radiation dosage


Summary: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).

Top Publications

  1. Zeitlin C, Hassler D, Cucinotta F, Ehresmann B, Wimmer Schweingruber R, Brinza D, et al. Measurements of energetic particle radiation in transit to Mars on the Mars Science Laboratory. Science. 2013;340:1080-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The dose equivalent for even the shortest round-trip with current propulsion systems and comparable shielding is found to be 0.66 ± 0.12 sievert. ..
  2. Wang R, Schoepf U, Wu R, Reddy R, Zhang C, Yu W, et al. Image quality and radiation dose of low dose coronary CT angiography in obese patients: sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction versus filtered back projection. Eur J Radiol. 2012;81:3141-5 pubmed publisher
    ..41±0.83 mSv) than that in protocol A (8.83±1.74 mSv, p<0.01). Compared with standard dose CTCA using FBP, low dose CTCA using SAFIRE can maintain diagnostic image quality with 50% reduction of radiation dose. ..
  3. Kato M, Chida K, Sato T, Oosaka H, Tosa T, Munehisa M, et al. The necessity of follow-up for radiation skin injuries in patients after percutaneous coronary interventions: radiation skin injuries will often be overlooked clinically. Acta Radiol. 2012;53:1040-4 pubmed publisher
    ..At 4 weeks after PCI, most skin erythema appears clearly, however, some cases of skin erythema occur without back pain. After that, follow-up every 6 months is needed to detect the reappearance of erythema. ..
  4. Moritz J, Hoffmann B, Sehr D, Keil K, Eggerking J, Groth G, et al. Evaluation of ultra-low dose CT in the diagnosis of pediatric-like fractures using an experimental animal study. Korean J Radiol. 2012;13:165-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultra-low dose CT provides the feasibility of a significant dose reduction, still allowing sufficient diagnostics of pediatric-like fractures. ..
  5. Petoussi Henss N, Schlattl H, Zankl M, Endo A, Saito K. Organ doses from environmental exposures calculated using voxel phantoms of adults and children. Phys Med Biol. 2012;57:5679-713 pubmed publisher
  6. Pearce M, Salotti J, Little M, McHugh K, Lee C, Kim K, et al. Radiation exposure from CT scans in childhood and subsequent risk of leukaemia and brain tumours: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2012;380:499-505 pubmed publisher
    ..US National Cancer Institute and UK Department of Health. ..
  7. Lee C, Kim K, Long D, Bolch W. Organ doses for reference pediatric and adolescent patients undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. Med Phys. 2012;39:2129-46 pubmed publisher
  8. Hartman R, Kawashima A, Takahashi N, Silva A, Vrtiska T, Leng S, et al. Applications of dual-energy CT in urologic imaging: an update. Radiol Clin North Am. 2012;50:191-205, v pubmed publisher
    ..The unique postprocessed image sets, including virtual noncontrast, iodine overlay, and stone composition, are described. ..
  9. Duran A, Hian S, Miller D, Le Heron J, Padovani R, Vano E. Recommendations for occupational radiation protection in interventional cardiology. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2013;82:29-42 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Chen Y, Yang Z, Hu Y, Yang G, Zhu Y, Li Y, et al. Thoracic low-dose CT image processing using an artifact suppressed large-scale nonlocal means. Phys Med Biol. 2012;57:2667-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Phantom and patient CT images were both acquired for evaluation purpose. Comparative qualitative and quantitative analyses were both performed that allows conclusion on the efficacy of our method in improving thoracic LDCT data. ..
  2. Hausleiter J, Meyer T, Martuscelli E, Spagnolo P, Yamamoto H, Carrascosa P, et al. Image quality and radiation exposure with prospectively ECG-triggered axial scanning for coronary CT angiography: the multicenter, multivendor, randomized PROTECTION-III study. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012;5:484-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Axial computed tomography data acquisition should be strongly recommended in suitable patients to avoid unnecessarily high radiation exposure. ..
  3. Brown N, Jones L. Knowledge of medical imaging radiation dose and risk among doctors. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2013;57:8-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite having a poor understanding of these concepts, most doctors claim to consider them prior to requesting scans and when discussing potential risks with patients. ..
  4. Uri I. Lack of radiation awareness among referrers: implications and possible solutions. Int J Clin Pract. 2012;66:574-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible solutions have also been discussed. ..
