nalidixic acid

Summary

Summary: A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.

Top Publications

  1. Lorphensri O, Intravijit J, Sabatini D, Kibbey T, Osathaphan K, Saiwan C. Sorption of acetaminophen, 17alpha-ethynyl estradiol, nalidixic acid, and norfloxacin to silica, alumina. and a hydrophobic medium. Water Res. 2006;40:1481-91 pubmed
    ..sorption of four pharmaceuticals, acetaminophen (analgesic), 17alpha-ethynyl estradiol (synthetic hormone), nalidixic acid (antibiotic), and norfloxacin (antibiotic), was evaluated with silica, alumina, and Porapak P (a hydrophobic ..
  2. Gu B, Cao Y, Pan S, Zhuang L, Yu R, Peng Z, et al. Comparison of the prevalence and changing resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin of Shigella between Europe-America and Asia-Africa from 1998 to 2009. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2012;40:9-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Statistical analyses were performed using STATA 10.0. In the area of Asia-Africa, resistance rates to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin were 33.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 21.8-46.6%] and 5.0% (95% CI 2.8-7...
  3. Stevenson J, Gay K, Barrett T, Medalla F, Chiller T, Angulo F. Increase in nalidixic acid resistance among non-Typhi Salmonella enterica isolates in the United States from 1996 to 2003. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:195-7 pubmed
    ..Fluoroquinolone treatment has failed for persons infected with nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella...
  4. Kim J, Kim J, Kathariou S. Differential effects of temperature on natural transformation to erythromycin and nalidixic acid resistance in Campylobacter coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:6121-5 pubmed publisher
    ..coli to erythromycin and nalidixic acid resistance...
  5. Albayrak F, Cokca F, Erdem B, Aysev A. Predictive value of nalidixic acid resistance for detecting salmonellae with decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2004;23:332-6 pubmed
    ..when using the criteria of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards were studied for nalidixic acid (NA) resistance...
  6. Sánchez Céspedes J, Navia M, Martínez R, Orden B, Millan R, Ruiz J, et al. Clonal dissemination of Yersinia enterocolitica strains with various susceptibilities to nalidixic acid. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:1769-71 pubmed
    Ten epidemiologically related Yersinia enterocolitica clinical isolates were studied. Six isolates were nalidixic acid resistant (MIC > 512 microg/ml), with mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA ..
  7. Malik M, Capecci J, Drlica K. Lon protease is essential for paradoxical survival of Escherichia coli exposed to high concentrations of quinolone. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:3103-5 pubmed publisher
    A deficiency of the Escherichia coli Lon protease blocked paradoxical survival occurring at very high nalidixic acid concentrations. The absence of Lon also blocked a parallel increase in cell lysate viscosity likely to reflect DNA size...
  8. Jesse T, Englen M, Pittenger Alley L, Fedorka Cray P. Two distinct mutations in gyrA lead to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolated from chickens and beef cattle. J Appl Microbiol. 2006;100:682-8 pubmed
    ..point mutations in the gyrA quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of Campylobacter coli (n = 27) and Campylobacter jejuni (n = 26) that confer nalidixic acid (NAL) resistance without conferring resistance to ciprofloxacin (CIP).
  9. Butt T, Khan M, Ahmad R, Salman M, Afzal R. Validity of nalidixic acid screening in fluoroquinolone-resistant typhoid salmonellae. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2006;16:31-4 pubmed
    To validate the screening of low-level fluoroquinolone resistance in typhoid salmonellae by using nalidixic acid (30 mg) disk providing an acceptable zone of inhibition. Quasi-experimental study...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Ercis S, Erdem B, Hascelik G, Gur D. Nalidixic acid resistance in Salmonella strains with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin isolated from humans in Turkey. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2006;59:117-9 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of nalidixic acid resistance as an indicator of decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC = 0.125 - 1 mg/L) in Salmonella isolates from humans (n = 620) in Turkey...
  2. Grover G, Kini S. Synthesis and evaluation of new quinazolone derivatives of nalidixic acid as potential antibacterial and antifungal agents. Eur J Med Chem. 2006;41:256-62 pubmed
    ..on synthesis of biheterocycles carrying the biodynamic heterocyclic systems at position 3, a series of new nalidixic acid derivatives having quinazolones moiety were synthesised to achieve enhanced biological activity and wide ..
