Summary: The teaching ascribed to Gautama Buddha (ca. 483 B.C.) holding that suffering is inherent in life and that one can escape it into nirvana by mental and moral self-purification. (Webster, 3d ed)

Top Publications

  1. Lehmann D, Faber P, Achermann P, Jeanmonod D, Gianotti L, Pizzagalli D. Brain sources of EEG gamma frequency during volitionally meditation-induced, altered states of consciousness, and experience of the self. Psychiatry Res. 2001;108:111-21 pubmed
  2. Keown D. End of life: the Buddhist view. Lancet. 2005;366:952-5 pubmed
  3. Ohta T. Shadow of Buddhism and Shintoism in neurosurgical practice in Japan. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2006;98:19-24 pubmed
    ..Reasons why these are practised or not in Japan are considered from the viewpoint of Buddhism and Shintoism...
  4. Segawa M. Buddhism and breastfeeding. Breastfeed Med. 2008;3:124-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Buddhism is an ancient religion that began in India and spread throughout Asia. It is prevalent in modern Japan...
  5. Knight J. Religion and science: Buddhism on the brain. Nature. 2004;432:670 pubmed
  6. Colzato L, Zech H, Hommel B, Verdonschot R, van den Wildenberg W, Hsieh S. Loving-kindness brings loving-kindness: the impact of Buddhism on cognitive self-other integration. Psychon Bull Rev. 2012;19:541-5 pubmed publisher
    Common wisdom has it that Buddhism enhances compassion and self-other integration. We put this assumption to empirical test by comparing practicing Taiwanese Buddhists with well-matched atheists...
  7. Wiist W, Sullivan B, Wayment H, Warren M. A web-based survey of the relationship between buddhist religious practices, health, and psychological characteristics: research methods and preliminary results. J Relig Health. 2010;49:18-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Buddhist meditative practice was related to psychological mindfulness and general health. ..
  8. Loizzo J, Blackhall L, Rapgay L. Tibetan medicine: a complementary science of optimal health. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1172:218-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Adapting the therapeutic philosophy and contemplative science of Indian Buddhism to the quality of secular life and death, it features the world's most effective systems of positive and ..
  9. Tangtrakulwanich B, Geater A, Chongsuvivatwong V. Prevalence, patterns, and risk factors of knee osteoarthritis in Thai monks. J Orthop Sci. 2006;11:439-45 pubmed
    ..Each pattern of knee osteoarthritis might have a different pathomechanism in the development of osteoarthritis. ..

More Information


  1. Lee Y, Krawinkel M. Body composition and nutrient intake of Buddhist vegetarians. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18:265-71 pubmed
    ..l vs. 15.0 kg, p=0.032). The status of the nutrient intake of Korean Buddhist vegetarians was comparable to that of omnivores, and the intake of some nutrients in vegetarians was more favorable than in the omnivores. ..
  2. Kozhevnikov M, Louchakova O, Josipovic Z, Motes M. The enhancement of visuospatial processing efficiency through Buddhist Deity meditation. Psychol Sci. 2009;20:645-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that Deity meditation specifically trains one's capacity to access heightened visuospatial processing resources, rather than generally improving visuospatial imagery abilities. ..
  3. Barinaga M. Buddhism and neuroscience. Studying the well-trained mind. Science. 2003;302:44-6 pubmed
  4. Kuo C, Lai N, Ho L, Lin C. Insulin sensitivity in Chinese ovo-lactovegetarians compared with omnivores. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58:312-6 pubmed
    ..541, P=0.017). The vegetarians were more insulin sensitive than the omnivore counterparts. The degree of insulin sensitivity appeared to be correlated with years on a vegetarian diet. ..
  5. Plakun E. Psychiatry in Tibetan Buddhism: madness and its cure seen through the lens of religious and national history. J Am Acad Psychoanal Dyn Psychiatry. 2008;36:415-30 pubmed publisher
    Tibetan Buddhism offers the oldest written theory of psychiatry, dating back to the 7th and 8th century C.E...