  5. Baker M, Dong F, Primak A, Obuchowski N, Einstein D, Gandhi N, et al. Contrast-to-noise ratio and low-contrast object resolution on full- and low-dose MDCT: SAFIRE versus filtered back projection in a low-contrast object phantom and in the liver. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012;199:8-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of SAFIRE to improve low-contrast object detection and conspicuity depends on the radiation dose level. At low radiation doses, low-contrast objects are invisible, regardless of reconstruction technique. ..
  6. Ebersberger U, Tricarico F, Schoepf U, Blanke P, Spears J, Rowe G, et al. CT evaluation of coronary artery stents with iterative image reconstruction: improvements in image quality and potential for radiation dose reduction. Eur Radiol. 2013;23:125-32 pubmed publisher
    ..1; P?>?0.05) did not differ. Radiation dose decreased from 8.7?±?5.2 to 4.3?±?2.6 mSv. Iterative reconstruction significantly improves imaging of coronary artery stents by CT compared with FBP, even with half-radiation-dose data. ..
  7. Fetterly K, Mathew V, Lennon R, Bell M, Holmes D, Rihal C. Radiation dose reduction in the invasive cardiovascular laboratory: implementing a culture and philosophy of radiation safety. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2012;5:866-73 pubmed publisher
  8. Hou Y, Xu S, Guo W, Vembar M, Guo Q. The optimal dose reduction level using iterative reconstruction with prospective ECG-triggered coronary CTA using 256-slice MDCT. Eur J Radiol. 2012;81:3905-11 pubmed publisher
    ..2 ± 0.1 mSv versus 3.2 ± 0.6 mSv). Iterative reconstruction techniques can provide 63% ED reduction in prospectively-triggered coronary CTA using 256-slice MDCT while maintaining excellent image quality. ..
  9. Fanous R, Kashani H, Jimenez L, Murphy G, Paul N. Image quality and radiation dose of pulmonary CT angiography performed using 100 and 120 kVp. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012;199:990-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Reducing the tube potential from 120 to 100 kVp results in a 37% reduction in radiation dose without a significant impact on diagnostic image quality. ..
  10. Hwang H, Seo J, Lee J, Song J, Kim S, Lee H, et al. Radiation dose reduction of chest CT with iterative reconstruction in image space - Part II: assessment of radiologists' preferences using dual source CT. Korean J Radiol. 2012;13:720-7 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Radiologists' preference may be influenced by both radiation dose and reconstruction algorithm. According to our preliminary results, dose reduction at 50% with IRIS may be feasible for lung parenchymal evaluation. ..
  11. Kalra M, Woisetschläger M, Dahlström N, Singh S, Lindblom M, Choy G, et al. Radiation dose reduction with Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction technique for abdominal computed tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2012;36:339-46 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction-enabled reconstruction provides abdominal CT images without loss in diagnostic value at 50% reduced dose and in some patients also at 75% reduced dose. ..
  12. Imanaka T, Endo S, Sugai M, Ozawa S, Shizuma K, Yamamoto M. Early radiation survey of Iitate village, which was heavily contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi accident, conducted on 28 and 29 March 2011. Health Phys. 2012;102:680-6 pubmed publisher
    ..At this location, the cumulative exposure would reach 50 mGy in the middle of May 2011...
  13. Gnannt R, Winklehner A, Eberli D, Knuth A, Frauenfelder T, Alkadhi H. Automated tube potential selection for standard chest and abdominal CT in follow-up patients with testicular cancer: comparison with fixed tube potential. Eur Radiol. 2012;22:1937-45 pubmed publisher
    ..01). In patients with testicular cancer, radiation dose of chest and abdominal CT can be reduced with automated tube potential selection, while image quality is preserved. ..
  14. Guckenberger M, Roesch J, Baier K, Sweeney R, Flentje M. Dosimetric consequences of translational and rotational errors in frame-less image-guided radiosurgery. Radiat Oncol. 2012;7:63 pubmed publisher
    ..IG-RS with online correction of translational errors achieves high geometric and dosimetric accuracy. Intra-fractional errors decrease target coverage and conformity unless compensated with appropriate safety margins. ..
  15. Qi L, Li Y, Tang L, Li Y, Li X, Cui Y, et al. Evaluation of dose reduction and image quality in chest CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction with the same group of patients. Br J Radiol. 2012;85:e906-11 pubmed publisher
  16. Chen M, Shanbhag S, Arai A. Submillisievert median radiation dose for coronary angiography with a second-generation 320-detector row CT scanner in 107 consecutive patients. Radiology. 2013;267:76-85 pubmed publisher
    ..http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13122621/-/DC1. ..