  3. Pohlhaus J, Long D, O Reilly E, Kreuzer K. The epsilon subunit of DNA polymerase III Is involved in the nalidixic acid-induced SOS response in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:5239-47 pubmed publisher
    Quinolone antibacterial drugs such as nalidixic acid target DNA gyrase in Escherichia coli...
  4. Panhotra B, Saxena A, Al Mulhim K. Emergence of nalidixic acid resistance in Shigella sonnei isolated from patients having acute diarrheal disease: report from eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2004;57:116-8 pubmed
    ..Shigella sonnei phase 1 was the most prevalent (88/110, 80.0%) serotype. Resistance to nalidixic acid was not encountered from 1999-2002. Nalidixic acid resistance was observed in 6/13 (46.1%) of the S...
  5. Vashist J, Vishvanath -, Kapoor R, Kapil A, Yennamalli R, Subbarao N, et al. Interaction of nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin with wild type and mutated quinolone-resistance-determining region of DNA gyrase A. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2009;46:147-53 pubmed
    ..of GyrA with respect to quinolone binding, we have studied the interaction of mutated QRDR of GyrA with nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin by molecular modeling using GLIDE v4...
  6. Hakanen A, Kotilainen P, Jalava J, Siitonen A, Huovinen P. Detection of decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Salmonellas and validation of nalidixic acid screening test. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:3572-7 pubmed
    ..according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines for susceptibility to nalidixic acid and three fluoroquinolones...
  7. Ghosh A, Sugunan A, Sehgal S, Bharadwaj A. Emergence of nalidixic acid-resistant Shigella sonnei in acute-diarrhea patients on Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:1483 pubmed
  8. Al Bahry S, Sivakumar N, Al Khambashi M. Effect of nalidixic acid on the morphology and protein expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012;5:265-9 pubmed publisher
    To determine the effect of nalidixic acid on the morphology and protein expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Nalidixic acid solution of 1 600 μg/mL was prepared. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for P...
  9. Perez Vazquez M, Román F, Aracil B, Canton R, Campos J. Laboratory detection of Haemophilus influenzae with decreased susceptibility to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin due to GyrA and ParC mutations. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:1185-91 pubmed
    ..Collection reference strains of Haemophilus influenzae to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and nalidixic acid by the microdilution and disk diffusion methods. The ciprofloxacin MICs for 34 of the isolates were >/=0...
  10. Aboul Fadl T, Bin Jubair F, Aboul Wafa O. Schiff bases of indoline-2,3-dione (isatin) derivatives and nalidixic acid carbohydrazide, synthesis, antitubercular activity and pharmacophoric model building. Eur J Med Chem. 2010;45:4578-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, the current work involved design and synthesis of Schiff bases of nalidixic acid carbohydrazide and isatin derivatives (5,6a-f and 7,8a-c)...
  11. Lee K, Jung J, Jung B, Park Y, Lee Y. Characterization of nalidixic acid-resistant and fluoroquinolone-reduced susceptible Salmonella Typhimurium in swine. J Food Prot. 2011;74:610-5 pubmed publisher
    ..isolates were pentaresistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, tetracycline, and nalidixic acid. Among 27 isolates, 14 isolates (51...
  12. Slinger R, Desjardins M, McCarthy A, Ramotar K, Jessamine P, Guibord C, et al. Suboptimal clinical response to ciprofloxacin in patients with enteric fever due to Salmonella spp. with reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility: a case series. BMC Infect Dis. 2004;4:36 pubmed
    ..Typhi) and Serotype Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) blood culture isolates (1998-2002) were tested against nalidixic acid by disk diffusion (DD) and agar dilution (AD) and to ciprofloxacin by AD using NCCLS methods and interpretive ..
  13. Sáenz Y, Zarazaga M, Brinas L, Ruiz Larrea F, Torres C. Mutations in gyrA and parC genes in nalidixic acid-resistant Escherichia coli strains from food products, humans and animals. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;51:1001-5 pubmed
    Mutations in quinolone targets were analysed in 80 unrelated nalidixic acid-resistant (NALR) Escherichia coli strains whose nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin MICs ranged from 32 to >256 mg/L and 0.03-64 mg/L, respectively...
  14. Johnson J, Murray A, Gajewski A, Sullivan M, Snippes P, Kuskowski M, et al. Isolation and molecular characterization of nalidixic acid-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli from retail chicken products. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:2161-8 pubmed
    ..Paul area (1999 to 2000) were screened for nalidixic acid (Nal)-resistant E. coli. Sixty-two (37%) products yielded Nal-resistant E. coli...
