background radiation


Summary: Radiation from sources other than the source of interest. It is due to cosmic rays and natural radioactivity in the environment.

Top Publications

  1. Ademola J, Farai I. Annual effective dose due to natural radionuclides in building blocks in eight cities of Southwestern Nigeria. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;114:524-6 pubmed
    ..The annual effective dose obtained varied between 209.20 (Osogbo) and 400.36 microSv y(-1) (Abeokuta). The values are in the range of values obtained for the German Democratic Republic (309 microSv y(-1)) and Jordan (470 microSv y(-1)). ..
  2. Nair R, Rajan B, Akiba S, Jayalekshmi P, Nair M, Gangadharan P, et al. Background radiation and cancer incidence in Kerala, India-Karanagappally cohort study. Health Phys. 2009;96:55-66 pubmed publisher
    The coastal belt of Karunagappally, Kerala, India, is known for high background radiation (HBR) from thorium-containing monazite sand...
  3. Freitas A, Alencar A. Gamma dose rates and distribution of natural radionuclides in sand beaches--Ilha Grande, Southeastern Brazil. J Environ Radioact. 2004;75:211-23 pubmed
    ..The annual effective dose equivalent corresponding to Preta beach is 0.15 mSv a(-1) and to Dois Rios 0.08 mSv a(-1)...
  4. Das B, Karuppasamy C. Spontaneous frequency of micronuclei among the newborns from high level natural radiation areas of Kerala in the southwest coast of India. Int J Radiat Biol. 2009;85:272-80 pubmed publisher
  5. Little M, Wakeford R, Lubin J, Kendall G. The statistical power of epidemiological studies analyzing the relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and cancer, with special reference to childhood leukemia and natural background radiation. Radiat Res. 2010;174:387-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Sufficiently large studies should be capable of detecting the predicted risk attributable to natural background radiation.
  6. Premi S, Srivastava J, Chandy S, Ali S. AZFc somatic microdeletions and copy number polymorphism of the DAZ genes in human males exposed to natural background radiation. Hum Genet. 2007;121:337-46 pubmed
    ..We studied the impact of natural background radiation (NBR) on the human Y chromosome owing to its haploid status and clonal inheritance...
  7. Sainz C, Quindos L, Fernandez P, Gomez J, Fuente I, Quindos L, et al. High background radiation areas: the case of Villar de la Yegua village (Spain). Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007;125:565-7 pubmed
    The starting point of the Spanish experience in the study of High Background Radiation Areas is the development of a nationwide indoor radon survey carried out in 1988...
  8. Pathak D, Premi S, Srivastava J, Chandy S, Ali S. Genomic instability of the DYZ1 repeat in patients with Y chromosome anomalies and males exposed to natural background radiation. DNA Res. 2006;13:103-9 pubmed patients encompassing prostate cancer (PC), cases of repeated abortion (RA) and males exposed to natural background radiation (NBR) using real-time PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
  9. Premi S, Srivastava J, Chandy S, Ali S. Unique signatures of natural background radiation on human Y chromosomes from Kerala, India. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4541 pubmed publisher
    ..the human Y chromosome in 390 males from the South Indian state of Kerala, where the level of natural background radiation (NBR) is ten-fold higher than the worldwide average, and that from 790 unexposed males as control...

More Information


  1. Krishnan K, Vijayalakshmi N. Alterations in lipids & lipid peroxidation in rats fed with flavonoid rich fraction of banana (Musa paradisiaca) from high background radiation area. Indian J Med Res. 2005;122:540-6 pubmed
    ..from the fruits of two varieties of Musa paradisiaca, Palayamkodan and Rasakadali respectively from normal background radiation area (Veli) and treated as controls...
  2. Hendry J, Simon S, Wojcik A, Sohrabi M, Burkart W, Cardis E, et al. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?. J Radiol Prot. 2009;29:A29-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone ..
  3. Das B, Saini D, Seshadri M. Telomere length in human adults and high level natural background radiation. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8440 pubmed publisher
    ..shortening due to ionizing radiation has been reported in vitro, no in vivo data is available on natural background radiation and its effect on telomere length...
  4. Tao Z, Akiba S, Zha Y, Sun Q, Zou J, Li J, et al. Cancer and non-cancer mortality among Inhabitants in the high background radiation area of Yangjiang, China (1979-1998). Health Phys. 2012;102:173-81 pubmed publisher
    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of high background radiation (HBR) on mortality. A cohort of 31,604 men and women aged 30-74 y living in the study area in Guangdong Province, China, was followed during the period 1979-1998...