  17. De Cecco C, Darnell A, Macías N, Ayuso J, Rodriguez S, Rimola J, et al. Second-generation dual-energy computed tomography of the abdomen: radiation dose comparison with 64- and 128-row single-energy acquisition. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2013;37:543-6 pubmed publisher
  18. Hwang H, Seo J, Lee J, Song J, Kim S, Lee H, et al. Radiation dose reduction of chest CT with iterative reconstruction in image space - Part I: studies on image quality using dual source CT. Korean J Radiol. 2012;13:711-9 pubmed publisher
    ..IRIS generally helps improve the IQ, being more distinct at the reduced radiation. However, reduced radiation by half results in IQ decrease even when using IRIS in chest CT. ..
  19. Chaudhry M, Omaruddin R, Kreger B, De Toledo S, Azzam E. Micro RNA responses to chronic or acute exposures to low dose ionizing radiation. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:7549-58 pubmed publisher
    ..This information will contribute to understanding the risks to human health after exposure to low dose radiation. ..
  20. Andersen E, Muren L, Sørensen T, Noe K, Thor M, Petersen J, et al. Bladder dose accumulation based on a biomechanical deformable image registration algorithm in volumetric modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer. Phys Med Biol. 2012;57:7089-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Large variations were found in individual patients between the doses from the initial treatment plan and the accumulated bladder doses. Hence, the use of repeat imaging has a potential for improved accuracy in treatment dose reporting. ..
  21. Divrik Gökçe S, Gokce E, Coşkun M. Radiology residents' awareness about ionizing radiation doses in imaging studies and their cancer risk during radiological examinations. Korean J Radiol. 2012;13:202-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Radiologic residents should have updated knowledge about radiation dose content and attendant cancer risks of various radiological imaging methods during both basic medical training period and following practice period. ..
  22. Carvalho F, Reis M, Oliveira J, Malta M, Silva L. Radioactivity from Fukushima nuclear accident detected in Lisbon, Portugal. J Environ Radioact. 2012;114:152-6 pubmed publisher
  23. Soderman M, Holmin S, Andersson T, Palmgren C, Babic D, Hoornaert B. Image noise reduction algorithm for digital subtraction angiography: clinical results. Radiology. 2013;269:553-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In DSA, a change in technique factors combined with a real-time noise-reduction algorithm will reduce the patient entrance dose by 75%, without a loss of image quality. ..
  24. Meyer M, Schoepf U, Fink C, Hlavacek A, Henzler T. Progressive intra-individual radiation dose reduction during CT surveillance of a patient with ALCAPA syndrome. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2012;18:547-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This case highlights the capabilities of developing radiation protection strategies that drastically lower radiation exposure during cCTA. ..
  25. Albert J. Radiation risk from CT: implications for cancer screening. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013;201:W81-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies evaluating the benefits of CT screening should continue to consider potential radiation risks. ..
  26. Singh S, Kalra M, Do S, Thibault J, Pien H, O Connor O, et al. Comparison of hybrid and pure iterative reconstruction techniques with conventional filtered back projection: dose reduction potential in the abdomen. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2012;36:347-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Model-based iterative reconstruction renders acceptable image quality and diagnostic confidence in 50- mA s abdominal CT images, whereas FBP and ASIR images are associated with suboptimal image quality at this radiation dose level. ..
  27. Huumonen K, Immonen H, Baverstock K, Hiltunen M, Korkalainen M, Lahtinen T, et al. Radiation-induced genomic instability in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mutat Res. 2012;748:36-41 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first publication reporting radiation-induced genomic instability in C. elegans. ..
  28. Lee Y, Chung Y, Lim J, Kim J, Kim Y, Lee H, et al. Cumulative radiation exposure during follow-up after curative surgery for gastric cancer. Korean J Radiol. 2012;13:144-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering the very good prognosis of early gastric cancer after curative surgery, the cED should be considered when designing a postoperative follow-up CT protocol. ..
  29. Yoo J, Chung M, Choi B, Jung H, Koo J, Bae Y, et al. Digital tomosynthesis for PNS evaluation: comparisons of patient exposure and image quality with plain radiography. Korean J Radiol. 2012;13:136-43 pubmed publisher
    ..001) and 84% and 95% for observer 2 (p = 0.125). Patient radiation dose from low dose DT is comparable with that of PNS XR. Diagnostic sensitivity of DT for sinusitis was superior to PNS XR. ..