  6. Wallace B, Shapiro S. Mental balance and well-being: building bridges between Buddhism and Western psychology. Am Psychol. 2006;61:690-701 pubmed
  7. Swami V. Predictors of sociocultural adjustment among sojourning Malaysian students in Britain. Int J Psychol. 2009;44:266-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are further discussed in relation to practical steps that can be taken to improve the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning students in Britain. ..
  8. Emanuel R. A-void--an exploration of defences against sensing nothingness. Int J Psychoanal. 2001;82:1069-84 pubmed
  9. O Neil J, Orchard T, Swarankar R, Blanchard J, Gurav K, Moses S. Dhandha, dharma and disease: traditional sex work and HIV/AIDS in rural India. Soc Sci Med. 2004;59:851-60 pubmed
    ..We conclude that interventions designed to empower women collectively in these communities that are consistent with cultural traditions are needed to lead to healthier sexual behaviours and reduced risk of HIV/AIDS infection. ..
  10. Nyamathi A, Covington C, Mutere M. Vulnerable populations in Thailand: giving voice to women living with HIV/AIDS. Annu Rev Nurs Res. 2007;25:339-55 pubmed
  11. Yamanaka Y, Yamashita T, Akahane R, Muroya Y. [Study of "The S?itra of the tranquilization of hemorrhoids" and other relevant material]. Nihon Ishigaku Zasshi. 2011;57:293-304 pubmed
    ..And we will also offer further observations about the methods and principles for the treatment and healing of hemorrhoid that are attested in Buddhist scriptures. ..
  12. Ai A, McCormick T. Increasing diversity of Americans' faiths alongside Baby Boomers' aging: implications for chaplain intervention in health settings. J Health Care Chaplain. 2009;16:24-41 pubmed publisher
    ..As chaplains renew their studies of the worlds living religions, they will be better equipped to serve the needs of this large and spiritually diverse population. ..
  13. Shiah Y, Tam W, Wu M, Chang F. Paranormal beliefs and religiosity: Chinese version of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale. Psychol Rep. 2010;107:367-82 pubmed
    ..The results are consistent with the idea that Christianity may offer the least support for paranormal belief. ..
  14. Kongsuwan W, Chaipetch O. Thai Buddhists' experiences caring for family members who died a peaceful death in intensive care. Int J Palliat Nurs. 2011;17:329-36 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest nursing practice guidelines for models of family-centred care and family participation in end-of-life care in intensive care units. ..
  15. Roshi J. A Buddhist's perspective on grieving. Explore (NY). 2006;2:260-1 pubmed
  16. Chen T, Chen P. The healing Buddha. J Med Biogr. 2004;12:239-41 pubmed
    ..This suggests the cult of the healing Buddha was a relatively late development in the history of Buddhism. Worshippers sought his help in alleviating spiritual, mental and physical suffering, as well as for medical ..
  17. Loizzo J. Meditation research, past, present, and future: perspectives from the Nalanda contemplative science tradition. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2014;1307:43-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, it reviews two studies that suggest that the multimodal Nalanda approach to contemplative learning is as well received as more familiar approaches, while showing promise of being more effective. ..
  18. Chen T, Chen P. Jivaka, physician to the Buddha. J Med Biogr. 2002;10:88-91 pubmed
  19. Wessberg G. Sacred fillings. Hawaii Dent J. 2002;33:4 pubmed
  20. Hill R. The healing Buddha. J Med Biogr. 2004;12:188 pubmed
  21. Baoyintu -, Haserdun -. [Life of Lonrig Dandar, a famous physician of traditional Mongolian medicine]. Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi. 2003;33:36-7 pubmed
    ..Being a famous Mongolian physician converted to Buddhism when he was a boy, he was proficient in "Five Rig-pa", especially fond of gSo-ba rig-pa with high ..