  5. Kendall G, Little M, Wakeford R, Bunch K, Miles J, Vincent T, et al. A record-based case-control study of natural background radiation and the incidence of childhood leukaemia and other cancers in Great Britain during 1980-2006. Leukemia. 2013;27:3-9 pubmed publisher
    ..conducted a large record-based case-control study testing associations between childhood cancer and natural background radiation. Cases (27,447) born and diagnosed in Great Britain during 1980-2006 and matched cancer-free controls (36,..
  6. Tao Z, Zha Y, Akiba S, Sun Q, Zou J, Li J, et al. Cancer mortality in the high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China during the period between 1979 and 1995. J Radiat Res. 2000;41 Suppl:31-41 pubmed
    ..On the contrary, the mortality of all cancers in HBRA was generally lower than that in the control area, but not statistically significant. ..
  7. Zhang W, Wang C, Chen D, Minamihisamatsu M, Morishima H, Yuan Y, et al. Imperceptible effect of radiation based on stable type chromosome aberrations accumulated in the lymphocytes of residents in the high background radiation area in China. J Radiat Res. 2003;44:69-74 pubmed
    ..translocations) was performed with our improved methods in 6 children and 15 elderly persons in a high background radiation area (HBRA) in China, and in 8 children and 11 elderly persons in a control area...
  8. Ghiassi Nejad M, Mortazavi S, Cameron J, Niroomand Rad A, Karam P. Very high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran: preliminary biological studies. Health Phys. 2002;82:87-93 pubmed
    People in some areas of Ramsar, a city in northern Iran, receive an annual radiation absorbed dose from background radiation that is up to 260 mSv y(-1), substantially higher than the 20 mSv y(-1) that is permitted for radiation workers...
  9. Banzi F, Msaki P, Makundi I. A survey of background radiation dose rates and radioactivity in Tanzania. Health Phys. 2002;82:80-6 pubmed
    ..b>Background radiation dose rate was determined with thermoluminescent dosimeters for 7 y (1993-1999) in five stations...
  10. Kendall G, Wakeford R, Athanson M, Vincent T, Carter E, McColl N, et al. Levels of naturally occurring gamma radiation measured in British homes and their prediction in particular residences. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2016;55:103-24 pubmed publisher
    Gamma radiation from natural sources (including directly ionising cosmic rays) is an important component of background radiation. In the present paper, indoor measurements of naturally occurring gamma rays that were undertaken as part of ..
  11. Rosson R, Lahr J, Kahn B. Radiation background in a LaBr3(Ce) gamma-ray scintillation detector. Health Phys. 2011;101:703-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Results of counting Cs sources at two activity levels demonstrate the impact of background on detection sensitivity. ..
  12. Abd El Zaher M. A comparative study of the indoor radon level with the radon exhalation rate from soil in Alexandria city. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013;154:490-6 pubmed publisher
    ..14 Bq m(-2) h(-1)). The radium content in soil varies from 3.14 to 39.60 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 11.55 Bq kg(-1). The significance of this study is discussed in details from the point of view of radiation protection. ..
  13. Fathabadi N, Farahani M, Amani S, Moradi M, Haddadi B. Evaluation of occupational exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Iranian ceramics industry. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;145:400-4 pubmed publisher
    ..226 mSv. ²²²Rn gas concentrations in the glaze production plant and storage warehouse were found to range from 10 to 213 Bq m?³. In this study, the estimated annual effective doses to exposed workers were <1 mSv y?¹...
  14. Bacioiu I. Equivalent dose rate by muons to the human body. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;147:380-5 pubmed publisher
    ..value of the effective dose rate by atmospheric muons plus the radiation levels of the natural annual background radiation dose, at the ground level, in the momentum interval of cosmic ray muon (0.2-120.0 GeV/c) is about 2.106±0...
  15. Packard E, Mac Kenzie C. Application of the National Ignition Facility distinguishable-from-background program to accelerator facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Health Phys. 2013;104:633-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory concludes that the release protocol developed for the National Ignition Facility can be used appropriately at all its accelerator facilities. ..
