher
    ..If this finding is confirmed, future research should identify potentially mutable mechanisms by which religion-specific religiosity affects overweight/obesity risk. ..
  19. Siddharthan R. Eastern creeds are less dogmatic about scripture. Nature. 2005;433:355 pubmed
  20. Deshpande O, Reid M, Rao A. Attitudes of Asian-Indian Hindus toward end-of-life care. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53:131-5 pubmed
    ..This article addresses end-of-life care issues from the perspective of Hinduism--a faith embraced by a growing demographic of the U.S...
  21. Whitman S. Pain and suffering as viewed by the Hindu religion. J Pain. 2007;8:607-13 pubmed
    ..The major concepts of Hinduism that are related to pain and suffering are presented...
  22. Kanekar S, Merchant S. Helping norms in relation to religious affiliation. J Soc Psychol. 2001;141:617-26 pubmed
    ..Even though both communities are deemed collectivist, the Indian Muslim participants' helping norms appeared to be more obligation oriented and less option oriented than those of the Indian Hindu participants. ..
  23. Chadda R, Singh T, Ganguly K. Caregiver burden and coping: a prospective study of relationship between burden and coping in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2007;42:923-30 pubmed
    ..Caregivers of patients of schizophrenia and BAD face similar levels of burden and use similar types of coping methods to deal with it. Relationship between caregiver burden and coping is quite complex. ..
  24. Rao B. Influence of Tantra on ayurveda and Kamasutra. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad. 2004;34:41-9 pubmed
    ..This knowledge appears to have been incorporated in works like Bhavaprakasa of ayurveda and Paururavamanasijasutra and others of Kamasutra. They describe three Nadis in the female genitalia and clitoris others. ..
  25. Höfer H. [Spiritual dimensions of nursing--1: The ways of Hinduism]. Pflege Z. 2004;57:504-7 pubmed
  26. Clarke C. 'Missing persons': technical terminology as a barrier in psychiatry. Med Health Care Philos. 2012;15:23-30 pubmed publisher
    ..It is not evident that this "new" language represents a genuine advance in understanding; it distances mental health professionals from those who are not familiar with it; and it makes transcultural dialogue difficult. ..
  27. Thind A. Female sterilisation in rural Bihar: what are the acceptor characteristics?. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2005;31:34-6 pubmed
    ..The study underscores the need to significantly broaden the contraceptive choice for women in rural Bihar. ..
  28. Conrad M, Pacquiao D. Manifestation, attribution, and coping with depression among Asian Indians from the perspectives of health care practitioners. J Transcult Nurs. 2005;16:32-40 pubmed
  29. Dharmalingam A, Morgan S. Pervasive Muslim-Hindu fertility differences in India. Demography. 2004;41:529-45 pubmed
    ..This national study provides the context within which local studies should be enmeshed and begs for general (as opposed to place-specific) explanations for these pervasive differences. ..
  30. Duttagupta C, Sengupta S, Roy M, Sengupta D, Bhattacharya P, Laikangbam P, et al. Are Muslim women less susceptible to oncogenic human papillomavirus infection? A study from rural eastern India. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2004;14:293-303 pubmed
    ..There is a paucity in epidemiological data, which justifies the need to screen women of all religions for cervical cancer (that includes oncogenic HPV testing). ..
  31. Mukhopadhyay S. THE APPARENT NON-SIGNIFICANCE OF SEX IN CHILD UNDERNUTRITION IN INDIA. J Biosoc Sci. 2016;48:267-82 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the relative advantage that poor tribal girls enjoy is reversed with improvement in wealth status. Thus, children in different social settings need customized policy focus. ..
  32. Ahmed S, Atkin K, Hewison J, Green J. The influence of faith and religion and the role of religious and community leaders in prenatal decisions for sickle cell disorders and thalassaemia major. Prenat Diagn. 2006;26:801-9 pubmed
    ..The findings emphasise the importance of recognising diversity within different faith groups and moving away from stereotypical views based on people's ethnicity or religion, and to consider the beliefs and preferences of individuals. ..
  33. Khan F, Pandey A, Borkar M, Tripathi M, Talwar S, Bisen P, et al. Effect of sociocultural cleavage on genetic differentiation: a study from North India. Hum Biol. 2008;80:271-86 pubmed
    ..Finally, North Indian Muslims show a differential genetic relationship with upper- and middle-caste populations. ..
  34. Kumar S, Verma A, Ali W, Pandey A, Ahmad I, Singh U. A study of unnatural female death profile in Lucknow, India. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2013;34:352-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The study suggests different measures to check unnatural female deaths to improve the situation. ..