  15. Aggarwal N, Kumar R, Dureja P, Khurana J. Synthesis of novel nalidixic acid-based 1,3,4-thiadiazole and 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives as potent antibacterial agents. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2012;79:384-97 pubmed publisher
    Novel nalidixic acid-based 1,3,4-thia(oxa)diazoles, their thio ethers, sulfones, bis mercapto, and Mannich bases were synthesized and characterized by Infrared spectra, (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR, and elemental analysis...
  16. Kadhiravan T, Wig N, Kapil A, Kabra S, Renuka K, Misra A. Clinical outcomes in typhoid fever: adverse impact of infection with nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella typhi. BMC Infect Dis. 2005;5:37 pubmed
    ..These strains are identifiable by their nalidixic acid-resistance. We studied the impact of infection with nalidixic acid-resistant S...
  17. Kapil A, Renuka -, Das B. Nalidixic acid susceptibility test to screen ciprofloxacin resistance in Salmonella typhi. Indian J Med Res. 2002;115:49-54 pubmed
    ..We explored the possibility of testing S. typhi strains for their susceptibility to nalidixic acid by disc diffusion method as a marker for high MIC to ciprofloxacin. Isolates (94) of S...
  18. Shakespeare W, Davie D, Tonnerre C, Rubin M, Strong M, Petti C. Nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi presenting as a primary psoas abscess: case report and review of the literature. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:996-8 pubmed
    ..The isolate tested susceptible to ciprofloxacin but resistant to nalidixic acid in vitro, a pattern associated with fluoroquinolone therapeutic failures...
  19. Koutsolioutsou A, Martins E, White D, Levy S, Demple B. A soxRS-constitutive mutation contributing to antibiotic resistance in a clinical isolate of Salmonella enterica (Serovar typhimurium). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45:38-43 pubmed
    ..enterica by introducing the cloned mutant soxR gene from the clinical strain. The results show that constitutive expression of soxRS can contribute to antibiotic resistance in clinically relevant S. enterica. ..
  20. Ray P, Sharma J, Marak R, Garg R. Predictive efficacy of nalidixic acid resistance as a marker of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica var Typhi. Indian J Med Res. 2006;124:105-8 pubmed
    ..Typhi, not detectable by disc diffusion (DD) tests, may result in delayed response and serious complications. Nalidixic acid (NA) resistance has been used as an indirect evidence of increased ciprofloxacin MIC in S. Typhi...
  21. Belyaev I. Toxicity and SOS-response to ELF magnetic fields and nalidixic acid in E. coli cells. Mutat Res. 2011;722:56-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The genotoxic agent nalidixic acid (NAL) was used as a positive control and in combination with ELF-MF...
  22. Lewis M, Serichantalergs O, Pitarangsi C, Chuanak N, Mason C, Regmi L, et al. Typhoid fever: a massive, single-point source, multidrug-resistant outbreak in Nepal. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40:554-61 pubmed
    ..Multidrug-resistant isolates had a plasmid encoding for resistance, and those with resistance to nalidixic acid had a single-point mutation...
  23. Asna S, Haq J, Rahman M. Nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin caused treatment failure: a report from Bangladesh. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2003;56:32-3 pubmed
  24. Turner A, Nair S, Wain J. The acquisition of full fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella Typhi by accumulation of point mutations in the topoisomerase targets. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006;58:733-40 pubmed
    ..Any single GyrA substitution resulted in resistance to nalidixic acid (MIC >or= 512 mg/L) and increased by up to 23-fold the MIC of the fluoroquinolones ofloxacin (MIC <or= 2 ..
  25. Chinh N, Parry C, Ly N, Ha H, Thong M, Diep T, et al. A randomized controlled comparison of azithromycin and ofloxacin for treatment of multidrug-resistant or nalidixic acid-resistant enteric fever. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000;44:1855-9 pubmed
    ..e., resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and cotrimoxazole) and nalidixic acid-resistant enteric fever, azithromycin (1 g once daily for 5 days at 20 mg/kg/day) and ofloxacin (200 mg orally ..
  26. Kumar Y, Sharma A, Mani K. High level of resistance to nalidixic acid in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in Central India. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2009;3:467-9 pubmed
    ..b>Nalidixic acid resistance has been used as an indirect evidence of increased minimum inhibitory concentration for ..