  30. Jacob S, Donadille L, Maccia C, Bar O, Boveda S, Laurier D, et al. Eye lens radiation exposure to interventional cardiologists: a retrospective assessment of cumulative doses. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013;153:282-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Radiation protection equipment can reduce these doses and should be used routinely. ..
  31. Rajiah P, Schoenhagen P, Mehta D, Ivanc T, Lieber M, Soufan K, et al. Low-dose, wide-detector array thoracic aortic CT angiography using an iterative reconstruction technique results in improved image quality with lower noise and fewer artifacts. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2012;6:205-13 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). Significant differences were noted between readers in image quality assessment of the aorta but not through the shoulders. IRT is associated with reduced noise and shoulder artifact and allows for low-dose aortic CT imaging. ..
  32. Marcassa C, Zoccarato O, Calza P, Campini R. Temporal evolution of administered activity in cardiac gated SPECT and patients' effective dose: analysis of an historical series. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2013;40:325-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, at least the adoption of a new reconstruction algorithm is strongly encouraged, and suggested tracer activities for cardiac gated SPECT are to be revised. ..
  33. Oda S, Utsunomiya D, Funama Y, Yonenaga K, Namimoto T, Nakaura T, et al. A hybrid iterative reconstruction algorithm that improves the image quality of low-tube-voltage coronary CT angiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012;198:1126-31 pubmed publisher
    ..8 ± 7.4 vs 12.7 ± 2.9, p < 0.01). The visual scores for image quality were higher with HIR than with FBP (p < 0.01). The HIR algorithm can reduce image noise and improve image quality at low-tube-voltage coronary CTA. ..
  34. Sin H, Wong C, Huang B, Yiu K, Wong W, Chu Y. Assessing local patients' knowledge and awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with medical imaging: a questionnaire study. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2013;57:38-44 pubmed publisher
    ..2%) were told of the indication, and 42.7% were told the associated radiation dose. Patient radiation awareness is unsatisfactory. There is need to increase patient radiation awareness, and to provide them with the necessary information. ..
  35. Yoshihara T, Matsumura H, Hashida S, Nagaoka T. Radiocesium contaminations of 20 wood species and the corresponding gamma-ray dose rates around the canopies at 5 months after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. J Environ Radioact. 2013;115:60-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This may be due to differences in the balance between the attenuation resulting from a shielding effect of the plant bodies and the higher radiocesium accumulation in the leaves...
  36. Moding E, Kastan M, Kirsch D. Strategies for optimizing the response of cancer and normal tissues to radiation. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2013;12:526-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review efforts to develop approaches that could improve outcomes with radiation therapy by increasing the probability of tumour cure or by decreasing normal tissue toxicity. ..
  37. Brady Z, Cain T, Johnston P. Justifying referrals for paediatric CT. Med J Aust. 2012;197:95-9 pubmed
    ..For an individual, a justified, optimised computed tomography (CT) scan will result in more benefit than harm. A doctor must justify the necessity for a CT scan before referring an individual for imaging. ..
  38. Merzenich H, Krille L, Hammer G, Kaiser M, Yamashita S, Zeeb H. Paediatric CT scan usage and referrals of children to computed tomography in Germany--a cross-sectional survey of medical practice and awareness of radiation related health risks among physicians. BMC Health Serv Res. 2012;12:47 pubmed publisher
    ..Advanced radiological training might lead to considerable amendments in terms of knowledge and practice of CT referral. ..
  39. Vano E, Fernandez J, Sanchez R, Martinez D, Ibor L, Gil A, et al. Patient radiation dose management in the follow-up of potential skin injuries in neuroradiology. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34:277-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The refinement of selection criteria and the introduction of a low-dose protocol in the x-ray system, combined with a training program focused on radiation protection, reduced the number of patients requiring clinical follow-up. ..
  40. Pitton M, Kloeckner R, Schneider J, Ruckes C, Bersch A, Duber C. Radiation exposure in vascular angiographic procedures. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2012;23:1487-95 pubmed publisher
    ..A registry of radiation exposure should not only comprise a sufficiently large number of interventions but also different intervention types to allow the development of interventional reference levels. ..
  41. Hendee W, O Connor M. Radiation risks of medical imaging: separating fact from fantasy. Radiology. 2012;264:312-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In some cases, medical imaging examinations may be delayed or deferred as a consequence, resulting in a much greater risk to patients than that associated with imaging examinations. © RSNA, 2012. ..