  16. Baloch M, Qureshi A, Waheed A, Ali M, Ali N, Tufail M, et al. A study on natural radioactivity in Khewra Salt Mines, Pakistan. J Radiat Res. 2012;53:411-21 pubmed
    ..Due to the low concentration values of primordial radionuclides in the salt and radon ²²²Rn) in the mines, a 'low level activity measurement laboratory' is suggested to be established in these mines. ..
  17. Das B, Saini D, Seshadri M. No evidence of telomere length attrition in newborns from high level natural background radiation areas in Kerala coast, south west India. Int J Radiat Biol. 2012;88:642-7 pubmed publisher
    ..03 (95% CI, 1.04-1.17) in HLNRA and NLNRA newborns, respectively (P >?0.05). Based on the level of background radiation dose, samples were divided into four groups, i.e., NLNRA: <?1.50 mGy/year and three HNLRA groups: 1.51-3...
  18. Whitehouse C, Edwards A, Tawn E, Stephan G, Oestreicher U, Moquet J, et al. Translocation yields in peripheral blood lymphocytes from control populations. Int J Radiat Biol. 2005;81:139-45 pubmed
    ..For retrospective biological dosimetry purposes a generic age-dependent control level can be assumed. No other lifestyle factors such as smoking appear to have a significant effect on translocation yield. ..
  19. Khater A, Al Mobark L, Aly A, Al Omran A. Natural radionuclides in clay deposits: concentration and dose assessment. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013;156:321-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on calculated hazardous (external and internal) indices, there were no expected radiological hazardous impacts of using clay deposits as building materials. ..
  20. Sulekha Rao N, Sengupta D. Seasonal levels of radon and thoron in the dwellings along southern coastal Orissa, Eastern India. Appl Radiat Isot. 2010;68:28-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Seasonal variation of indoor radon and thoron shows high values in winter and low values in both summer and rainy. The inhalation dose lies in the range of 0-0.06muSvh(-1) and is not high from those found elsewhere in India. ..
  21. Ademola J, Oguneletu P. Radionuclide content of concrete building blocks and radiation dose rates in some dwellings in Ibadan, Nigeria. J Environ Radioact. 2005;81:107-13 pubmed
    ..318 to 0.657 mSv y(-1) with a mean of 0.433 mSv y(-1). The annual effective dose rate to the whole body was calculated as 0.236 mSv y(-1), which is less than that (mean) estimated by UNSCEAR for normal background areas. ..
  22. Aleissa K, Enany A. Measurements of environmental radiation doses due to natural radiation sources at Riyadh region,Saudi Arabia. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2012;152:264-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The indoor-to-outdoor ratio of H*(10) is between 0.92 and 1.39, and it is 0.90-1.54 for H'(0.07). The ratio H'(0.07) to H*(10) lies between 1.0 and 1.22 for indoor, while it is 0.97-1.20 for the outdoor. ..
  23. Canbaz B, Cam N, Yaprak G, Candan O. Natural radioactivity (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and assessment of radiological hazards in the Kestanbol granitoid, Turkey. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2010;141:192-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The thorium-to-uranium concentration ratios were also estimated. ..
  24. Sahoo S, Mohapatra S, Sethy N, Patra A, Shukla A, Kumar A, et al. Natural radioactivity in roadside soil along Jamshedpur-Musabani road: a mineralised and mining region, Jharkhand and associated risk. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2010;140:281-6 pubmed publisher
    ..04-0.32 mSv y(-1) with an average value of 0.13 mSv y(-1). The excess cancer risk is in the range of 0.16 x 10(-3)-1.22 x 10(-3) with an average value of 0.49 x 10(-3). ..
  25. Kendall G, Muirhead C. Moderate dose rate ionizing radiation increases longevity?. Br J Radiol. 2005;78:573-4 pubmed
  26. Shevchenko S, Saltykov L, Slusarenko L. About the effectiveness of the ABPD methods in air-borne alpha-activity monitoring. Appl Radiat Isot. 2006;64:55-9 pubmed
    ..the alpha-beta-pseudo-coincidence-difference (ABPD-M) method is proposed with a view to suppressing natural background radiation when measuring the transuranium radionuclide (TRU) content in aerosol samples...
  27. Beitollahi M, Ghiassi Nejad M, Esmaeli A, Dunker R. Radiological studies in the hot spring region of Mahallat, Central Iran. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007;123:505-8 pubmed
    ..The results of environmental radiological studies in this region are presented and discussed. ..