  27. Wu T, Su L, Chia J, Kao T, Chiu C, Kuo A, et al. Molecular epidemiology of nalidixic acid-resistant campylobacter isolates from humans and poultry by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and flagellin gene analysis. Epidemiol Infect. 2002;129:227-31 pubmed
    ..of human infections associated with quinolone-resistant campylobacters, 140 human and 75 poultry isolates of nalidixic acid-resistant campylobacters were collected between 1996 and 1998, and analysed by two molecular typing methods...
  28. Capilla S, Goñi P, Rubio M, Castillo J, Millan L, Cerda P, et al. Epidemiological study of resistance to nalidixic acid and other antibiotics in clinical Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:4876-8 pubmed
    Forty-six Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 clinical isolates resistant to nalidixic acid were studied...
  29. Cheasty T, Day M, Threlfall E. Increasing incidence of resistance to nalidixic acid in shigellas from humans in England and Wales: implications for therapy. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004;10:1033-5 pubmed
    ..and Wales in 2002, 10% of subgroups A, B and C, and 13% of subgroup D (Shigella sonnei), were resistant to nalidixic acid. As a consequence, should antimicrobial therapy be indicated, the efficacy of nalidixic acid as the preferred ..
  30. Kryatova O, Connors W, Bleczinski C, Mokhir A, Richert C. A 2'-acylamido cap that increases the stability of oligonucleotide duplexes. Org Lett. 2001;3:987-90 pubmed
    ..In the case of (5'-ACGCGU-NA-2')2, where NA denotes a nalidixic acid residue, the melting point increase is up to 22 degrees C over that of (ACGCGT)2.
  31. Parry C, Thuy C, Dongol S, Karkey A, Vinh H, Chinh N, et al. Suitable disk antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints defining Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:5201-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined 816 isolates of S. Typhi from seven Asian countries. Screening for nalidixic acid resistance (MIC ? 16 ?g/ml) identified isolates with an ofloxacin MIC of ?0.25 ?g/ml with a sensitivity of 97...
  32. Brenwald N, Andrews J, Jevons G, Wise R. Detection of ciprofloxacin resistance in Haemophilus influenzae using nalidixic acid and BSAC methodology. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;51:1311-2 pubmed
  33. Fujita T, Komatsu M, Okada J, Katoh K. [Surveillance of nalidixic acid-resistant and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Salmonella spp. isolated from human feces]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 2011;85:355-9 pubmed
    b>Nalidixic acid (NA)-resistant and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella sp...
  34. Kownhar H, Shankar E, Rajan R, Rao U. Emergence of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi resistant to ciprofloxacin in India. J Med Microbiol. 2007;56:136-7 pubmed
  35. Parry C, Ho V, Phuong L, Bay P, Lanh M, Tung L, et al. Randomized controlled comparison of ofloxacin, azithromycin, and an ofloxacin-azithromycin combination for treatment of multidrug-resistant and nalidixic acid-resistant typhoid fever. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:819-25 pubmed
    ..ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) and have reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones (nalidixic acid resistant, Na(r)) are common in Asia...
  36. Murray A, Coia J, Mather H, Brown D. Ciprofloxacin resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes in Scotland, 1993-2003. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005;56:110-4 pubmed
    ..Etest strips were used to determine the ciprofloxacin MICs for nalidixic acid-resistant salmonellae isolated from humans during 1993-2003...
  37. Ribera A, Ruiz J, Jiminez de Anta M, Vila J. Effect of an efflux pump inhibitor on the MIC of nalidixic acid for Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia clinical isolates. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2002;49:697-8 pubmed
  38. Dowd S, Killinger Mann K, Blanton J, San Francisco M, Brashears M. Positive adaptive state: microarray evaluation of gene expression in Salmonella enterica Typhimurium exposed to nalidixic acid. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2007;4:187-200 pubmed
    ..6 microg/mL of nalidixic acid. The results showed a significant (P < 0.02) difference (fold expression differences >2...
  39. Marimón J, Gomariz M, Zigorraga C, Cilla G, Perez Trallero E. Increasing prevalence of quinolone resistance in human nontyphoid Salmonella enterica isolates obtained in Spain from 1981 to 2003. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:3789-93 pubmed
    From January 1981 to December 2003, susceptibility to nalidixic acid was tested in 10,504 nontyphoid Salmonella enterica isolates from patients with acute enteric disease in Gipuzkoa, Spain...
  40. Hakanen A, Lindgren M, Huovinen P, Jalava J, Siitonen A, Kotilainen P. New quinolone resistance phenomenon in Salmonella enterica: nalidixic acid-susceptible isolates with reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:5775-8 pubmed
    ..These isolates are susceptible to nalidixic acid but exhibit reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin...