  42. Bolen M, Popovic Z, Tandon N, Flamm S, Schoenhagen P, Halliburton S. Image quality, contrast enhancement, and radiation dose of ECG-triggered high-pitch CT versus non-ECG-triggered standard-pitch CT of the thoracoabdominal aorta. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012;198:931-8 pubmed publisher
  43. Vano E, Kleiman N, Duran A, Romano Miller M, Rehani M. Radiation-associated lens opacities in catheterization personnel: results of a survey and direct assessments. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2013;24:197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..To estimate ocular radiation doses and prevalence of lens opacities in a group of interventional catheterization professionals and offer practical recommendations based on these findings to avoid future lens damage...
  44. Su S, Huang Y, Xiao W, Huang S, Han F, Xie C, et al. Clinical and dosimetric characteristics of temporal lobe injury following intensity modulated radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Radiother Oncol. 2012;104:312-6 pubmed publisher
    ..87, P<0.01) respectively. The incidence of TLI is relatively high, especially for patients with advanced T-stage NPC, and correlated with Dmax and D1 cc. IMRT with Dmax<68 Gy or D1 cc<58 Gy in TLs is relatively safe. ..
  45. McCollough C, Chen G, Kalender W, Leng S, Samei E, Taguchi K, et al. Achieving routine submillisievert CT scanning: report from the summit on management of radiation dose in CT. Radiology. 2012;264:567-80 pubmed
  46. Hosoda M, Tokonami S, Sorimachi A, Monzen S, Osanai M, Yamada M, et al. The time variation of dose rate artificially increased by the Fukushima nuclear crisis. Sci Rep. 2011;1:87 pubmed publisher
    ..g. Fukushima, Koriyama and Nihonmatsu Cities) was 68 mSv. The evacuation is justified from the viewpoint of radiation protection. ..
  47. Fernandes A, Junqueira M, Marques N, Machado M, Santos C, Oliveira T, et al. Effects of low-level laser therapy on stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth. J Appl Oral Sci. 2016;24:332-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The Low-Level Laser Therapy energy densities used in this study did not cause loss of cell viability and stimulated SHED proliferation within the parameters described in this study. ..
  48. Imai R, Miyazaki O, Horiuchi T, Asano K, Nishimura G, Sago H, et al. Ultra-Low-Dose Fetal CT With Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction: A Prospective Pilot Study. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2017;208:1365-1372 pubmed publisher
  49. Willegaignon J, Braga L, Sapienza M, Coura Filho G, Cardona M, Alves C, et al. Diagnostic reference level: an important tool for reducing radiation doses in adult and pediatric nuclear medicine procedures in Brazil. Nucl Med Commun. 2016;37:525-33 pubmed publisher
  50. Shuman W, Chan K, Busey J, Mitsumori L, Koprowicz K. Dual-energy CT Aortography with 50% Reduced Iodine Dose Versus Single-energy CT Aortography with Standard Iodine Dose. Acad Radiol. 2016;23:611-8 pubmed publisher
    ..DECT image noise at 77 keV was similar to SECT at 120 kVp. ..
  51. Forghani R, Roskies M, Liu X, Tan X, Mlynarek A, Payne R, et al. Dual-Energy CT Characteristics of Parathyroid Adenomas on 25-and 55-Second 4D-CT Acquisitions: Preliminary Experience. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2016;40:806-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Four-dimensional CT acquired in dual-energy CT mode has the potential to further enhance diagnostic accuracy for PA identification on individual phases of the perfusion study. ..
  52. Gosiewski T, Mróz T, Ochońska D, Pabian W, Bulanda M, Brzychczy Wloch M. A study of the effects of therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation in vitro on Lactobacillus isolates originating from the vagina - a pilot study. BMC Microbiol. 2016;16:99 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the results were not statistically significant. Survival decrease to zero was not demonstrated for any of the tested strains. Therapeutic doses of radiation do not affect the Lactobacillus bacteria significantly. ..
  53. Hong T, Wo J, Borger D, Yeap B, McDonnell E, Willers H, et al. Phase II Study of Proton-Based Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Liver Metastases: Importance of Tumor Genotype. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2017;109: pubmed publisher
    ..KRAS mutation is a strong predictor of poor LC, stressing the need for tumor genotyping prior to SBRT and treatment intensification in this patient subset. ..