  28. Al Haj A, Lagarde C, Mahyoub F. A comparative study on the susceptibility of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (TLD-100H) to spurious signals in thermoluminescence dosimetry. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007;125:399-402 pubmed
    ..In this study, the effects of disturbing signals to the LiF:Mg,Cu,P (TLD-100H) cards used in personal dosimetry are investigated and compared with those of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100). ..
  29. Pereira A, Neves L. Estimation of the radiological background and dose assessment in areas with naturally occurring uranium geochemical anomalies--a case study in the Iberian Massif (Central Portugal). J Environ Radioact. 2012;112:96-107 pubmed publisher
    ..The estimated effective dose can also be used as typical of the background of the Beiras uranium metalogenetic province and therefore as a "benchmark" in the remediation of the old uranium mining sites. ..
  30. Huy N, Hien P, Luyen T, Hoang D, Hiep H, Quang N, et al. Natural radioactivity and external dose assessment of surface soils in Vietnam. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2012;151:522-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, soil from Vietnam is safe for the human population when it is used as a building material. ..
  31. González Chornet G, González Labajo J. Natural radioactivity in beach sands from Doñana National Park and Mazagón (Spain). Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;112:307-10 pubmed
    ..The external radiation dose rate received by the population was estimated from these levels. ..
  32. Gusain G, Rautela B, Sahoo S, Ishikawa T, Prasad G, Omori Y, et al. Distribution of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate in the eastern coastal area of Odisha, India. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2012;152:42-5 pubmed publisher
    ..measured around the eastern coastal area of Odisha with the objective of establishing baseline data on the background radiation level...
  33. Shanthi G, Thanka Kumaran J, Gnana Raj G, Maniyan C. Transfer factor of the radionuclides in food crops from high-background radiation area of south west India. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2012;149:327-32 pubmed publisher
    ..2×10(-2) , 11×10(-2), 1.9×10(-2) and 8.9×10(-2), respectively. For fruits and vegetables, the TFs are low. In the majority of the crops the non-edible parts accumulate more radionuclides than the edible parts. ..
  34. Pellicciari M, Fascilla A, Giuliani A, Pedretti M, Cesana A, Garlati L, et al. A very low-background gamma-ray counting facility in the Baradello underground laboratory. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;116:359-62 pubmed
    ..Sensitivities to radioactivity in typical environmental matrices are evaluated, confirming the very low-gamma background attained in the laboratory. ..
  35. Lin C, Wang J, Lin S, Lin C. Performance comparison of electronic radon monitors. Appl Radiat Isot. 2013;81:238-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that by utilizing this system with the concept of calibration factor, it can be helpful to decide whether to send the monitors back to the original manufacturers for adjustment. ..
  36. Assunta Meli M, Desideri D, Roselli C, Feduzi L. Natural radioactivity in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis derived from the central Adriatic Sea (Italy). J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2008;71:1270-8 pubmed publisher
    ..emitters are considered responsible for a significant proportion of the radiation exposure of humans to background radiation, particularly through food consumption...
  37. Osman A, Salih I, Shaddad I, El Din S, Siddeeg M, Eltayeb H, et al. Investigation of natural radioactivity levels in water around Kadugli, Sudan. Appl Radiat Isot. 2008;66:1650-3 pubmed publisher
    ..1-1720, 7.7-14.3, 3000-139,000, <0.1-39 mBq L(-1)) respectively. The overall annual effective dose was below the WHO reference dose level of 0.1 mSv yr(-1) except in one groundwater sample with an associated dose of 0.7 mSv yr(-1). ..
  38. Takada M, Suzuki T. Early in situ measurement of radioactive fallout in Fukushima city due to Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013;155:181-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In the effective dose rates, (132)I, (134)Cs and (132)Te were the main contributors. Our measurements are useful for estimating dose levels in the public in the city of Fukushima during the days after radioactive fallout contamination. ..
  39. Chatterjee M, Divkar J, Patil S, Singh R, Pradeepkumar K, Sharma D. Study on enhanced atmospheric dispersion of 41Ar at the Trombay site. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013;155:483-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The maximum dose rates, monthly and annual doses recorded by GT, have been compared with predicted values. Most of the locations show statistically significant coherence in the case of monthly dose. ..
  40. Shahbazi Gahrouei D. natural background radiation dosimetry in the highest altitude region of Iran. J Radiat Res. 2003;44:285-7 pubmed
    The natural background radiation has been measured in one of the highest altitude regions (Zagros Mountains), Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, in the south west of Iran...