  41. Crump J, Barrett T, Nelson J, Angulo F. Reevaluating fluoroquinolone breakpoints for Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi and for non-Typhi salmonellae. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:75-81 pubmed
    ..Recently, resistance to nalidixic acid has emerged among both Typhi and non-Typhi Salmonella serotypes...
  42. Bortolaia V, Bisgaard M, Bojesen A. Distribution and possible transmission of ampicillin- and nalidixic acid-resistant Escherichia coli within the broiler industry. Vet Microbiol. 2010;142:379-86 pubmed publisher
    ..coli resistant to ampicillin and nalidixic acid were frequently isolated, while resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected at a very low frequency, and ..
  43. Kim D, Neupane G, Jang S, Kim S, Lee B. In vitro efficacy of the combination of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime against nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2010;36:155-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The emergence and spread of nalidixic acid-resistant S...
  44. Kim K, Park J, Kwak H, Woo G. Characterization of the quinolone resistance mechanism in foodborne Salmonella isolates with high nalidixic acid resistance. Int J Food Microbiol. 2011;146:52-6 pubmed publisher
    Sixteen Salmonella strains resistant to nalidixic acid isolated from kimbab, the most popular ready-to-eat (RTE) food in Korea, and chicken meat were selected for this study...
  45. Hakanen A, Kotilainen P, Huovinen P, Helenius H, Siitonen A. Reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Salmonella enterica serotypes in travelers returning from Southeast Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:996-1003 pubmed
    ..These isolates were tested for susceptibility by determining MICs to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and seven additional antimicrobial agents...
  46. Goss W, Deitz W, Cook T. MECHANISM OF ACTION OF NALIDIXIC ACID ON ESCHERICHIA COLI.II. INHIBITION OF DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID SYNTHESIS. J Bacteriol. 1965;89:1068-74 pubmed
    ..Y.), William H. Deitz, and Thomas M. Cook. Mechanism of action of nalidixic acid on Escherichia coli. II. Inhibition of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis. J. Bacteriol. 89:1068-1074. 1965...
  47. Aggarwal N, Kumar R, Srivastva C, Dureja P, Khurana J. Synthesis of nalidixic acid based hydrazones as novel pesticides. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:3056-61 pubmed publisher
    Thirty-one substituted hydrazones of nalidixic acid hydrazide were synthesized and characterized by spectral techniques...
  48. Choi J, Kang O, Lee Y, Oh Y, Chae H, Jang H, et al. Antibacterial activity of methyl gallate isolated from Galla Rhois or carvacrol combined with nalidixic acid against nalidixic acid resistant bacteria. Molecules. 2009;14:1773-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the antibacterial activities of nalidixic acid in combination with methyl gallate and carvacrol against nalidixic acid resistant bacteria...
  49. Kadhiravan T, Wig N, Renuka K, Kapil A, Kabra S, Misra A. Is nalidixic acid resistance linked to clinical virulence in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi infections?. J Med Microbiol. 2008;57:1046-8 pubmed publisher
  50. Cattoir V, Lesprit P, Lascols C, Denamur E, Legrand P, Soussy C, et al. In vivo selection during ofloxacin therapy of Escherichia coli with combined topoisomerase mutations that confer high resistance to ofloxacin but susceptibility to nalidixic acid. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006;58:1054-7 pubmed
    ..resistance mechanisms in an Escherichia coli clinical isolate (Ar2) resistant to ofloxacin but susceptible to nalidixic acid selected after 10 days of ofloxacin therapy in a patient with prostatitis...
  51. Nkemngu N, Asonganyi E, Njunda A. Treatment failure in a typhoid patient infected with nalidixic acid resistant S. enterica serovar Typhi with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin: a case report from Cameroon. BMC Infect Dis. 2005;5:49 pubmed
    ..The isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid but sensitive to ciprofloxacin by disc diffusion test...
  52. Newmark K, O Reilly E, Pohlhaus J, Kreuzer K. Genetic analysis of the requirements for SOS induction by nalidixic acid in Escherichia coli. Gene. 2005;356:69-76 pubmed
    b>Nalidixic acid, the prototype antibacterial quinolone, induces the SOS response by a mechanism that requires the RecBCD nuclease/helicase...
  53. Gorman R, Adley C. Nalidixic acid-resistant strains of Salmonella showing decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones in the mid-west region of the Republic of Ireland. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;51:1047-9 pubmed