  35. Seetharam S. Dharma and medical ethics. Indian J Med Ethics. 2013;10:226-31 pubmed
    ..The main theme of the article is dharma or righteous conduct, the concepts related to it and how these can have a bearing on the development of an ethical attitude and the practice of medical ethics. ..
  36. Agrawal S, Khan F. Reconstructing recent human phylogenies with forensic STR loci: a statistical approach. BMC Genet. 2005;6:47 pubmed
  37. Kumar R, Gupta D. Shiva: supreme God of all in Saivism. Childs Nerv Syst. 2006;22:1511 pubmed
  38. Kumar A. Snakebite: sociocultural anthropological bias. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e412 pubmed
  39. Knip A. Acclimatization and maximum number of functioning sweat glands in Hindu and Dutch females and males. Ann Hum Biol. 1975;2:261-77 pubmed
    ..Only the Hindu and Dutch males differed significantly in body density. A positive relationship was observed between body density and extremities-weight ratio in the three male groups. ..
  40. Bhalotra S, Valente C, van Soest A. The puzzle of Muslim advantage in child survival in India. J Health Econ. 2010;29:191-204 pubmed publisher
    ..They augment a growing literature on the role of religion or culture as encapsulating important unobservable behaviours or endowments that influence health, indeed, enough to reverse the SES gradient that is commonly observed. ..
  41. Easterbrook C, Maddern G. Porcine and bovine surgical products: Jewish, Muslim, and Hindu perspectives. Arch Surg. 2008;143:366-70; discussion 370 pubmed publisher
    ..A greater understanding of religious views would enhance the medical care of persons of Jewish, Muslim, and Hindu faiths. ..
  42. El Shazly M, Bakry R, Tohamy A, Ali W, Elbakry S, Brown S, et al. Attitudes toward children with clefts in rural Muslim and Hindu societies. Ann Plast Surg. 2010;64:780-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Beliefs concerning the causation of the cleft were explored in detail. Knowledge of these issues is important for the more complete care of children in an unfamiliar cultural environment. ..
  43. Kaplan S. Grasping at ontological straws: overcoming reductionism in the Advaita Ved?nta-Neuroscience dialogue. J Am Acad Relig. 2009;77:238-74 pubmed
    ..Traversing disciplines, the Advaita Ved?nta school of Hinduism traces some of its key terms for subject and object to the verbal root grah, to grasp...
  44. Genrich G, Brathwaite B. Response of religious groups to HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection in Trinidad. BMC Public Health. 2005;5:121 pubmed
  45. Grover S, Chakrabarti S, Ghormode D, Dutt A, Kate N, KuLhara P. An Indian adaptation of the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire: similarities and differences in assessment of caregiver burden. East Asian Arch Psychiatry. 2011;21:142-51 pubmed
    ..The similarities and differences between the 2 versions of the IEQ indicated that sociocultural factors could influence assessment of caregiver burden across different cultures. ..
  46. Roye S. Suttee Sainthood through selflessness: pain of repression or power of devotion?. South Asia Res. 2011;31:281-99 pubmed
    ..Can one really be a suttee-saint through selflessness, or are there some deeper meanings yet to be uncovered? A wider political interpretation is suggested to re/present the root meaning of suttee. ..
  47. Crawford S. Hindu perspectives on genetic enhancements in humans. Update. 2003;18:2-8 pubmed
  48. Ghosh A. Age and sex variation in measures of body composition among the elderly Bengalee Hindus of Calcutta, India. Coll Antropol. 2004;28:553-61 pubmed
    ..Moreover, there existed sexual dimorphism in the effect of age on various anthropometric body composition measures. ..
  49. Green V. Understanding different religions when caring for diabetes patients. Br J Nurs. 2004;13:658-62 pubmed
  50. Hill J. Management of diabetes in South Asian communities in the UK. Nurs Stand. 2006;20:57-64; quiz 66 pubmed
    ..The use of appropriate information and educators with Asian language skills and an understanding of the local population's culture are important to improve self-management of diabetes in these patients. ..
  51. Yeolekar M, Bavdekar S. Indian festivals: ethos and health impact. J Postgrad Med. 2007;53:219-20 pubmed
  52. Ara G, Siddique Y, Afzal M. Gene diversity for haptoglobin and transferrin classical markers among Hindu and Muslim populations of Aligarh City, India. Genetika. 2011;47:842-6 pubmed
    ..Through F(ST) test, it has been concluded that there is a high genetic differentiation of populations within Hindu and Muslim groups, though there is absence of any significant differences between these groups. ..
  53. Jensen E. The fertility impact of alternative family planning distribution channels in Indonesia. Demography. 1996;33:153-65 pubmed
    ..I find little evidence for self-selecting of users into supply channels. This result implies that fertility differentials by source are likely due to characteristics of the distribution channels. ..