  41. Yoon Y, Koh D, Lee K, Cho S, Yang J, Lee K. Using ²²²Rn as a naturally occurring tracer to estimate NAPL contamination in an aquifer. Appl Radiat Isot. 2013;81:233-7 pubmed publisher
    ..89 Bq/L to 444. Results of (222)Rn analysis showed that TCE contamination was mainly restricted to an asphalt laboratory area and that the (222)Rn values of a NAPL-contaminated aquifer were correlated with TCE analytical results. ..
  42. Bahrou A, Ollivier P, Hanson T, Tessier E, Amouroux D, Church T. Volatile dimethyl polonium produced by aerobic marine microorganisms. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:11402-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Further experimentation demonstrated that some abiotic Po(v) generation is possible. However, high-level Po(v) generation in these cultures is predominantly biotic. ..
  43. Fang W, St Leger R. Enhanced UV resistance and improved killing of malaria mosquitoes by photolyase transgenic entomopathogenic fungi. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43069 pubmed publisher
    ..The precision and malleability of the native and transgenic photolyases allows design of multiple pathogens with different strategies based on the environments in which they will be used. ..
  44. Romanyukha A, Schauer D, Thomas J, Regulla D. Parameters affecting EPR dose reconstruction in teeth. Appl Radiat Isot. 2005;62:147-54 pubmed
    ..also discussed in detail: need for exfoliated or extracted teeth from persons of interest, accounting for background radiation contribution; conversion of tooth enamel absorbed dose to effective dose; accounting for internal exposure ..
  45. Hamidalddin S, Fakeha A, Yeslam M, Ibraheim N. Disequilibrium in naturally occurring radioactive series in some phosphate ores. Appl Radiat Isot. 2012;70:346-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Concentrations of the different elements in both radioactive series, (238)U, (226)Ra and (232)Th were compared. Disequilibrium was found in both series. ..
  46. Karahan G. Risk assessment of baseline outdoor gamma dose rate levels study of natural radiation sources in Bursa, Turkey. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2010;142:324-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The mean calculated value of the external hazard index (H(ex)) for the soil was found to be 0.37. ..
  47. Ilgar R, Kam E, Bozkurt A. A study of background radioactivity level for Canakkale, Turkey. Environ Monit Assess. 2010;168:685-90 pubmed publisher
    This study assesses the level of background radiation for Canakkale province of northwestern Turkey...
  48. Wakeford R, Kendall G, Little M. The proportion of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain that may be caused by natural background ionizing radiation. Leukemia. 2009;23:770-6 pubmed publisher
    ..atomic bomb survivors imply that low-level exposure to ionizing radiation, including ubiquitous natural background radiation, also raises the risk of childhood leukaemia...
  49. Patra A, Jaison T, Baburajan A, Hegde A. Assessment of radiological significance of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil and rock matrices around Kakrapar environment. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;131:487-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The external hazard index (H(ex)) and absorbed gamma dose rate in air outdoors is observed to be 0.04-0.18 and 3.1-14.1 nGy h(-1), respectively. ..
  50. Hattori T. Reconsideration of the minimum dose constraint for public exposures in radiological protection. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;131:340-5 pubmed publisher
    ..of the dose distribution of radiation due to man-made radioactive nuclides when added to those of natural background radiation have been studied. These results show that additional exposure to man-made radiation of up to 0...
  51. Babai K, Poongothai S, Punniyakotti J. Determination of environmental radioactivity (238U, 232Th and 40K) and indoor natural background radiation level in Chennai city (Tamilnadu State), India. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013;153:457-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to the above, mapping of indoor natural background gamma radiation levels has been made using thermo luminescent dosemeters throughout Chennai city and the same are reported. ..
  52. Tufan M, Disci T. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials used in Samsun, Turkey. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013;156:87-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Obtained results were compared with the available data, and it was concluded that all the investigated materials did not have radiological risk. ..
  53. Ramola R, Gusain G, Badoni M, Prasad Y, Prasad G, Ramachandran T. (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K contents in soil samples from Garhwal Himalaya, India, and its radiological implications. J Radiol Prot. 2008;28:379-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The external absorbed gamma dose rates due to (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were found to vary from 49 to 306 nGy h(-1). The average radium equivalent activity from these soil samples was 300 Bq kg(-1)...