  22. Bidwell D. Developing an adequate "pneumatraumatology": understanding the spiritual impacts of traumatic injury. J Pastoral Care Counsel. 2002;56:135-43 pubmed
    ..It also suggests possible responses to these impacts informed by narrative/constructionist perspectives and Breggemann's understanding of the dimensions of spiritual transformation in the Hebrew Bible. ..
  23. Rapgay L, Bystrisky A. Classical mindfulness: an introduction to its theory and practice for clinical application. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1172:148-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Such questions resonate with traditional practitioners of Buddhist contemplative psychology for whom attention signifies an every-changing factor of consciousness, while awareness refers to a stable and specific state of consciousness. ..
  24. Tanaka M. Buddhism and palliative care in Japan. Dolentium Hominum. 2005;20:94-6 pubmed
  25. Brandt T. Burnout and the Buddha. Arch Dermatol. 2002;138:587-8 pubmed
  26. Rajbhandari K. Epilepsy in Nepal. Can J Neurol Sci. 2004;31:257-60 pubmed
    ..None of the patients were able to attribute their illness to brain disease. Various forms of traditional treatment are widely practiced in all casts among Hindus as well as Buddhists. ..
  27. Supametaporn P. Letter to the editor. Health Care Women Int. 2005;26:458-9 pubmed
  28. Cooper P. The gap between: being and knowing in Zen Buddhism and psychoanalysis. Am J Psychoanal. 2001;61:341-62 pubmed
    ..Brief clinical vignettes support and illuminate the author's points. ..
  29. Walters L. Human embryonic stem cell research: an intercultural perspective. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2004;14:3-38 pubmed
    ..In several instances the religious traditions seem to have influenced the public-policy debates. ..
  30. Nichol D. Buddhism and psychoanalysis: a personal reflection. Am J Psychoanal. 2006;66:157-72 pubmed
  31. Wilson K. Medicine's missing dimension. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2010;121:309-17; discussion 317-9 pubmed
    ..Using Zen Buddhism as an example of a contemplative spiritual approach, I will explore how it is possible to preserve a respectful ..
  32. Kang Y, Choi S, Ryu E. The effectiveness of a stress coping program based on mindfulness meditation on the stress, anxiety, and depression experienced by nursing students in Korea. Nurse Educ Today. 2009;29:538-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In the future, long-term studies should be pursued to standardize and detail the program, with particular emphasis on studies to confirm the effects of the program in patients with diseases, such as cancer. ..
  33. Colucci E, Martin G. Religion and spirituality along the suicidal path. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2008;38:229-44 pubmed publisher
    ..After an overview of the attitudes of the dominant religions (e.g., Catholicism, Islam, and Buddhism) toward suicide, the three main theories that have speculated regarding the link between religion and suicide are ..
  34. Kalb C. Buddha lessons. Newsweek. 2004;144:48, 51 pubmed
  35. Bhikkhu M. A Buddhist model for health care reform. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007;90:2213-21 pubmed
  36. Britton W, Lindahl J, Cahn B, Davis J, Goldman R. Awakening is not a metaphor: the effects of Buddhist meditation practices on basic wakefulness. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2014;1307:64-81 pubmed publisher
  37. Yü C. Eye on religion: miracles in the Chinese Buddhist tradition. South Med J. 2007;100:1243-5 pubmed
  38. Omata W. [The origin of mental hospital in Japan and its typological classification]. Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi. 2003;105:200-6 pubmed
    ..Compared to Daiunji which belongs to Mikkyo-sect in the national Buddhism Juninji belongs to Jodoshin-sect in the frame of the reformed Buddhism...
  39. Johanson L. Cultural sensitivity: beyond first impressions. J Christ Nurs. 2007;24:96-8 pubmed
  40. Visscher C. Eye on religion: understanding the cultural/religious mélange in treating Japanese patients. South Med J. 2006;99:1448-9 pubmed
  41. Marinoff L. Transforming poison into medicine: the role of dualism in psychiatry. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2011;12 Suppl 1:66-9 pubmed publisher
    ..g., beliefs, desires, volitions - to electro-chemical brain-states. Such incomplete reduction (or irreducibility) holds profound implications for the ineluctable role of dualism in neuroscience and psychiatry alike. ..
  42. Wu X. [Influences of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism on Chinese Medical Formulas in Jin-Tang Dynasties]. Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi. 2006;36:100-3 pubmed
    In the Jin-Tang Dynasties, when Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism contended, conflicted and well blent, forming a state of mingled thoughts of the three sects...
  43. Suwatanaviroj T, Yamwong S. Prevalence of coronary artery disease in different ethnic groups at a tertiary care hospital. J Med Assoc Thai. 2013;96:1298-301 pubmed
    ..Thai Muslims showed significantly higher prevalence of definite CAD than that of Thai Buddhists. The greater prevalence of certain risk factors may contribute to higher prevalence of CAD in Thai Muslim patients. ..
  44. Fung K. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Western adoption of Buddhist tenets?. Transcult Psychiatry. 2015;52:561-76 pubmed publisher
    ..use of the concept of mindfulness, the therapeutic techniques of ACT implicitly incorporate other aspects of Buddhism. This article describes the basic principles and processes of ACT, explores the similarities and differences ..
  45. Wakefield C, Reid J, Homewood J. Religious and ethnic influences on willingness to donate organs and donor behavior: an Australian perspective. Prog Transplant. 2011;21:161-8 pubmed
    ..Further in-depth research examining the impact of religion and culture on attitudes, beliefs, and behavior is essential when exploring strategies to improve organ donation rates in highly multicultural societies such as Australia. ..
  46. Wu F, Zhang K, Shan G. An HIV/AIDS intervention programme with Buddhist aid in Yunnan Province. Chin Med J (Engl). 2010;123:1011-6 pubmed
    ..The Dai people believe in Theravada Buddhism. Four rural communities were randomly divided into two groups...
  47. Taneepanichskul S. Emergency contraception with mifepristone 10 mg in Thai women. J Med Assoc Thai. 2009;92:999-1002 pubmed
    ..The treatment cycle was longer than previous cycle in term of interval and duration. The use of low dose mifepristone was effective, safe, and had few side effects. ..
  48. Karnchanakas T, Tantanavat A, Sinsakontavat J. Inner ear problems of Thai priest at Priest Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai. 2008;91 Suppl 1:S63-7 pubmed
    ..The middle age and elderly priests who had greater FBS and TG than expected values were sick with inner ear problems that causing dizziness, hearing loss and tinnitus aurium. ..
  49. Kim H, Song M, Potter D. Medicinal efficacy of plants utilized as temple food in traditional Korean Buddhism. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;104:32-46 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that a high proportion of the food consumed in Korean temples is medicinal, and is used for a wide variety of diseases. ..
  50. Thammapalo S, Chongsuwiwatwong V, Geater A, Lim A, Choomalee K. Socio-demographic and environmental factors associated with Aedes breeding places in Phuket, Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2005;36:426-33 pubmed
    ..Garbage should be properly disposed of. Screens should be installed, if possible. Buddhists should be advised on the proper protection of flower vases. ..
  51. Marshall M. Creative learning: the mandala as teaching exercise. J Nurs Educ. 2003;42:517-9 pubmed
    ..They also helped students learn about Eastern philosophy, group process, self-awareness, and Jungian therapy. ..
  52. Pratyapipat S, Sinsakolwat J, Tantanawat A. Factors associated with allergic rhinitis in Priest Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai. 2008;91 Suppl 1:S68-72 pubmed
    ..Health education to the priests to eradicate allergen from their living place and maintain strong partnership with healthcare professionals for sustainable result. ..
  53. Nakasone R. Eye on religion: Buddhism. South Med J. 2007;100:652-3 pubmed